Category Archives: VPN

Organizations with remote workforces need new security solutions

Remote work has left many organizations lagging in productivity and revenue due to remote access solutions. 19% of IT leaders surveyed said they often or always experience network performance and latency issues when using legacy remote access solutions, with an additional 43% saying they sometimes do. Those issues have resulted in a loss of productivity for 68% of respondents and a loss of revenue for 43%, a Perimeter 81 report reveals. According to the report, … More

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Critical flaw in SonicWall’s firewalls patched, update quickly! (CVE-2020-5135)

Earlier this week SonicWall patched 11 vulnerabilities affecting its Network Security Appliance (NSA). Among those is CVE-2020-5135, a critical stack-based buffer overflow vulnerability in the appliances’ VPN Portal that could be exploited to cause denial of service and possibly remote code execution. About CVE-2020-5135 The SonicWall NSAs are next-generation firewall appliances, with a sandbox, an intrusion prevention system, SSL/TLS decryption and inspection capabilities, network-based malware protection, and VPN capabilities. CVE-2020-5135 was discovered by Nikita Abramov … More

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Almost 800,000 SonicWall VPN appliances online are vulnerable to CVE-2020-5135

The Tripwire VERT security team spotted almost 800,000 SonicWall VPN appliances exposed online that are vulnerable to the CVE-2020-5135 RCE flaw.

Security experts from the Tripwire VERT security team have discovered 795,357 SonicWall VPN appliances that were exposed online that are vulnerable to the CVE-2020-5135 RCE flaw.

“A buffer overflow vulnerability in SonicOS allows a remote attacker to cause Denial of Service (DoS) and potentially execute arbitrary code by sending a malicious request to the firewall. This vulnerability affected SonicOS Gen 6 version 6.5.4.7, 6.5.1.12, 6.0.5.3, SonicOSv 6.5.4.v and Gen 7 version 7.0.0.0.” reads the advisory published by SonicWall.

The CVE-2020-5135 is a stack-based buffer overflow that affects the SonicWall Network Security Appliance (NSA). The vulnerability can be exploited by an unauthenticated HTTP request involving a custom protocol handler.

The flaw resides in the HTTP/HTTPS service used for product management as well as SSL VPN remote access.

“An unskilled attacker can use this flaw to cause a persistent denial of service condition. Tripwire VERT has also confirmed the ability to divert execution flow through stack corruption indicating that a code execution exploit is likely feasible.” reads the analysis published by Tripwire. “This flaw exists pre-authentication and within a component (SSLVPN) which is typically exposed to the public Internet.”

This vulnerability is very dangerous, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic because SonicWall NSA devices are used as firewalls and SSL VPN portals allow employees to access corporate networks.

The vulnerability affects the following versions:

  • SonicOS 6.5.4.7-79n and earlier
  • SonicOS 6.5.1.11-4n and earlier
  • SonicOS 6.0.5.3-93o and earlier
  • SonicOSv 6.5.4.4-44v-21-794 and earlier
  • SonicOS 7.0.0.0-1

Security experts from Tenable have published a post detailing the flaw, they also shared Shodan dorks for searching SonicWall VPNs.

“Our own Shodan search for vulnerable SonicWall devices led us to two specific search queries:

The combined results from Shodan using these search queries led to a total of 795,674 hosts. In the VERT advisory, they specified that 795,357 hosts were vulnerable.” wrote Tenable.

At the time of this post, the first search query provides 448,400 results, the second one 24,149, most of the vulnerable devices are in the United States.

SonicWall has already released updates to address the flaw, the company also recommends to disconnect SSL VPN portals from the Internet as temporary mitigation before installing one of the following versions:

  • SonicOS 6.5.4.7-83n
  • SonicOS 6.5.1.12-1n
  • SonicOS 6.0.5.3-94o
  • SonicOS 6.5.4.v-21s-987
  • Gen 7 7.0.0.0-2 and onwards

The CVE-2020-5135 is a critical vulnerability rated as 9.4 out of 10, it could be easily exploited by unauthenticated attackers.

At the time this post was published, no PoC exploit code was available for the CVE-2020-5135 flaw.

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, CVE-2020-5135)

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Convenience vs. Online Security: Have Your Cake and Eat It Too

online safety

Convenience vs. Online Security: Have Your Cake and Eat It Too

We live in a world where convenience is king. Personally, I don’t know what I would do without my calendar alerts popping up on my smartphone, ensuring that I don’t miss any important meetings (or birthdays).  I can also use a variety of apps to make appointments with my family’s doctor and check up on my kids’ educational progress while they are at home distance learning. While this technology is great and convenient, it has led to increased connectivity which tends to cause security implications. At what point do we draw the line between convenience and online security, and is there a way to ultimately have both? Let’s take a look.

Are Consumers Confident in Their Online Safety?

Consumers want to live their lives fast. They are constantly on the go, prioritizing speedy technology and convenience – sometimes more than safety. As a result, basic security hygiene, like updating passwords, has fallen by the wayside. In fact, a recent survey conducted by YouGov in April of 2020 revealed that consumers are overconfident in the level of protection that their credentials provide. 77% believe that their banking credentials are the most secure, followed by online shopping (74%), and work network logins (71%). Due to consumers’ overconfidence in the strength of their credentials, over half of online shoppers admitted that they have no plans to update their login details – and even more admitted to not updating bank and work passwords. As someone who just recently wrote a blog on common password habits and how they can affect our online safety,

Finding a Balance Between Convenience and Security

As today’s users are trying to grasp what the “new normal” means for them and how they live their lives, many are branching out from the typical ways they used to order food, take workout classes, and more. Consumers are using food delivery sites that they’ve never used before and signing up for online fitness classes on new platforms to  stay healthy while social distancing. But by using these unfamiliar websites to establish a sense of normalcy, users might forget to take basic security precautions like making sure these websites have the standard https:// security clearance or using a VPN. Paying attention to these security measures while exploring new platforms will allow users to enjoy the convenience of these tools without putting their online safety at risk.

