Category Archives: Scada

US Treasury imposes sanctions on a Russian research institute behind Triton malware

US Treasury Department announced sanctions against Russia’s Central Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics behind Triton malware.

The US Treasury Department announced sanctions against a Russian research institute for its alleged role in the development of the Triton malware.

“Today, the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) designated, pursuant to Section 224 of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), a Russian government research institution that is connected to the destructive Triton malware.” reads a press release published by the Department of the Treasury.

Triton is a strain of malware specifically designed to target industrial control systems (ICS) system that has been spotted by researchers at FireEye in December 2017.

The malware was first spotted after it was employed in 2017 in an attack against a Saudi petrochemical plant owned by the privately-owned Saudi company Tasnee. According to the experts, the infection caused an explosion.

“In August 2017, a petrochemical facility in the Middle East was the target of a cyber-attack involving the Triton malware. This cyber-attack was supported by the State Research Center of the Russian Federation FGUP Central Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics (TsNIIKhM), a Russian government-controlled research institution that is responsible for building customized tools that enabled the attack.” continues the press release.

The Triton malware is designed to target Schneider Electric’s Triconex Safety Instrumented System (SIS) controllers that are used in industrial environments to monitor the state of a process and restore it to a safe state or safely shut it down if parameters indicate a potentially hazardous situation.

“Mandiant recently responded to an incident at a critical infrastructure organization where an attacker deployed malware designed to manipulate industrial safety systems. The targeted systems provided emergency shutdown capability for industrial processes.” reads the analysis published by FireEye in 2017.

“We assess with moderate confidence that the attacker was developing the capability to cause physical damage and inadvertently shutdown operations. This malware, which we call TRITON, is an attack framework built to interact with Triconex Safety Instrumented System (SIS) controllers.”

Triton malware

Once gained access to the SIS system, the threat actor deployed the TRITON malware, a circumstance that indicates that attackers had a knowledge of such systems. According to FireEye the attackers pre-built and tested the tool which would require access to hardware and software that is not widely available. TRITON is also designed to communicate using the proprietary TriStation protocol which is not publicly documented, this implies that the attackers reverse engineered the protocol to carry out the attack.

The Triton malware interacts with Triconex SIS controllers., it is able to read and write programs and functions to and from the controller.

Triton Malware Triconex

The hackers deployed the Triton malware on a Windows-based engineering workstation, the malicious code added its own programs to the execution table. In case of a failure, the malware attempts to return the controller to a running state, it also overwrites the malicious program with junk data if the attempt fails, likely to delete any track of the attack.

The US Treasury Department imposed sanctions on the State Research Center of the Russian Federation FGUP Central Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics (also known as CNIIHM or TsNIIKhM).

In October 2018, FireEye experts discovered a link between the Triton malware, tracked by the company as TEMP.Veles, and the Central Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics (CNIIHM), a Russian government research institute in Moscow.

FireEye collected strong evidence suggesting that the Russian CNIIHM institute has been involved in the development of some of the tools used in the Triton attack.

“FireEye Intelligence assesses with high confidence that intrusion activity that led to deployment of TRITON was supported by the Central Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics (CNIIHM; a.k.a. ЦНИИХМ), a Russian government-owned technical research institution located in Moscow. The following factors supporting this assessment are further detailed in this post.” reads the analysis published by FireEye.

  1. FireEye uncovered malware development activity that is very likely supporting TEMP.Veles activity. This includes testing multiple versions of malicious software, some of which were used by TEMP.Veles during the TRITON intrusion.
  2. Investigation of this testing activity reveals multiple independent ties to Russia, CNIIHM, and a specific person in Moscow. This person’s online activity shows significant links to CNIIHM.
  3. An IP address registered to CNIIHM has been employed by TEMP.Veles for multiple purposes, including monitoring open-source coverage of TRITON, network reconnaissance, and malicious activity in support of the TRITON intrusion.
  4. Behavior patterns observed in TEMP.Veles activity are consistent with the Moscow time zone, where CNIIHM is located.
  5. We judge that CNIIHM likely possesses the necessary institutional knowledge and personnel to assist in the orchestration and development of TRITON and TEMP.Veles operations.” 

