Category Archives: scam

Twitter Hack & Scam

What Happened?
Twitter confirmed 130 celebrity Twitter accounts were targeted in the cyberattack on Wednesday 15th July, with 45 successfully compromised. The hacked Twitter accounts included high profile individuals such as Barack Obama, Elon Musk, Kanye West, Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett, Kim Kardashian, and Joe Biden. Their accounts were used to send a tweet to scam Bitcoin out of their millions of followers.

Twitter confirms internal tools used in bitcoin-promoting attack ...
Scam Social Engineering Tweet sent from Bill Gates' Twitter Account
Twitter quickly reacted to the hack by taking an unprecedented step of temporarily preventing all verified users from tweeting, including yours truly; I was trying to warn people about the attack but my tweets were repeatedly prevented from posting. Before the scam tweets were taken down more than £80,000 ($100,000) was sent to the scam Tweet's advertised Bitcoin address. The FBI is investigating the incident.

How the Twitter Accounts were Compromised
Twitter said hackers had targeted employees with access to its internal systems and "used this access to take control of many highly-visible (including verified) accounts and Tweet on their behalf".  A report by security researcher firm HudsonRock said an advert appeared on a dark web hacker's forum earlier in the week, which offered a service to takeover any Twitter account. The seller said they were able to achieve this by being able to change any Twitter account's linked email address. 

The seller was a group or individual that managed to hack their way into Twitter's backend systems, probably by social engineering Twitter's staff, to gain full administration rights at Twitter. This enabled them to provide their buyers with the opportunity to control any Twitter account and to write those accounts' tweets. Hence this nefarious service being bought and then used to acquire Bitcoin via scam messages.
Hackers posted the view from the Twitter control panel
Security researchers at Hudson Rock spotted Twitter Hack advertisement
Additional Impact?
It is not yet clear whether the hacker(s) stole the Direct Messages (private messages) of the high profile Twitters users, such messages could be used to cause embarrassment and for cyber extortion.  The attack appears to be a quick 'smash and grab' money maker, by both the seller to make a quick buck and by the buyer, who used the service to quickly obtain £80k worth of Bitcoin, rather than anything more sinister or sophisticated. 

Update as of 18th July 2020
Twitter confirmed the perpetrators used its administration tools to orchestrate the attack and had downloaded data from up to eight of the accounts involved, but said none of these accounts was "verified" high profile accounts.  

A New York Times article suggested at least two of the attackers are from England. The attackers successfully manipulated a small number of employees and used their credentials to access Twitter's internal systems

Twitter's statement said "The attackers successfully manipulated a small number of employees and used their credentials to access Twitter's internal systems. We are continuing our investigation of this incident, working with law enforcement, and determining longer-term actions we should take to improve the security of our systems. We're embarrassed, we're disappointed, and more than anything, we're sorry."

Facts Twitter confirmed
  • Attackers were not able to view previous account passwords, as those are not stored in plain text or available through the tools used in the attack.
  • Attackers were able to view personal information including email addresses and phone numbers, which are displayed to some users of our internal support tools.
  • In cases where an account was taken over by the attacker, they may have been able to view additional information. Forensic investigation of these activities is still ongoing.
What the Experts Think
Nigel Thorpe, technical director at SecureAge said the latest Twitter hack exposes the identity and access management vulnerability and the risk of administrator accounts being compromised, leaving data vulnerable. It appears that cybercriminals gained access to Twitter's internal network, then used an admin tool to control the user accounts of prominent individuals and organisations to post fraudulent messages. Using social engineering to gain access to Twitter staff accounts, giving access to data stored in the network.

This incident illustrates the loophole with identity and access management such that if a user account is compromised, data is left unprotected. This loophole can be closed by taking a data-centric approach to security, where information is automatically protected, with authenticated encryption built right into the data. This means that even unencrypted files, when changed or moved, will immediately be encrypted so that, if stolen, they will appear to be garbage to the thief.

A compromised user account still has access to data, but it remains encrypted all the time, even when in use. When copied from its ‘safe’, access-controlled location - even if that's outside the organisation - the data remains encrypted and therefore useless. No ransom, no embarrassing disclosures, no legal action.

Liviu Arsene, Global Cybersecurity Researcher at Bitdefender said with attackers successfully compromising high-profile Twitter accounts that potentially also had two-factor authentication can only point to a coordinated cyberattack at Twitter’s employees and systems. It’s likely this could be a result of attackers exploiting the work-from-home context, in which employees are far more likely to fall prey to scams and spearphishing emails that end up compromising devices and ultimately company systems.