According to McAfee Labs, more than 113,000 websites have been published that used COVID-19 to lure internet users into giving up their personal details. But despite the risks associated with poor security hygiene, consumers appear to be pretty indifferent. When asked if COVID-19 and increased fraud influenced them to use alternative banking or shopping apps/websites with more secure options, over three-quarters of U.S. consumers stated no, or that they didn’t know. At the onset of the pandemic when consumers were under pressure to buy scarce, staple items, 26% of consumers in the U.S. admitted to overlooking online security concerns by using third-party merchants to buy things like toilet paper and disinfecting products.

Today’s users already have so much to worry about – I can’t blame them if their online security is falling by the wayside to allow physical health and wellness to take precedent. It’s times like these when people need to prioritize their health and basic survival above all else that consumers benefit most from intrinsic security that is constantly working in the background, so they can have peace of mind.

Let Them Have Security (and Convenience!)

The good news: convenience and security don’t have to be mutually exclusive. I can still use my healthcare provider’s app to schedule appointments and check in on my kids as they distance learn without risking our family’s privacy. When it comes to balancing convenience and online security, you and your family should use trusted solutions that will allow you to enjoy all that the internet has to offer  by providing security that is easy, convenient, and empowers you to enjoy a safe and private digital live.

Users can enjoy a comprehensive, yet holistic approach to protection by employing the help of a security solution like McAfee® Total Protection. Consumers are safeguarded from malware  so they can continue to use their devices and web browsing to stream live workout classes, catch up with family over video conference, and more. The software’s detection capabilities are constantly being updated and enhanced without compromising users’ device performance.

McAfee Total Protection also includes McAfee® WebAdvisor – web protection that enables users to sidestep attacks before they happen with clear warnings of risky websites, links, and files. McAfee WebAdvisor allows consumers to online shop or order food from their favorite restaurant while giving them the peace of mind that they’re on a safe website.

McAfee Total Protection also includes our secure VPN to ensure your family is prepared for potential threats that could be lurking around the corner. By enabling a VPN on your device, you can feel confident that the next time you bank or pay bills online, your connection is secure. With solutions like McAfee Total Protection and McAfee WebAdvisor in place, consumers can strike a balance between convenience and security, without sacrificing either.

Stay Updated

To stay updated on all things McAfee and on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

 

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Identity Fraud: How to Protect Your Identity Data, Accounts and Money During the Coronavirus Crisis

We’ve all been spending more of our time online since the crisis hit. Whether it’s ordering food for delivery, livestreaming concerts, holding virtual parties, or engaging in a little retail therapy, the digital interactions of many Americans are on the rise. This means we’re also sharing more of our personal and financial information online, with each other and the organizations we interact with. Unfortunately, as ever, there are bad guys around every digital corner looking for a piece of the action.

The bottom line is that personally identifiable information (PII) is the currency of internet crime. And cyber-criminals will do whatever they can to get their hands on it. When they commit identity theft with this data, it can be a messy business, potentially taking months for banks and businesses to investigate before you get your money and credit rating back. At a time of extreme financial hardship, this is the last thing anyone needs.

It therefore pays to be careful about how you use your data and how you protect it. Even more: it’s time to get proactive and monitor it—to try and spot early on if it has been stolen. Here’s what you need to know to protect your identity data.

How identity theft works

First, some data on the scope of the problem. In the second quarter of 2020 alone 349,641 identity theft reports were filed with the FTC. To put that in perspective, it’s over half of the number for the whole of 2019 (650,572), when consumers reported losing more than $1.9 billion to fraud. What’s driving this huge industry? A cybercrime economy estimated to be worth as much as $1.5 trillion annually.

Specialized online marketplaces and private forums provide a user-friendly way for cyber-criminals and fraudsters to easily buy and sell stolen identity data. Many are on the so-called dark web, which is hidden from search engines and requires a specialized anonymizing browser like Tor to access. However, plenty of this criminal activity also happens in plain sight, on social media sites and messaging platforms. This underground industry is an unstoppable force: as avenues are closed down by law enforcement or criminal in-fighting, other ones appear.

At-risk personal data could be anything from email and account log-ins to medical info, SSNs, card and bank details, insurance details and much more. It all has a value on the cybercrime underground and the price fraudsters are prepared to pay will depend on supply and demand, just like in the ‘real’ world.

There are various ways for attackers to get your data. The main ones are:

  • Phishing: usually aimed at stealing your log-ins or tricking you into downloading keylogging or other info-stealing malware. Phishing mainly happens via email but could also occur via web, text, or phone. Around $667m was lost in imposter scams last year, according to the FTC.
  • Malicious mobile apps disguised as legitimate software.
  • Eavesdropping on social media: If you overshare even innocuous personal data (pet names, birth dates, etc.,) it could be used by fraudsters to access your accounts.
  • Public Wi-Fi eavesdropping: If you’re using it, the bad guys may be too.
  • Dumpster diving and shoulder surfing: Sometimes the old ways are still popular.
  • Stealing devices or finding lost/misplaced devices in public places.
  • Attacking the organizations you interact with: Unfortunately this is out of your control somewhat, but it’s no less serious. There were 1,473 reported corporate breaches in 2019, up 17% year-on-year.
  • Harvesting card details covertly from the sites you shop with. Incidents involving this kind of “web skimming” increased 26% in March as more users flocked to e-commerce sites during lockdown.

 

The COVID-19 challenge

As if this weren’t enough, consumers are especially exposed to risk during the current pandemic. Hackers are using the COVID-19 threat as a lure to infect your PC or steal identity data via the phishing tactics described above. They often impersonate trustworthy institutions/officials and emails may claim to include new information on outbreaks, or vaccines. Clicking through or divulging your personal info will land you in trouble. Other fraud attempts will try to sell counterfeit or non-existent medical or other products to help combat infection, harvesting your card details in the process. In March, Interpol seized 34,000 counterfeit COVID goods like surgical masks and $14m worth of potentially dangerous pharmaceuticals.

Phone-based attacks are also on the rise, especially those impersonating government officials. The aim here is to steal your identity data and apply for government emergency stimulus funds in your name. Of the 349,641 identity theft reports filed with the FTC in Q2 2020, 77,684 were specific to government documents or benefits fraud.