Experts pointed out that Triton is linked to Russia, the CNIIHM, and an individual located in Moscow. Some of the TEMP.Veles hacking tools were tested using an unnamed online scan service. A specific user of the service who has been active since 2013 has tested various tools across the time.

The user also tested several customized versions of widely available tools, including Metasploit, Cobalt Strike, PowerSploit, the PowerShell-based WMImplant, and cryptcat.

In many cases, the custom versions of the tools were used in TEMP.Veles attacks just days after being submitted to the testing environment.

The experts discovered that a PDB path contained in a tested file included a string that appears to be an online moniker associated with a Russia-based individual active in Russian information security communities since at least 2011.

According to a now-defunct social media profile, the individual was a professor at CNIIHM.

FireEye also discovered that one IP address registered to the Russian research institute was involved in the Triton attacks.

The sanctions prohibit US entities from engaging with CNIIHM and also seize any asset on the US soil belonging to the research institute.

“The Russian Government continues to engage in dangerous cyber activities aimed at the United States and our allies,” said Secretary Steven T. Mnuchin. “This Administration will continue to aggressively defend the critical infrastructure of the United States from anyone attempting to disrupt it.”

TsNIIKhM is being designated pursuant to Section 224 of CAATSA for knowingly engaging in significant activities undermining cybersecurity against any person, including a democratic institution, or government on behalf of the Government of the Russian Federation.” concludes the press release.

“As a result of today’s designation, all property and interests in property of TsNIIKhM that are in or come within the possession of U.S. persons are blocked, and U.S. persons are generally prohibited from engaging in transactions with them. Additionally, any entities 50 percent or more owned by one or more designated persons are also blocked. Moreover, non-U.S. persons who engage in certain transactions with TsNIIKhM may themselves be exposed to sanctions.”

On Thursday, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) issued a joint report that provides details about a hacking campaign of a Russian hacking group known as Energetic Bear.

The EU Council also imposed sanctions on two Russian intelligence officers for their role in the 2015 Bundestag hack.

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, Triton)

The post US Treasury imposes sanctions on a Russian research institute behind Triton malware appeared first on Security Affairs.

IRONGATE ICS Malware: Nothing to See Here…Masking Malicious Activity on SCADA Systems

In the latter half of 2015, the FireEye Labs Advanced Reverse Engineering (FLARE) team identified several versions of an ICS-focused malware crafted to manipulate a specific industrial process running within a simulated Siemens control system environment. We named this family of malware IRONGATE.

FLARE found the samples on VirusTotal while researching droppers compiled with PyInstaller — an approach used by numerous malicious actors. The IRONGATE samples stood out based on their references to SCADA and associated functionality. Two samples of the malware payload were uploaded by different sources in 2014, but none of the antivirus vendors featured on VirusTotal flagged them as malicious.

Siemens Product Computer Emergency Readiness Team (ProductCERT) confirmed that IRONGATE is not viable against operational Siemens control systems and determined that IRONGATE does not exploit any vulnerabilities in Siemens products. We are unable to associate IRONGATE with any campaigns or threat actors. We acknowledge that IRONGATE could be a test case, proof of concept, or research activity for ICS attack techniques.

Our analysis finds that IRONGATE invokes ICS attack concepts first seen in Stuxnet, but in a simulation environment. Because the body of industrial control systems (ICS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) malware is limited, we are sharing details with the broader community.

Malicious Concepts

Deceptive Man-in-the-Middle

IRONGATE's key feature is a man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack against process input-output (IO) and process operator software within industrial process simulation. The malware replaces a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) with a malicious DLL, which then acts as a broker between a PLC and the legitimate monitoring software. This malicious DLL records five seconds of 'normal' traffic from a PLC to the user interface and replays it, while sending different data back to the PLC. This could allow an attacker to alter a controlled process unbeknownst to process operators.

Sandbox Evasion

IRONGATE's second notable feature involves sandbox evasion. Some droppers for the IRONGATE malware would not run if VMware or Cuckoo Sandbox environments were employed. The malware uses these techniques to avoid detection and resist analysis, and developing these anti-sandbox techniques indicates that the author wanted the code to resist casual analysis attempts. It also implies that IRONGATE’s purpose was malicious, as opposed to a tool written for other legitimate purposes.