This high-profile Twitter breach could be the result of a spray-and-pray spear-phishing campaign that landed some opportunistic cybercriminals the could potentially be the hack of the year for Twitter. They could have done potentially far more damage. Instead, by delivering a simple Bitcoin scam, we could be looking at attackers that wanted to quickly monetize their access, instead of a highly coordinated and sophisticated operation performed by an APT group.

If this is the case, it’s likely that more companies could potentially be breached as a result of cybercriminals phishing employees. With 50% of organizations not having a plan for supporting and quickly migrating employees and infrastructure to full remote work, we’re probably going to see more data breaches that either exploit employee negligence or infrastructure misconfigurations left behind during the work from home transition.

While large organizations may have strong perimeter security defences, security professionals mostly worry that a potential breach could occur because of attackers exploiting the weakest link in the cybersecurity chain: the human component.

Tony Pepper, CEO of Egress said Twitter has suffered a co-ordinated attack targeting its employees "with access to internal systems and tools" is deeply concerning. However, screenshots obtained from two sources who took over accounts which suggest that this breach was caused by an intentionally malicious insider adds an additional layer of concern and complexity to this saga.

In our 2020 Insider Data Breach, we found that 75% of IT leaders surveyed believe employees have put data at risk intentionally in the past year and this latest breach seems to bear out those beliefs.

So, what can security professionals do to prevent this risk and keep sensitive data out of the reach of malicious threat actors? Organisations have an opportunity to do more by understanding the ‘human layer’ of security, including breach personas and where different risks lie. Technology needs to do more by providing insight into how sensitive data in the organisation is being handled and identifying risks, including human-activated threats.

By spotting the characteristics of a potentially malicious insider and being aware of what they are susceptible to and motivated by, organisations can put the tactics, techniques, and technology in place to mitigate the risk.

How to Keep Your Video Conferencing Meetings Secure

Guest Post by By Tom Kellermann (Head Cybersecurity Strategist, VMware Carbon Black)

The sudden and dramatic shift to a mobile workforce has thrust video conferencing into the global spotlight and evolved video conferencing vendors from enterprise communication tools to critical infrastructure.

During any major (and rapid) technology adoption, cyberattackers habitually follow the masses in hopes of launching an attack that could lead to a pay day or give them a competitive advantage. This has not been lost on global organisations’ security and IT teams, who are quickly working to make sure their employees’ privacy and data remains secure.

Here are some high-level tips to help keep video conferencing secure.

Update the Application
Video conferencing providers are regularly deploying software updates to ensure that security holes are mitigated.  Take advantage of their diligence and update the app prior to using it every time.

Lock meetings down and set a strong password
Make sure that only invited attendees can join a meeting. Using full sentences with special characters included, rather than just words or numbers, can be helpful. Make sure you are not sharing the password widely, especially in public places and never on social media. Waiting room features are critical for privacy as the meeting host can serve as a final triage to make sure only invited participants are attending. Within the meeting, the host can restrict sharing privileges, leading to smoother meetings and ensuring that uninvited guests are not nefariously sharing materials. 

Discussing sensitive information
If sensitive material must be discussed, ensure that the meeting name does not suggest it is a top-secret meeting, which would make it a more attractive target for potential eavesdroppers.  Using code words to depict business topics is recommended during the cyber crime wave we are experiencing.

Restrict the sharing of sensitive files to approved file-share technologies, not as part of the meeting itself
Using an employee sharing site that only employees have access to (and has multi-factor authentication in place) is a great way to make sure sensitive files touch the right eyes only.  This should be mandated as this is a huge Achilles heel.

Use a VPN to protect network traffic while using the platform 
With so many employees working remotely, using a virtual private network (VPN) can help better secure internet connections and keep private information private via encryption. Public WiFi can be a gamble as it only takes one malicious actor to cause damage.  Do not use public WiFi, especially in airports or train stations.  Cyber criminals lurk in those locations.

If you can, utilise two networks on your home WiFi router, one for business and the other for personal use.
Make sure that your work computer is only connected to a unique network in your home. All other personal devices – including your family’s – should not be using the same network. The networks and routers in your home should be updated regularly and, again, should use a complex password. Additionally, you should be the only system administrator on your network and all devices that connect to it.

All of us have a role to play in mitigating the cyber crime wave.  Please remember these best practices the next time you connect. Stay safe online

Also related - How Safe are Video Messaging Apps such as Zoom?

How Safe are Video Messaging Apps such as Zoom?