What do cybercriminals do with my identity data?

Once your PII is stolen, it’s typically sold on the dark web to those who use it for malicious purposes. It could be used to:

  • Crack open other accounts that share the same log-ins (via credential stuffing). There were 30 billion such attempts in 2018.
  • Log-in to your online bank accounts to drain it of funds.
  • Open bank accounts/credit lines in your name (this can affect your credit rating).
  • Order phones in your name or port your SIM to a new device (this impacts 7,000 Verizon customers per month).
  • Purchase expensive items in your name, such as a new watch or television, for criminal resale. This is often done by hijacking your online accounts with e-tailers. E-commerce fraud is said to be worth around $12 billion per year.
  • File fraudulent tax returns to collect refunds on your behalf.
  • Claim medical care using your insurance details.
  • Potentially crack work accounts to attack your employer.

How do I protect my identity online?

The good news among all this bad is that if you remain skeptical about what you see online, are cautious about what you share, and follow some other simple rules, you’ll stand a greater chance of keeping your PII under lock and key. Best practices include:

  • Using strong, long and unique passwords for all accounts, managed with a password manager.
  • Enable two-factor authentication (2FA) if possible on all accounts.
  • Don’t overshare on social media.
  • Freeze credit immediately if you suspect data has been misused.
  • Remember that if something looks too good to be true online it usually is.
  • Don’t use public Wi-Fi when out-and-about, especially not for sensitive log-ins, without a VPN.
  • Change your password immediately if a provider tells you your data may have been breached.
  • Only visit/enter payment details into HTTPS sites.
  • Don’t click on links or open attachments in unsolicited emails.
  • Only download apps from official app stores.
  • Invest in AV from a reputable vendor for all your desktop and mobile devices.
  • Ensure all operating systems and applications are on the latest version (i.e., patch frequently).
  • Keep an eye on your bank account/credit card for any unusual spending activity.
  • Consider investing in a service to monitor the dark web for your personal data.

How Trend Micro can help

Trend Micro offers solutions that can help to protect your digital identity.

Trend Micro ID Security is the best way to get proactive about data protection. It works 24/7 to monitor dark web sites for your PII and will sound the alarm immediately if it finds any sign your accounts or personal data have been stolen. It features

  • Dark Web Personal Data Manager to scour underground sites and alert if it finds personal info like bank account numbers, driver’s license numbers, SSNs and passport information.
  • Credit Card Checker will do the same as the above but for your credit card information.
  • Email Checker will alert you if any email accounts have been compromised and end up for sale on the dark web, allowing you to immediately change the password.
  • Password Checker will tell you if any passwords you’re using have appeared for sale on the dark web, enabling you to improve password security.

Trend Micro Password Manager enables you to manage all your website and app log-ins from one secure location. Because Password Manager remembers and recalls your credentials on-demand, you can create long, strong and unique passwords for each account. As you’re not sharing easy-to-remember passwords across multiple accounts, you’ll be protected from popular credential stuffing and similar attacks.

Finally, Trend Micro WiFi Protection will protect you if you’re out and about connecting to WiFi hotspots. It automatically detects when a WiFi connection isn’t secure and enables a VPN—making your connection safer and helping keep your identity data private.

In short, it’s time to take an active part in protecting your personal identity data—as if your digital life depended on it. In large part, it does.

 

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8 Ways to Help Senior Adults Stay Safe Online These Days

senior looking at smartphone

8 Ways to Help Senior Adults Stay Safe Online These Days

Technology has come in handy for most of us during these days of pandemic distancing. But for the -at-risk, homebound senior population, technology has been a lifeline connecting them to family members, online services, and healthcare. Still, this unprecedented shift to virtual life has also come with potential risks that seniors and their families should keep in mind.

According to a Pew study, senior adults continue to become more digitally connected, but adoption rates continue to trail younger users, and digital divides remain. The study also revealed that 77% of older adults needed assistance when it came to learning how to use technology.

If you are a senior or someone helping a senior become more tech-savvy, online safety should be a priority. Here are just some of the risks seniors may encounter and some helpful ways to stay safe.

Secure home routers and devices. Be sure to change your router’s default username and password to something strong and unique. Also, change the default passwords of any connected device before connecting to your home network. IoT (Internet of Things) devices are all the technologies under your roof that can connect such as security systems, healthcare monitors, hearing aids, and smart TVs.  These technologies are embedded with sensors or software that can connect and exchange data with other household devices — and each must be secured to close privacy gaps. There are also routers with embedded security, to help secure the home from threats, no matter what devices is connected to the home network.

Use strong passwords. Strong passwords are essential for in-home devices, personal devices, social media sites, and any healthcare or banking portal. Creating a strong password is also a front-line defense against identity theft and fraud.  For seniors, keeping passwords in one place is important, but can be hard to remember them all.  comprehensive security software  includes password management functionality, which makes it easer, to create and safely archive your passwords. -.

Avoid scams. There are a number of scams that target seniors. Phishing scams are emails that look legitimate that end up taking millions from seniors every year. For this reason, never click on suspicious links from government agencies, banks, hospitals, brokerages, charities, or bill collectors unless you are certain they are legitimate. Scammers use these malicious links to con people out of giving away cash or personal data that can be used to create a number of fraudulent accounts. Consider protecting all personal devices with a comprehensive security solution.

Use a personal VPN. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) encrypts (or scrambles) your data when you connect to the Internet and enables you to browse or bank with your credentials and history protected. To learn about VPNs, watch this video.

Beware of dating scams. People aren’t always who they appear to be online. And while dating scams can happen to any age group, they can be especially harmful to a vulnerable senior who may be lonely and living on a limited income. Love scam red flags: Beware of people who claim to be from the U.S. but often travel or work overseas. Also, avoid people who profess their love too quickly, share personal struggles too soon, and never meet face-to-face.

Take a closer look. Fraudulent websites look very real these days. A secure website will have an “https” in the browser’s address bar. The “s” stands for “secure.” If the web address or URL is just http, it’s not a secure site. Still unsure? Read reviews of the site from other users before making a purchase. Never send cash, cashier’s check, or a personal check to any online vendor. If purchasing, always use a credit card in case there is a dispute.