Dropper Observables

We first identified IRONGATE when investigating droppers compiled with PyInstaller — an approach used by numerous malicious actors. In addition, strings found in the dropper include the word “payload”, which is commonly associated with malware.

Unique Features for ICS Malware

While IRONGATE malware does not compare to Stuxnet in terms of complexity, ability to propagate, or geopolitical implications, IRONGATE leverages some of the same features and techniques Stuxtnet used to attack centrifuge rotor speeds at the Natanz uranium enrichment facility; it also demonstrates new features for ICS malware.

  • Both pieces of malware look for a single, highly specific process.
  • Both replace DLLs to achieve process manipulation.
  • IRONGATE detects malware detonation/observation environments, whereas Stuxnet looked for the presence of antivirus software.
  • IRONGATE actively records and plays back process data to hide manipulations, whereas Stuxnet did not attempt to hide its process manipulation, but suspended normal operation of the S7-315 so even if rotor speed had been displayed on the HMI, the data would have been static.

A Proof of Concept

IRONGATE’s characteristics lead us to conclude that it is a test, proof of concept, or research activity.

  • The code is specifically crafted to look for a user-created DLL communicating with the Siemens PLCSIM environment. PLCSIM is used to test PLC program functionality prior to in-field deployment. The DLLs that IRONGATE seeks and replaces are not part of the Siemens standard product set, but communicate with the S7ProSim COM object. Malware authors test concepts using commercial simulation software.
  • Code in the malicious software closely matched usage on a control engineering blog dealing with PLCSIM (https://alexsentcha.wordpress.com/using-s7-prosim-with-siemens-s7-plcsim/ and https://pcplcdemos.googlecode.com/hg/S7PROSIM/BioGas/S7%20v5.5/).
  • While we have identified and analyzed several droppers for the IRONGATE malware, we have yet to identify the code’s infection vector.
  • In addition, our analysis did not identify what triggers the MitM payload to install; the scada.exe binary that deploys the IRONGATE DLL payload appears to require manual execution.
  • We have not identified any other instances of the ICS-specific IRONGATE components (scada.exe and Step7ProSim.dll), despite their having been compiled in September of 2014.
  • Siemens ProductCERT has confirmed that the code would not work against a standard Siemens control system environment.

Implications for ICS Asset Owners

Even though process operators face no increased risk from the currently identified members of the IRONGATE malware family, IRONGATE provides valuable insight into adversary mindset.

Network security monitoring, indicator of compromise (IoC) matching, and good practice guidance from vendors and other stakeholders represent important defensive techniques for ICS networks.

To specifically counter IRONGATE’s process attack techniques, ICS asset owners may, over the longer term, implement solutions that:

  • Require integrity checks and code signing for vendor and user generated code. Lacking cryptographic verification facilitates file replacement and MitM attacks against controlled industrial processes.
  • Develop mechanisms for sanity checking IO data, such as independent sensing and backhaul, and comparison with expected process state information. Ignorance of expected process state facilitates an attacker’s ability to achieve physical consequence without alarming operators.

Technical Malware Analysis

IRONGATE Dropper Family

FireEye has identified six IRONGATE droppers: bla.exe, update.exe1, update_no_pipe.exe1, update_no_pipe.exe2, update_no_pipe.exe2, update.exe3. All but one of these Python-based droppers first checks for execution in a VMware or Cuckoo Sandbox environment. If found, the malware exits.

If not found, the IRONGATE dropper extracts a UPX-packed, publicly available utility (NirSoft NetResView version 1.27) to audiodg.exe in the same directory as the dropper. The dropper then executes the utility using the command audiodg.exe /scomma scxrt2.ini. This command populates the file scxrt2.ini with a comma-separated list of network resources identified by the host system.

The dropper iterates through each entry in scxrt2.ini, looking for paths named move-to-operational or move-to-operational.lnk. If a path is found, the dropper first extracts the Base64-encoded .NET executable scada.exe to the current directory and then moves the file to the path containing move-to-operational or move-to-operational.lnk. The path move-to-operational is interesting as well, perhaps implying that IRONGATE was not seeking the actual running process, but rather a staging area for code promotion. The dropper does not execute the scada.exe payload after moving it.