I was privileged to be part of The Telegraph Coronavirus Podcast today, where I was asked about the security of video messaging apps.



'How safe are video messaging apps such as Zoom, and what should users bear in mind when using them?'

My reply...
Video messaging apps are an essential communication tool for at home and within businesses, especially during the COVID-19 lockdown period. They are generally safe to use but there are a few security risks which users should be aware of.

Our increased use of video messaging apps has not gone unnoticed by cybercriminals, who are seeking to exploit the increase of use by sending phishing emails, social media scam messages and even scam text messages, with fake invitations to video messaging app meetings.

Typically, these scam messages will entice you into either opening a malicious attachment or click a web link which directs to a malicious website. The ultimate aim of these cyberattacks is to deliver malicious software, such as ransomware which locks your PC and demands a ransom payment to unlock, scam a payment, or steal your personal information which can be resold to other cybercriminals on the dark web.

So, never open an attachment or click on any links within any unexpected or suspicious emails, social media messages and text messages.

The next piece of advice is to ensure your video messaging app is always kept up-to-date. Luckily most modern smartphones and computer operating systems will automatically update your apps, but it is always worth double-checking and not to suppress any app updates from occurring, as often the app updates are fixing security flaws.

And finally, on home computers and laptops, when not using video messaging apps, either cover your webcam with a piece of tape or face your webcam towards a wall or ceiling, just in case your computer is covertly compromised and a malicious actor gains access to your computer's webcam.


Additional
One tip I didn't have time to say on the podcast, is always ensure your video chats are set to private, using a strong password to prevent ZoomBombingRecent reportshave shown a series of “Zoombombing” incidents lately, where unwanted guests have joined in on open calls. 

Bharat Mistry, Principal Security Strategist at Trend Micro on Zoom advises “Although not alone in being targeted, Zoom has been the subject of some of the highest-profile incidents so far this year. Fortunately, there are things you can do to keep your business safe.

It’s all about taking advantage of unsecure settings in the app, (and possibly using brute-force tools to crack meeting IDs). With access to a meeting, hackers could harvest highly sensitive and/or market-critical corporate information, or even spread malware via a file transfer feature.

Hackers know users are looking en masse for ways to communicate during government lockdowns. By creating legitimate-looking Zoom links and websites, they could steal financial details, spread malware or harvest Zoom ID numbers, allowing them to infiltrate virtual meetings. One vendor discovered 2,000 new domains had been registered in March alone, over two-thirds of the total for the year so far.

Risk mitigation:
The good news is that there are several things you can do to mitigate the security risks associated with Zoom. The most basic are: 
  • Ensure Zoom is always on the latest software version
  • Build awareness of Zoom phishing scams into user training programmes. Users should only download the Zoom client from a trusted site and check for anything suspicious in the meeting URL when joining a meeting
  • Ensure all home workers have anti-malware including phishing detection installed from a reputable vendor
Organisational preparedness:
Next, it’s important to revisit those administrative settings in the app, to reduce the opportunities for hackers and Zoombombers. Fortunately, automatically generated passwords are now switched on by default, and the use of personal meeting IDs are switched off, meaning Zoom will create a random, one-off ID for each meeting. These setting should be kept as is. But organisations can do more, including:
  • Ensure you also generate a meeting ID automatically for recurring meetings
  • Set screen-sharing to “host only” to prevent uninvited guests from sharing disruptive content
  • Don’t share any meeting IDs online
  • Disable “file transfers” to mitigate risk of malware
  • Make sure that only authenticated users can join meetings
  • Lock the meeting once it’s started to prevent anyone new joining
  • Use waiting room feature, so the host can only allow attendees from a pre-assigned register
  • Play a sound when someone enters or leaves the room
  • Allow host to put attendees on hold, temporarily removing them from a meeting if necessary”

Coronavirus Cybersecurity: Scams To Watch Out For

The Coronavirus pandemic has shocked the world in recent months, with many countries being forced to go into lockdown or encourage its nationals to self-isolate as much as possible. Many are trying to work out how to juggle working from home, caring for their children, managing their finances and looking after their health! But sadly, there’s one more thing you need to add to that list - staying safe online and watching out for scammers. 

That’s because cybercriminals have decided to take advantage of the global fear, confusion and uncertainty around the world. Plus, vast numbers of people are now working from home and this usually means they are doing so with less cybersecurity measures in place than they would have in their office. 