Never share personal data. Be wary of emails or websites that require you to give personal information, such as your social security number, phone number, account, or family information.  This includes those fun social media quizzes, which are also ways that cybercriminals can find out your personal details, such as a pets name, year you were born, your home town. All those pieces of personal data can be used to commit identity theft.

Monitor financial accounts. Nowadays, it’s essential to review all financial statements for fraudulent activity. If suspicious activity is found, report it to your bank or credit card account immediately. It’s also a good idea to put a credit alert on your accounts to detect potential fraud.

This unique time has issued unique challenges to every age group. However, if you know a senior, keep their potential technology needs in mind. Check in from time to time and offer your help. If you are a tech-savvy senior (and I know many), consider reaching out to peers who may be struggling and afraid to ask. In addition, YouTube has a number of easy-to-understand videos on any tech question. In addition, both Apple and Microsoft stores offer free advice on their products and may also help. Just be sure to visit their official websites to reach legitimate tech support channels.

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Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

I want a "secure by default" internet with all the things encrypted all the time such that people can move freely between networks without ever needing to care about who manages them or what they're doing with them. I'm a massive proponent of Let's Encrypt's and Cloudflare's missions to secure the web and of browser paradigms such as HSTS and upgrade-insecure-requests via content security policies to help make it a reality. Yet I also find myself constantly using VPNs for a variety of security and privacy related reasons and it got me thinking - why? I mean what's the remaining gap?

Last month I announced I've partnered with NordVPN as a strategic adviser and as part of that effort, I wanted to be a lot clearer in my own narrative around the value proposition of VPNs, especially as the web implements more encryption across more connections. As I started delving back through my own writing over the years, the picture became much clearer and it really crystallised just this week after I inadvertently landed on a nasty phishing site. I also started giving more thought to privacy and how it's constantly eroded in little bites, a thought process that highlighted just how far we still have to go as an industry, and where the value proposition of a VPN was strongest.

In the end I broke it down into 3 Ps: padlocks, phishing and privacy. Here's the value proposition of a VPN in the modern era:

1. HTTPS Still has a Long Way to Go

This is such a mess it's difficult to even know where to begin, so let me just start with the easy bits then progressively unveil just what a train wreck the current state of encrypted web traffic is. Here's one of our "Big 4" Aussie banks and as you can clearly see by virtue of the padlock, it's served over an HTTPS connection:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

Goodo! I know that what's on the page hasn't been modified in transit as it was loaded over the internet nor could anyone intercepting my traffic read it. The last bit is particularly important as I logon and would firstly, like my password not to be eavesdropped on and secondly, would also like to keep my financial information on the website secure. The great thing about the padlock in the browser is that it's assigned automatically by the browser itself; ANZ can't just say "let's whack a padlock up in the omnibar", they only get it if the page (and everything on it) is served securely. If I choose, I can click that padlock and inspect the certificate just to give me that extra peace of mind. Now let's try the mobile app:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

What's the encryption story there? No idea! What I do know is that years ago I reported a bug to ANZ about their mobile app having turned off certificate validation so even though it made an HTTPS connection, it would trust any certificate returned to the app, including one injected by an attacker. Ouch!

I also know that when ANZ updated their app a couple of years ago, they pushed it out by asking people to click on an insecure link that looked just like a phishing attack:

And just to go down the rabbit hole even further, as commendable as the first ANZ screen grab of the HTTPS address in the browser is, you can only get there by first making an insecure request which is what the browser defaults to when you type in "anz.com.au":

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

If you want to get technical about it, yes, there's HSTS involved but it's not preloaded so the first request will always be insecure. But that shouldn't be that surprising given that only 2.3% of the world's top 1 million websites are forcing the first request to be secure:

This isn't meant to be an ANZ-bashing session because let's face it, plenty of banks have had plenty of problems getting their encryption right in the past, but it shows you  just how many place there are for it to go wrong. I was reminded of just what a mess the landscape is just the other day after someone pointed me at a new financial app:

In the ensuing discussions I had about how much we can trust the transport layer, someone pointed out that it was only a few months ago that TikTok was found to be loading videos insecurely allowing the contents of them to be manipulated whilst loading. It's kinda unfathomable to think that this sort of thing is still happening, I was dismayed enough 5 years ago when reporting vulnerabilities likes this, yet here we still are.

Then there's the long, long tail of websites that still to this day, simply don't want to protect their visitors' traffic. For example, one of Australia's most popular websites is the bureau of meteorology, still served insecurely:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

And just in case you thought you'd fix this by using a browser extension such as HTTPS Everywhere, no, you can't:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

This is a baffling approach given they were actually able to respond to a request over HTTPS (so they have a valid cert), but then consciously chose to redirect the traffic to a non-secure address. And before we go down the "yeah but it's a static site so nothing can go wrong" path, all static sites should serve traffic over an encrypted connection for many, many good reasons.

2. A Secure Connection to Satan is Still a Connection to Satan

This tweet by my friend Scott Hanselman has well and truly stood the test of time:

I was reminded of this only a few days ago when I came across yet another Windows virus scam, the kind that's been doing the rounds for a decade now but refuses to die. It all started with a Google alert I have set up for the term "have i been pwned":

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

Initially, I was a little bit excited; does Netflix now have a way of checking your address directly against HIBP? Maybe they're plugging into the API directly from the account page there? Cool! However, moments later:

I saved you a copy of the audio as I'm sure the original one will disappear at some point. Imagine some poor unsuspecting person hearing that, seeing the warning on the screen then falling for the scam. These are massively prevalent and, per the screen grab, served over an encrypted HTTPS connection. But as Scott said earlier on, having privacy on your traffic doesn't mean you're communicating with someone you actually want to.