Anti-Analysis Techniques

Each IRONGATE dropper currently identified deploys the same .NET payload, scada.exe. All but one of the droppers incorporated anti-detection/analysis techniques to identify execution in VMware or the Cuckoo Sandbox. If such environments are detected, the dropper will not deploy the .NET executable (scada.exe) to the host.

Four of the droppers (update.exe1, update_no_pipe.exe1, update_no_pipe.exe2, and update.exe3) detect Cuckoo environments by scanning subdirectories of the %SystemDrive%. Directories with names greater than five, but fewer than ten characters are inspected for the subdirectories drop, files, logs, memory, and shots. If a matching directory is found, the dropper does not attempt to deploy the scada.exe payload.

The update.exe1 and update.exe3 droppers contain code for an additional Cuckoo check using the SysInternals pipelist program, install.exe, but the code is disabled in each.

The update.exe2 dropper includes a check for VMware instead of Cuckoo. The VMWare check looks for the registry key HKLM\SOFTWARE\VMware, Inc.\VMware Tools and the files %WINDIR%\system32\drivers\vmmouse.sys and %WINDIR%\system32\drivers\vmhgfs.sys. If any of these are found, the dropper does not attempt to deploy the scada.exe payload.

The dropper bla.exe does not include an environment check for either Cuckoo or VMware.

scada.exe Payload

We surmise that scada.exe is a user-created payload used for testing the malware. First, our analysis did not indicate what triggers scada.exe to run. Second, Siemens ProductCERT informed us that scada.exe is not a default file name associated with Siemens industrial control software.

When scada.exe executes, it scans drives attached to the system for filenames ending in Step7ProSim.dll. According to the Siemens ProductCERT, Step7ProSim.dll is not part of the Siemens PLCSIM software. We were unable to determine whether this DLL was created specifically by the malware author, or if it was from another source, such as example code or a particular custom ICS implementation. We surmise this DLL simulates generation of IO values, which would normally be provided by an S7-based controller, since the functions it includes appear derived from the Siemens PLCSIM environment.

If scada.exe finds a matching DLL file name, it kills all running processes with the name biogas.exe. The malware then moves Step7ProSim.dll to Step7ConMgr.dll and drops a malicious Step7ProSim.dll – the IRONGATE payload – to the same directory.

The malicious Step7ProSim.dll acts as an API proxy between the original user-created Step7ProSim.dll (now named Step7ConMgr.dll) and the application biogas.exe that loads it. Five seconds after loading, the malicious Step7ProSim.dll records five seconds of calls to ReadDataBlockValue. All future calls to ReadDataBlockValue return the recorded data.

Simultaneously, the malicious DLL discards all calls to WriteDataBlockValue and instead calls WriteInputPoint(0x110, 0, 0x7763) and WriteInputPoint(0x114, 0, 0x7763) every millisecond. All of these functions are named similarly to Siemens S7ProSim v5.4 COM interface. It appears that other calls to API functions are passed through the malicious DLL to the legitimate DLL with no other modification.

Biogas.exe

As mentioned previously, IRONGATE seeks to manipulate code similar to that found on a blog dealing with simulating PLC communications using PLCSIM, including the use of an executable named biogas.exe.

Examination of the executable from that blog’s demo code shows that the WriteInputPoint function calls with byte indices 0x110 and 0x114 set pressure and temperature values, respectively:

IRONGATE:

         WriteInputPoint(0x110, 0, 0x7763)
WriteInputPoint(0x114, 0, 0x7763)

 Equivalent pseudo code from Biogas.exe: 

        S7ProSim.WriteInputPoint(0x110, 0, (short)this.Pressure.Value)
     S7ProSim.WriteInputPoint(0x114, 0, (short)this.Temperature.Value)

We have been unable to determine the significance of the hardcoded value 0x7763, which is passed in both instances of the write function.

Because of the noted indications that IRONGATE is a proof of concept, we cannot conclude IRONGATE’s author intends to manipulate specific temperature or pressure values associated with the specific biogas.exe process, but find the similarities to this example code striking.

Artifacts and Indicators

PyInstaller Artifacts

The IRONGATE droppers are Python scripts converted to executables using PyInstaller. The compiled droppers contain PyInstaller artifacts from the system the executables were created on. These artifacts may link other samples compiled on the same system. Five of the six file droppers (bla.exe, update.exe1, update_no_pipe.exe1, update_no_pipe.exe2 and update.exe3) all share the same PyInstaller artifacts listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Pyinstaller Artifacts

The remaining dropper, update.exe2, contains the artifacts listed in Table 2.