Malicious messages examples seen
  • email and social media messages impersonating medical expert bodies including the NHS, World Health Organization (WHO), and Centre for Disease and Control (CDC), requesting a donation to research a vaccine.
  • GOV.UK themed text messages titled 'You are eligible to get a tax refund (rebate) of 128.34 GBP
  • messages advertising protective masks and hand sanitisers from bogus websites
So, despite this being a time when we all need to pull together and help one another out, there are still scammers out there looking to cause trouble. To help keep you safe online, Evalian has compiled a list of four of the most common Coronavirus scams happening right now, so you know what to look out for. 

1. Phishing Scams 
This is perhaps the biggest scam out there right now because phishing emails can come in many different forms. Most commonly, hackers are pretending to be health officials or national authorities offering advice about staying safe during the Corona outbreak. The reality is that they are trying to trick unsuspecting individuals into downloading harmful malware or providing sensitive, personal information. 

Some of these phishing emails look really sophisticated, with one in particular being a fake email sent from the World Health Organisation (WHO), offering tips on how to avoid falling ill with the virus. Once the email user clicks on the link provided, they are redirected to a site that steals their personal information. The problem is, with so many people being genuinely worried about their health and hoping to stop the spread, many don’t suspect that these types of emails could be a scam. 

The best way to avoid falling victim to these types of phishing emails is to look for suspicious email addresses or lots of spelling mistakes. And even if the email looks pretty legitimate, it might still be worth going direct to the sender’s website instead. For example, going direct to the World Health Organisation website for advice means you can avoid clicking any links from the email. That way you can find the information you need and reduce the risk of falling victim to a cybercrime. 

Secondly, if an email asks for money or bitcoin donations to help tackle Coronavirus, don’t make any transfers. Again, if you wish to help by donating money or services, go directly to the websites of charities or health organisations to see how you can help.

It’s also worth noting, that these phishing scams can also be received as a text message or phone call. If you receive strange texts or voicemails asking for donations, giving offers on vaccines or warning you about cases in your local area, approach with caution and certainly don’t give away any of your personal details. 

2. Fake Websites
Another common scam designed to play on fear and uncertainty is the setting up of fake websites. Cybercriminals are creating Coronavirus-related websites which claim to offer pharmaceuticals or remedies for the virus such as testing kits, vaccines, and other fake health solutions. The idea is to get anxious victims to part with their bank details or to hack their computer and install malware on their systems. 

In these situations, there are some things you can do. Firstly, check if the website has a secure connection. You’ll know whether it does or doesn't by the padlock in the search bar. If there is a padlock in the search bar this means the site is secure, if there isn't, then it’s a good idea to avoid this site. Not only this but if the website is poorly designed and the text has a lot of spelling and grammatical errors, this could also be a big red flag. 

Finally, it’s also important to be aware that not many sites are genuinely going to be offering these health solutions and if they appear to be selling in-demand products at an extremely low price, then it’s most likely a scam. Remember, if it seems to good to be true then it probably is. 

3. App Scams 
Cybercriminals are also targeting smartphones and mobile devices with dedicated Coronavirus apps. These apps claim to track the spread of the virus in your local area and with many people concerned about the proximity of the virus to their home, it’s not surprising that people are willing to download such an app. 

The reality, however, is that the app then installs malware into your device and not only comprises your tech, but also all the personal information stored within it. In some cases, the app can lock victims out of their phone or tablet demanding a ransom to get back in, threatening to delete all the information, contact details and photos stored inside.

4. Fake Coronavirus Maps
Last but not least, the fake Coronavirus map scam. Similar to that of the tracking app, cybercriminals have begun circulating graphics of fake maps on which they claim to highlight where all the Coronavirus cases are in your country. These are usually sent round on social media and through email. 

Of course, these images are not meant to educate or help you in any way. In fact, the scammers include malware in the links so that once you’ve clicked to open the image this immediately infects your device. In most cases, this has been reported to be the kind of bug that can steal data such as bank details, passwords, login information and other sensitive data stored on your device. 

Look for the Red Flags 
  • Never open attachments or click on links within suspicious or unexpected emails, text and social media messages
  • Look for the suspicious signs; does the message convey a sense of urgency to perform an action?
  • Always remember legitimate organisations never ask for passwords, payment card details and sensitive data to be sent by email
In these troubling and uncertain times, you’d be forgiven for falling for a scam if you thought for one second it could help to keep you and your family safe from this virus. But sadly, there are criminals out there taking advantage of people’s anxiety. So just be aware that these scams are happening and look out for the red flags we’ve mentioned above to help you stay safe online.