To test a theory, I fired up NordVPN which connected me to an exit node just up the road from me (that IP address is in Brisbane):

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

I've also got CyberSec enabled to kill nasty stuff off which I think it's fair to say, the scamming site above fits the bill:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

Hitting the same URL sent to me in the original Google alert led to quite a different result this time:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

This is precisely how it went down just this week with me receiving that Google alert, clicking the link and copping the full brunt of the scam. Clearly, I know better than to fall for it, but it did make me stop and wonder how many people do get taken for a ride by these scams.

And just in case you're wondering, the host name in the image where DNS didn't resolve is different to the final scam site as a lot of these phishes bounce you around across multiple domains. Doing a quick check now, with NordVPN off, my Pi-hole still resolved the domain:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

But turning on NordVPN with CyberSec enabled, the domain was black-holed back to my local IP:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

Now to be clear, I still love the Pi-hole (but let's face it, most people aren't going to be installing a Pi in their homes) and you're always going to have DNS block-lists at various states of readiness regarding new malicious domains, but I love CyberSec for the same reason in that by blocking content at the DNS level you can extend the reach well beyond an ad blocker alone. Every browser and every app on the device gets the benefit of known nasty content being binned as it's done at the OS level where DNS is defined and not on a per-client basis.

3. Security != Privacy

This is one of the most obvious value propositions of a VPN, but it deserves being examined in more detail anyway. Let's talk about privacy and I'll break it down into multiple layers beginning with this excellent drawing from Wassim Chegham:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

As soon as we hit the DNS box, privacy starts to go down the toilet as your browser (or other internet connected client) makes a plain text, unencrypted query to a DNS server which is usually your ISP's. Because it's a plain text query, the site your client it querying is immediately observable by anyone sitting on the connection. So what about DNS over HTTPS, or DoH? It solves the interception problem but of course the query still needs to be sent to a DNS server somewhere and at that point, the name being queried and the origin of the query (your IP address) is still visible. From a privacy perspective, this isn't necessarily doing a lot for you.

Side note: we saw a great illustration of how much value ISPs put in being able to intercept DNS queries after the industry body for ISPs in the UK named Mozilla an "Internet Villain" for their push towards DoH. In classic anti-encryption style, the moral neutrality of crypto has led to complaints about increased privacy being used to, well, do things more privately whether they be good things or bad things.

With the DNS dance done, what's the impact on privacy then? Well, per the earlier ANZ example the initial request from the browser is still almost always sent insecurely over HTTP so everyone along the way not only sees where the traffic is going, but can also read and modify the contents of it so again, from a privacy perspective, not good. Per Scott's earlier tweet, only 2.3% of the top million websites in the world are resilient to this courtesy of preloading HSTS. But let's imagine the client has already begun communicating over HTTPS before someone starts poking around in their traffic, what then? That brings us to the next problem:

SNI is Server Name Indication and it was born of a need to host multiple sites and certificates on a single IP address. It means that whilst the contents of your traffic is encrypted, the destination it's being sent to, is not:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

As Cloudflare's CEO wrote in the link above: "SNI leaks every site you go to online to your ISP and anyone else listening on the line". Which led him to talk about ESNI or "Encrypted" SNI. Which is great except... It's only supported in Firefox (Chrome support is going nowhere in a hurry). And it's not on by default. And it requires TLS 1.3. And secure DNS. If you want to check whether it works in your own browser, try Cloudflare's ESNI checker (hint: it almost certainly doesn't work). In time, we may see ESNI get traction, but that time is going to be measured in years, not months, at least for it to gain enough market share for you to genuinely browse the internet in private. Except even then, there's a problem:

Encrypted connections are great, but whilst you're connecting to services from your own IP address, can we really call the connection "private"? If it's my IP address, what can the site I'm visiting determine about me? Here's what NordVPN's "What is my IP address" service told me, right down to my suburb:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

Not only may I not want to share this information with the site I visit, I might not want them knowing I'm the same person coming back on subsequent visits (and no, browsers' incognito and private modes don't fix this). I may also not want them joining the dots on who I am by matching my IP address to other public records; HIBP presently indexes 215 data breaches that exposed IP addresses alongside an extensive array of other personal information. Now, maybe your IP address is dynamic, maybe you browsed a service from 4G and it was your wired connection you used last time, maybe it wasn't the same on multiple different exposures. Maybe...

And now, just to make it even worse, consider all the other locations content gets pulled in from just to load your average web page. Take cnn.com as an example:

Padlocks, Phishing and Privacy; The Value Proposition of a VPN

There are 354 requests required to load the page including requests directly to CNN and their various subdomains, to Adnxs (a tracker), DoubleClick (a tracker) and if you scroll further down the report I've linked to above, amazon-adsystem.com (the hint is in the URL), outbrain.com (guess what - a tracker!) and by then I kinda figured I'd made my point and stopped scrolling. The privacy implications don't stop with the site you're visiting, they cascade all the way down the stack of requests that follow that initial one.

As the old saying goes, privacy isn't necessarily about having something to hide, it's also about not having something you want to share; if you're depressed and going to beyondblue.org.au then you may not wish to share that with other people. If you're having trouble with alcohol and visit aa.org.au then you may not want to share that either. If you're pregnant and hopping over to pregnancybirthbaby.org.au then, again, you may expect to keep that information private (let us not forget the story of how Target managed to "data-mine its way into [a teenage girl's] womb"). Just looking up those URLs I was imagining what sort of conclusions would be drawn about me if someone had access to my connection! (No, I'm not a depressed alcoholic teenager who's expecting...)

But privacy goes well beyond just the obvious issues too, for example folks in the US dealing with the death of net neutrality. When your ISP can see your traffic, they can shape your traffic and remember, HTTPS doesn't fix that problem, at least not today. It extends to censorship too and we start to get into a more contentious area here as that spans everything from the local cafe wifi using deny-lists to government-mandated blocks on content (the latter being particularly contentious regarding certain types of content in certain parts of the world). The point is that the privacy rights assured by a VPN are about a lot more than just protecting your source IP from being exposed to the website you're visiting; it goes well beyond that.