Table 2: Pyinstaller Artifacts for update.exe2

Unique Strings

Figure 1 and 2 list the unique strings discovered in the scada.exe and Step7ProSim.dll binaries.

Figure 1: Scada.exe Unique Strings

Figure 2: Step7ProSim.dll Unique Strings

File Hashes

Table 3 contains the MD5 hashes, file and architecture type, and compile times for the malware analyzed in this report.

Table 3: File MD5 Hashes and Compile Times

FireEye detects IRONGATE. A list of indicators can be found here.

Special thanks to the Siemens ProductCERT for providing support and context to this investigation.

Havex, It’s Down With OPC

FireEye recently analyzed the capabilities of a variant of Havex (referred to by FireEye as “Fertger” or “PEACEPIPE”), the first publicized malware reported to actively scan OPC servers used for controlling SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) devices in critical infrastructure (e.g., water and electric utilities), energy, and manufacturing sectors.

While Havex itself is a somewhat simple PHP Remote Access Trojan (RAT) that has been analyzed by other sources, none of these have covered the scanning functionality that could impact SCADA devices and other industrial control systems (ICS). Specifically, this Havex variant targets servers involved in OPC (Object linking and embedding for Process Control) communication, a client/server technology widely used in process control systems (for example, to control water pumps, turbines, tanks, etc.).

Note: ICS is a general term that encompasses SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems, DCS (Distributed Control Systems), and other control system environments. The term SCADA is well-known to wider audiences, and throughout this article, ICS and SCADA will be used interchangeably.

Threat actors have leveraged Havex in attacks across the energy sector for over a year, but the full extent of industries and ICS systems affected by Havex is unknown. We decided to examine the OPC scanning component of Havex more closely, to better understand what happens when it’s executed and the possible implications.

OPC Testing Environment

To conduct a true test of the Havex variant’s functionality, we constructed an OPC server test environment that fully replicates a typical OPC server setup (Figure 1 [3]). As shown, ICS or SCADA systems involve OPC client software that interacts directly with an OPC server, which works in tandem with the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) to control industrial hardware (such as a water pump, turbine, or tank). FireEye replicated both the hardware and software the OPC server setup (the components that appear within the dashed line on the right side of Figure 1).

 

 

havex1

Figure 1: Topology of typical OPC server setup

The components of our test environment are robust and comprehensive to the point that our system could be deployed in an environment to control actual SCADA devices. We utilized an Arduino Uno [1] as the primary hardware platform, acting as the OPC server. The Arduino Uno is an ideal platform for developing an ICS test environment because of the low power requirements, a large number of libraries to make programming the microcontroller easier, serial communication over USB, and cheap cost. We leveraged the OPC Server and libraries from St4makers [2] (as shown in Figure 2). This software is available for free to SCADA engineers to allow them to develop software to communicate information to and from SCADA devices.

havex2

Figure 2: OPC Server Setup

Using the OPC Server libraries allowed us to make the Arduino Uno act as a true, functioning OPC SCADA device (Figure 3).

havex3

Figure 3: Matrikon OPC Explorer showing Arduino OPC Server

We also used Matrikon’s OPC Explorer [1], which enables browsing between the Arduino OPC server and the Matrikon embedded simulation OPC server. In addition, the Explorer can be used to add certain data points to the SCADA device – in this case, the Arduino device.

havex4

Figure 4: Tags identified for OPC server

In the OPC testing environment, we created tags in order to simulate a true OPC server functioning. Tags, in relation to ICS devices, are single data points. For example: temperature, vibration, or fill level. Tags represent a single value monitored or controlled by the system at a single point in time.

With our test environment complete, we executed the malicious Havex “.dll" file and analyzed how Havex’s OPC scanning module might affect OPC servers it comes in contact with.

Analysis

The particular Havex sample we looked at was a file named PE.dll (6bfc42f7cb1364ef0bfd749776ac6d38). When looking into the scanning functionality of the particular Havex sample, it directly scans for OPC servers, both on the server the sample was submitted on, and laterally, across the entire network.

The scanning process starts when the Havex downloader calls the runDll export function.  The OPC scanner module identifies potential OPC servers by using the Windows networking (WNet) functions.  Through recursive calls to WNetOpenEnum and WNetEnumResources, the scanner builds a list of all servers that are globally accessible through Windows networking.  The list of servers is then checked to determine if any of them host an interface to the Component Object Models (COM) listed below:

 

 

 

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 12.31.56 PM

 

 

Figure 5: Relevant COM objects

Once OPC servers are identified, the following CLSIDs are used to determine the capabilities of the OPC server:

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 12.33.22 PM

            Figure 6: CLSIDs used to determine capabilities of the OPC server

When executing PE.dll, all of the OPC server data output is first saved as %TEMP%\[random].tmp.dat. The results of a capability scan of an OPC server is stored in %TEMP%\OPCServer[random].txt. Files are not encrypted or deleted once the scanning process is complete.

Once the scanning completes, the log is deleted and the contents are encrypted and stored into a file named %TEMP%\[random].tmp.yls.  The encryption process uses an RSA public key obtained from the PE resource TYU.  The RSA key is used to protect a randomly generated 168-bit 3DES key that is used to encrypt the contents of the log.

The TYU resource is BZip2 compressed and XORed with the string “1312312”.  A decoded configuration for 6BFC42F7CB1364EF0BFD749776AC6D38 is included in the figure below:

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 12.27.24 PM

Figure 7: Sample decoded TYU resource

The 4409de445240923e05c5fa6fb4204 value is believed to be an RSA key identifier. The AASp1… value is the Base64 encoded RSA key.

A sample encrypted log file (%TEMP%\[random].tmp.yls) is below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

00000000  32 39 0a 66 00 66 00 30  00 30 00 66 00 66 00 30 29.f.f.0.0.f.f.000000010  00 30 00 66 00 66 00 30  00 30 00 66 00 66 00 30 .0.f.f.0.0.f.f.000000020  00 30 00 66 00 66 00 30  00 30 00 66 00 66 00 30 .0.f.f.0.0.f.f.000000030  00 30 00 66 00 66 00 30  00 30 00 66 00 37 39 36 .0.f.f.0.0.f.79600000040  0a 31 32 38 0a 96 26 cc  34 93 a5 4a 09 09 17 d3 .128..&.4..J....00000050  e0 bb 15 90 e8 5d cb 01  c0 33 c1 a4 41 72 5f a5 .....]...3..Ar_.00000060  13 43 69 62 cf a3 80 e3  6f ce 2f 95 d1 38 0f f2 .Cib....o./..8..00000070  56 b1 f9 5e 1d e1 43 92  61 f8 60 1d 06 04 ad f9 V..^..C.a.`.....00000080  66 98 1f eb e9 4c d3 cb  ee 4a 39 75 31 54 b8 02 f....L...J9u1T..00000090  b5 b6 4a 3c e3 77 26 6d  93 b9 66 45 4a 44 f7 a2 ..J<.w&m..fEJD..000000A0  08 6a 22 89 b7 d3 72 d4  1f 8d b6 80 2b d2 99 5d .j"...r.....+..]000000B0  61 87 c1 0c 47 27 6a 61  fc c5 ee 41 a5 ae 89 c3 a...G'ja...A....000000C0  9e 00 54 b9 46 b8 88 72  94 a3 95 c8 8e 5d fe 23 ..T.F..r.....].#000000D0  2d fb 48 85 d5 31 c7 65  f1 c4 47 75 6f 77 03 6b -.H..1.e..Guow.k

 

--Truncated--Probable Key Identifierff00ff00ff00ff00ff00ff00ff00fRSA Encrypted 3DES Key5A EB 13 80 FE A6 B9 A9 8A 0F 41…The 3DES key will be the last 24 bytes of the decrypted result.3DES IV88 72  94 a3 95 c8 8e 5d3DES Encrypted Logfe 23 2d fb 48 85 d5 31 c7 65 f1…

Figure 8: Sample encrypted .yls file

Execution

When executing PE.dll against the Arduino OPC server, we observe interesting responses within the plaintext %TEMP%\[random].tmp.dat:

 

 

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 12.41.27 PM

 

 

Figure 9: Sample scan log

The contents of the tmp.dat file are the results of the scan of the network devices, looking for OPC servers. These are not the in-depth results of the OPC servers themselves, and only perform the initial scanning.