Summary

To be clear, using a VPN doesn't magically solve all these issues, it mitigates them. For example, if a site lacks sufficient HTTPS then there's still the network segment between the VPN exit node and the site in question to contend with. It's arguably the least risky segment of the network, but it's still there. The effectiveness of black-holing DNS queries to known bad domains depends on the domain first being known to be bad. CyberSec is still going to do a much better job of that than your ISP, but it won't be perfect. And privacy wise, a VPN doesn't remove DNS or the ability to inspect SNI traffic, it simply removes that ability from your ISP and grants it to NordVPN instead. But then again, I've always said I'd much rather trust a reputable VPN to keep my traffic secure, private and not logged, especially one that's been independently audited to that effect.

The point of all this is that when we look at the value proposition of a VPN, it's about much more than just protecting a segment of the network that may already have HTTPS anyway. We rarely see TLS implemented to its full potential, phishing remains a massive problem and we have far too little privacy when browsing the web.

Ransom from Home – How to close the cyber front door to remote working ransomware attacks

Coronavirus has caused a major shift to our working patterns. In many cases these will long outlast the pandemic. But working from home has its own risks. One is that you may invite ransomware attacks from a new breed of cyber-criminal who has previously confined his efforts to directly targeting the corporate network. Why? Because as a remote worker, you’re increasingly viewed as a soft target—the open doorway to extorting money from your employer.

So how does ransomware land up on your front doorstep? And what can a home worker do to shut that door?

The new ransomware trends

Last year, Trend Micro detected over 61 million ransomware-related threats, a 10% increase from 2018 figures. But things have only gotten worse from there. There has been a 20% spike in ransomware detections globally in the first half of 2020, rising to 109% in the US. And why is that?

At a basic level, ransomware searches for and encrypts most of the files on a targeted computer, so as to make them unusable. Victims are then asked to pay a ransom within a set time frame in order to receive the decryption key they need to unlock their data. If they don’t, and they haven’t backed-up this data, it could be lost forever.

The trend of late, however, has been to focus on public and private sector organizations whose staff are working from home (WFH). The rationale is that remote workers are less likely to be able to defend themselves from ransomware attacks, while they also provide a useful stepping-stone into high-value corporate networks. Moreover, cybercriminals are increasingly looking to steal sensitive data before they encrypt it, even as they’re more likely to fetch a higher ransom for their efforts than they do from a typical consumer, especially if the remote employee’s data is covered by cyber-insurance.

Home workers are also being more targeted for a number of reasons:

  • They may be more distracted than those in the office.
  • Home network and endpoint security may not be up to company levels.
  • Home systems (routers, smart home devices, PCs, etc.,) may not be up-to-date and therefore are more easily exposed to exploits.
  • Remote workers are more likely to visit insecure sites, download risky apps, or share machines/networks with those who do.
  • Corporate IT security teams may be overwhelmed with other tasks and unable to provide prompt support to a remote worker.
  • Security awareness programs may have been lacking in the past, perpetuating bad practice for workers at home.

What’s the attack profile of the remote working threat?

In short, the bad guys are now looking to gain entry to the corporate network you may be accessing from home via a VPN, or to the cloud-hosted systems you use for work or sharing files, in order to first steal and then encrypt company data with ransomware as far and wide as possible into your organization. But the methods are familiar. They’ll

  • Try to trick you into dangerous behavior through email phishing—the usual strategy of getting you to click links that redirect you to bad websites that house malware, or getting you to download a bad file, to start the infection process.
  • Steal or guess your log-ins to work email accounts, remote desktop tools (i.e., Microsoft Remote Desktop or RDP), and cloud-based storage/networks, etc., before they deliver the full ransomware payload. This may happen via a phishing email spoofed to appear as if sent from a legitimate source, or they may scan for your use of specific tools and then try to guess the password (known as brute forcing). One new Mac ransomware, called EvilQuest, has a keylogger built into it, which could capture your company passwords as you type them in. It’s a one-two punch: steal the data first, then encrypt it.
  • Target malware at your VPN or remote desktop software, if it’s vulnerable. Phishing is again a popular way to do this, or they may hide it in software on torrent sites or in app stores. This gives them a foothold into your employer’s systems and network.
  • Target smart home devices/routers via vulnerabilities or their easy-to-guess/crack passwords, in order to use home networks as a stepping-stone into your corporate network.

How can I prevent ransomware when working from home?

The good news is that you, the remote worker, can take some relatively straightforward steps up front to help mitigate the cascading risks to your company posed by the new ransomware. Try the following:

  • Be cautious of phishing emails. Take advantage of company training and awareness courses if offered.
  • Keep your home router firmware, PCs, Macs, mobile devices, software, browsers and operating systems up to date on the latest versions – including remote access tools and VPNs (your IT department may do some of this remotely).
  • Ensure your home network, PCs, and mobile devices are protected with up-to-date with network and endpoint AV from a reputable vendor. (The solutions should include anti-intrusion, anti-web threat, anti-spam, anti-phishing, and of course, anti-ransomware features.)
  • Ensure remote access tools and user accounts are protected with multi-factor authentication (MFA) if used and disable remote access to your home router.
  • Disable Microsoft macros where possible. They’re a typical attack vector.
  • Back-up important files regularly, according to 3-2-1 rule.

How Trend Micro can help

In short, to close the cyber front door to ransomware, you need to protect your home network and all your endpoints (laptops, PCs, mobile devices) to be safe. Trend Micro can help via

  • The Home Network: Home Network Security (HNS) connects to your router to protect any devices connected to the home network — including IoT gadgets, smartphones and laptops — from ransomware and other threats.
  • Desktop endpoints: Trend Micro Security (TMS) offers advanced protection from ransomware-related threats. It includes Folder Shield to safeguard valuable files from ransomware encryption, which may be stored locally or synched to cloud services like Dropbox®, Google Drive® and Microsoft® OneDrive/OneDrive for Business.
  • Mobile endpoints: Trend Micro Mobile Security (also included in TMS) protects Android and iOS devices from ransomware.
  • Secure passwords: Trend Micro Password Manager enables users to securely store and recall strong, unique passwords for all their apps, websites and online accounts, across multiple devices.
  • VPN Protection at home and on-the-go: Trend Micro’s VPN Proxy One (Mac | iOS) solution will help ensure your data privacy on Apple devices when working from home, while its cross-platform WiFi Protection solution will do the same across PCs, Macs, Android and iOS devices when working from home or when connecting to public/unsecured WiFi hotspots, as you venture out and about as the coronavirus lockdown eases in your area.