The particular Havex sample in question also enumerates OPC tags and fully interrogates the OPC servers identified within %TEMP%\[random].tmp.dat. The particular fields queried are: server state, tag name, type, access, and id. The contents of a sample %TEMP%\OPCServer[random].txt can be found below:

 

 

Screen Shot 2014-07-17 at 12.43.48 PM

 

 

Figure 10: Contents of OPCServer[Random].txt OPC interrogation

While we don’t have a particular case study to prove the attacker’s next steps, it is likely after these files are created and saved, they will be exfiltrated to a command and control server for further processing.

Conclusion

Part of threat intelligence requires understanding all parts of a particular threat. This is why we took a closer look at the OPC functionality of this particular Havex variant.  We don’t have any case study showcasing why the OPC modules were included, and this is the first “in the wild” sample using OPC scanning. It is possible that these attackers could have used this malware as a testing ground for future utilization, however.

Since ICS networks typically don’t have a high-level of visibility into the environment, there are several ways to help minimize some of the risks associated with a threat like Havex. First, ICS environments need to have the ability to perform full packet capture ability. This gives incident responders and engineers better visibility should an incident occur.

Also, having mature incident processes for your ICS environment is important. Being able to have security engineers that also understand ICS environments during an incident is paramount. Finally, having trained professionals consistently perform security checks on ICS environments is helpful. This ensures standard sets of security protocols and best practices are followed within a highly secure environment.

We hope that this information will further educate industrial control systems owners and the security community about how the OPC functionality of this threat works and serves as the foundation for more investigation. Still, lots of questions remain about this component of Havex. What is the attack path? Who is behind it? What is their intention? We’re continuing to track this specific threat and will provide further updates as this new tactic unfolds.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Josh Homan for his help and support.

Related MD5s

ba8da708b8784afd36c44bb5f1f436bc

6bfc42f7cb1364ef0bfd749776ac6d38

4102f370aaf46629575daffbd5a0b3c9

References

Critical Infrastructure Beyond the Power Grid

The term "critical infrastructure" has earned its spot on the board of our ongoing game of cyber bingo--right next to "Digital Pearl Harbor," "Cyber 9/11," "SCADA" and "Stuxnet."

With "critical infrastructure" thrown about in references to cyber threats nearly every week, we thought it was time for a closer look at just what the term means-and what it means to other cyber threat actors.

The term "critical infrastructure" conjures up images of highways, electrical grids, pipelines, government facilities and utilities. But the U.S. government definition also includes economic security and public health. The Department of Homeland Security defines critical infrastructure as "Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters."[1]

Certainly the U.S. definition is expansive, but some key cyber actors go a step further to include a more abstract "information" asset. Russian officials view information content, flow and influencers as an enormous component of critical infrastructure. Iran and China similarly privilege the security of their information assets in order to protect their governments.

The bottom line?

U.S. companies, who may have never considered themselves a plausible target for cyber threats, could become victims of offensive or defensive state cyber operations. Earlier this year several media outlets-including the New York Times and Washington Post-disclosed that they had been the victims of China-based intrusions. The Times and the Post linked the intrusions on their networks to their reporting on corruption in the upper echelons of the Chinese Communist Party and other issues.

These media outlets weren't sitting on plans for a new fighter jet or cutting edge wind turbines-information often assumed to be at risk for data theft. Rather, the reporters at the Times and Post were perched in key positions to influence U.S. government and public views of the Chinese leadership, possibly in a negative light. The Chinese government had conducted these intrusions against what it deemed critical infrastructure that supported the flow of valuable information.

Who's up next?

State actors motivated to target critical infrastructure (by their own definition or the U.S.') won't just be the usual attention grabbers in cyberspace. We estimate that Iran, Syria, and North Korea all have interest and would be able to conduct or direct some level of network operations. These states are also likely to conduct operations in the near term to identify red lines and gauge corporate and government reactions. With little reputational loss at stake, we expect actors sponsored by or associated with these states to target an array of critical infrastructure targets. Companies who serve as key information brokers-for the public or the U.S. government-should be particularly attuned to the criticality their work is assigned by a variety of cyber threat actors.