With these tools, you, the remote worker, can help shut the front door to ransomware, protecting your work, devices, and company from data theft and encryption for ransom.

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Evolving Security Products for the new Realities of Living Life From Home

Security for all devices

Announcing McAfee’s Enhanced Consumer Security for New Consumer Realities

With millions of people continuing to work and study remotely, scammers have followed them home—generating an average of 375 new threats per minute so far this year. In response, our enhanced consumer portfolio directly addresses the new needs and new threats people face.

McAfee Labs found that these new threats via malicious apps, phishing campaigns malware, and more, according to its McAfee COVID-19 Threat Report: July 2020, which amounted to an estimated $130 million in total losses in the U.S. alone.

To help people stay safer and combat these threats, today we announced our latest consumer security portfolio. Our enriched products come with better user experiences such as a native Virtual Private Network (VPN), along with new features, including integrated Social Media and Tech Scam Protection—all of which are pressing security essentials today.

Specifically, our product lineup has been updated to include:

Boosts to security and privacy

Scams involving tech support and product activation have continued to sneak into people’s inboxes and search results, which require a critical eye to spot. Here are some tips on how to identify these scams. We’re making it easier for people to stay safer with new features such as:

  • Tech Scam Protection: McAfee® WebAdvisor now provides a warning when visiting websites that can be used by cybercriminals to gain remote access to your PC, helping combat the  $55 million total fraud loss in the U.S. due to tech scams.
  • Advanced Malware Detection: McAfee enhanced its machine learning capabilities to improve overall time to detect emerging threats across devices as well as added protection against file-less threats.

Improvements make it easier for you to stay safer

With jobs and things that simply need to get done “right now,” security can be an afterthought. Sometimes that desire for convenience has consequences, leading to situations where people’s devices, data, and personal information get compromised. In response, we’re doing our part to make security more intuitive so that people can get things done quickly and safely:

  • A Better User Experience: An improved PC and app experience with easier navigation and readable alerts, and clear calls to action for faster understanding of potential issues.
  • Native VPN: Easier access to VPN and anti-malware device protection via one central place and log-in.
  • Updated Password Protection: Access iOS applications even faster with automatically filled in user account information and passwords in both apps and browsers on iOS devices.

Further security enhancements for today’s needs and tomorrow’s threats

With people’s newfound reliance on the internet, we’ve made new advances that help them live their increasingly connected lives—looking after security and privacy even more comprehensively than before on security and the apps they use:

  • Optimized Product Alerts: Redesigned product alerts, so consumers are better informed about possible security risks, with a single-click call to action for immediate protection.
  • Social Media Protection: To help prevent users from accidentally visiting malicious websites, McAfee now annotates social media feeds across six major platforms – Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Reddit, and LinkedIn.
  • Enhanced App Privacy Check: Consumers can now easily see when mobile apps request personal information, with app privacy now integrated into the main scan of Android devices.

McAfee is on a journey to ensure security allows users to be as carefree as possible online, now that more time is spent on devices as consumers navigate a new normal of life from home. For more information on our consumer product lineup, visit https://www.mcafee.com/en-us/antivirus/mcafee-total-protection.html

Stay Updated 

To stay updated on all things McAfee and for more resources on staying secure from home, follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

 

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Securing the COVID-19 ‘New Normal’ of Homeworking

The COVID-19 pandemic has put into motion a scale of remote working never before seen. Our teams are no longer just grouped in different office locations – but working individually from kitchen tables, spare rooms and, for the lucky ones, home offices! It’s therefore inevitable that this level of remote working will reveal security pitfalls for remediation, with improvements that can be carried forward when this period is over.
Attackers are taking advantage of heightened anxiety and homeworking
Tony Pepper, CEO at Egress, provides his insight below, as well as his six tips to improve data security while working from home.

Phishing

It’s sad, but it’s no surprise that phishing attacks have increased due to COVID-19– and businesses need to be prepared. Attackers are taking advantage of an environment of heightened anxiety and disrupted work settings to trick people into making mistakes, and they’re unlikely to stop until at least the main wave of the pandemic has passed.

Research shows that phishing is a major security issue under normal circumstances. Egress’ recent Insider Data Breach survey found that 41% of employees who had accidentally leaked data had done so because of a phishing email. More worryingly due to their level of access to data and systems, senior personnel are typically the most likely group to fall victim to phishing attacks, with 61% of directors saying that they’d caused a breach in this way.

And education and training can only go so far. Of course, we must continue to encourage employees to be vigilant to suspicious emails and to do things like hovering over links before clicking on them. We also need to reduce blame culture and free up employees to report genuine mistakes without fear.

But this can only go so far. People will always make mistakes. The good news is that advanced technology like contextual machine learning can remediate the targeted attacks, like conversation hijacking, that usually do the most damage to businesses.

Productivity and Security
Even in our tech-savvy world, there are still organisations that don’t have VPN access set up or enough laptops, mobile devices or processes to enable home working. But while IT teams try to quickly sort this situation out, we’re seeing employees finding workarounds, for example by sharing files using FTP sites or sending data to personal devices to work on.

We talk a lot about ‘human layer security’ technologies, which find the right balance between productivity and security. Right now, as well as looking at technologies to help securely move meetings, events and other activities online, businesses should also check that usually easy routine tasks can still be carried out safely – such as sharing large files or sending sensitive data via email. In particular, technologies like contextual machine learning and AI can identify what typically ‘good’ security behaviour looks like for individual users and then prevent abnormal behaviours that put data at risk.

For example, with people working on smaller screens and via mobile devices, it’s more likely they might attach the wrong document to an email or include a wrong recipient. Contextual machine learning can spot when incidents like this are about to happen and correct the user’s behaviour to prevent a breach before it happens.

Human Error
People are the new perimeter when it comes to data security – their decisions and behaviours can put data at risk every day, especially at a time of global heightened anxiety.

We know from our 2020 Insider Data Breach Survey that over half of employees don’t think their organisation has sole ownership over company data – instead believing that it is in-part or entirely owned by the individuals and teams who created it. And we also know that people are more likely to take risks with data they feel belongs to them than data they believe belongs to someone else. When they don’t have access to the right tools and technology to work securely – or they think the tools they do have will slow them down, especially at a time when the need for productivity is at its highest – they’re more likely to cut corners.

Maintaining good security practices is essential – and the good news is there are technologies on the market that can help ensure the right level of security is applied to sensitive data without blocking productivity.

Six Tips to improve Data Security while Working from Home 
We can all agree that times are incredibly tough right now. For security professionals looking to mitigate some of the risks, here are six practical tips are taken from the conversations we’re having with other organisations right now:

  1. Look for security software that doesn’t hamper productivity. It’s generally the aim of the game anyway – but right now, employees are feeling increased pressure to prove their productivity. If you’re finding yourself selecting new solutions, it’s never been more crucial to select technologies that don’t add difficult extra steps for them or anyone they’re working with outside the organisation.
  2. Choose collaboration/productivity solutions that have security baked into them. The other side to the coin of the point above, really: when choosing any new solution to implement at this time, make sure that security measures are part of a product’s standard design, and not an after-thought.
  3. Automate security wherever possible. If it’s possible, take decisions out of end users’ hands to ensure the security of sensitive information in line with policy, reducing the risk of someone accidentally or intentionally not using security software.
  4. Engage employees over security best practices. Phishing is a good example of this. Some inbound risks will evade the filters on your network boundary and end up in users’ mailboxes. Effort to proactively engage employees through e-learning and other educational measures can help them to know what to do with emails they think are suspicious (for example, hovering over links before clicking on them).
  5. Look to AI and machine learning to help solve advanced risks. Use cases like conversation hijacking, misdirected emails or people attaching the wrong files to documents can now be mitigated by intelligent technology like contextual machine learning, which determines what “good security behaviour” looks like for each individual, and alerts them and administrators to abnormal incidents – effectively stopping breaches before they happen.
  6. Implement no-fault reporting. People often don’t report security incidents because they’re concerned about the repercussions. Where it’s appropriate to do so, implement no-fault reporting to encourage individuals to report incidents in a timely manner, so you can focus on remediating the problem as quickly as possible.

    Back to Basics: Simple Moves to Keep You Secure at Home

    Guest Post by Susan Doktor

    Staying at home, something we’ve all been doing a lot more of, can be relaxing. But as our attention has been focused elsewhere, particularly on our health and the economic crisis brought on by the global pandemic, some of us may have also relaxed our safety standards. We are witnessing a serious spike in cybercrime since the coronavirus took the world hostage. Even those institutions that are working diligently to vanquish the virus have not been immune to attack. And that means we have to be more diligent about our privacy and cyber safety.

    As mentioned in a recent post, the technology we’re relying on to stay connected while adhering to social distancing guidelines may be contributing to our vulnerability. But whether you’re chatting on a video conferencing app or charging airline tickets to your travel credit card, there are built-in security weaknesses inherent to our online lives. I’m talking about passwords. They’re necessary, of course. And they’re ubiquitous. A 2017 study estimated that the average business user has nearly 200 of them. That’s why it’s a good idea to refresh our understanding of safe password hygiene.

    A few simple rules to follow:
    • Choose passwords that are difficult to guess and have nothing to do with your personal information. Don’t use your birthday or house number or any information that’s easy to gather to make up your passwords.
    • Never share your passwords. Beyond matters of basic trust, you don’t know how the person you shared them is protecting them. Does your shared password reside on a mobile phone or a slip of paper kept in a wallet? Both of those things can be lost or stolen.
    • Don’t re-use passwords. If one of your accounts is hacked, that leaves more them vulnerable.
    • Change your passwords often. If you don’t, that computer that was stolen six months ago can come back to haunt you. And you’re more at risk from security breaches that online retailers, credit card companies, and even hospitals are experiencing with greater frequency. That risk multiplies any time one of the companies you do business with sells your personal information to one of its marketing partners. So make it a habit to check the privacy policy on any site where you enter your personal data
    • Enable two-factor authentication whenever you have the option to do so on a website or device. It takes a moment more to complete a log-in but it can save you years of headaches if your identity is stolen.
    If all that sounds like too much work, I have another tip for you. And it’s a real time-saver. Get yourself a password manager. The best password managers perform all of those tasks for you automatically. You need only create and remember a single master password to gain a tremendous amount of protection when you install a password manager app on your various devices. There are some excellent free open-source password manager apps out there and quite a few paid ones that offer advanced features like secure file sharing and automatic synching of all of your devices.

    Another layer of safety you might want to consider is a Virtual Private Network (VPN). VPNs allow you to surf the web anonymously and encrypt any data you send across it. That means you can use public wi-fi networks, like the one at your favourite Costa, more securely. They can boost your download speed, increase your bandwidth, and let you take advantage of peer-to-peer sharing of films and other entertainment media.

    Protecting your personal data through the use of password managers and a secure VPN are great first steps towards increased cybersecurity. But there's no such thing as absolute safety online. Identity thieves have long memories--which means they may have access to your old passwords. And thanks to all the data breaches that have occurred over the last decade, they also have your name, address, phone, email, date of birth, and other personal information. So they spoof your phone number, call your bank, and pretend to be you. They give all the correct identity information and then say that they've lost the device that had their current account password on it—but they remember their old password. And they persuade the customer service rep to change your password again. Now you are effectively locked out of your own account while the thieves vacuum out your money.

    Does this mean that password managers, VPNs, and the like are a waste of time? Hardly. The above scenario requires a lot of work on the criminals' part. They'll be much more likely to go after a bank account that's secured with the same password you used back when you were on GeoCities and MySpace. Beefing up your cybersecurity practices now will tilt the odds of staying safe back in your favour.

    Author Bio:Susan Doktor is a journalist and business strategist who hails from New York City. She writes, guest- and ghost-blogs on a wide range of topics including finance, technology, and government affairs.