Category Archives: Mobile Security

SecurityWeek RSS Feed: Mexican Privacy Watchdog Criticizes Government Over Spyware

Mexico’s privacy watchdog said Wednesday that the federal Attorney General’s Office stonewalled it for more than a year as it tried to investigate the government’s use of powerful Israeli spyware against journalists, lawyers and activists.

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SecurityWeek RSS Feed

Mexican Privacy Watchdog Criticizes Government Over Spyware

Mexico’s privacy watchdog said Wednesday that the federal Attorney General’s Office stonewalled it for more than a year as it tried to investigate the government’s use of powerful Israeli spyware against journalists, lawyers and activists.

read more

WinPot Malware Uses Slot Machine-Like Interface to Empty ATMs

A new family of malware known as WinPot is using a slot machine-like interface to empty ATMs at targeted financial institutions.

Kaspersky Lab first came across WinPot malware back in March 2018. In their resulting analysis, Kaspersky Lab researchers observed that the creators of the malware had designed its interface to look like a slot machine. They did so by creating a “SPIN” button that empties a cash-out cassette contained within an infected ATM unit when clicked.

Intrigued by the threat, Kaspersky Lab decided to keep an eye on its development. They witnessed the emergence of new samples with some minor modifications; for instance, one newer variant adjusted the time period during which the malware worked, while another came with a changed packer.

Researchers found that WinPot isn’t hard to come by for digital attackers. In fact, they discovered that anyone could purchase the threat for around $1,000 on the dark web. That price makes WinPot slightly cheaper than CutletMaker, another ATM malware that Kaspersky Lab found for sale on underground web marketplaces back in October 2017.

The Growing ATM Malware Threat

WinPot comes at a time when ATM malware isn’t just growing in variety. It also arrives amid the growing variety of attacks involving ATM-based threats. In 2017, Trend Micro disclosed that criminals were using network attacks to target ATMs instead of just physically breaking into them. This tactical shift suggests that criminals are willing to invest more time and effort into conducting their ATM attacks.

In January 2018, Krebs on Security reported that “jackpotting” attacks leveraging ATM malware had hit U.S. banks for the first time. This revelation demonstrates how threat actors are expanding the reach of their ATM attacks. That being said, criminals must still obtain physical access to an ATM unit to perform a jackpotting operation successfully.

How Security Professionals Can Defend Against WinPot Malware

Financial companies can help defend against ATM malware by blocking digital attackers from leveraging USB as a pathway to infect an ATM’s personal computer. Security teams should then broaden this control to cover all IT assets, including mobile devices. At the same time, security professionals should use whitelists to specify what types of software can and can’t run on an ATM.

The post WinPot Malware Uses Slot Machine-Like Interface to Empty ATMs appeared first on Security Intelligence.

MWC 2019: The Key to Establishing Digital Trust with Intelligent Connectivity

These days, it’s rare to walk into a home that doesn’t have a smart device in use. From voice assistants, smart TVs, tablets, and more, these devices have greatly enhanced our way of life through intelligent connectivity. Intelligent connectivity is defined by the highly contextualized and personal experiences offered by the smart devices we utilize on a daily basis. However, as manufacturers continue to push out the latest technology to stay ahead of their competitors, device security isn’t always top-of-mind. As a result, the level of confidence consumers have in their devices is reduced. At McAfee, we understand that the notion of digital trust is imperative to the future of security as we adopt technologies shaped by the likes of 5G networks, the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and big data. And as we head into Mobile World Congress 2019 (MWC), one can’t help but wonder, how will these advancements shape the future of mobile connectivity?

Almost every new device is built to connect, and as our 2019 Threats Predictions Report showed us, our dependence on technology is ubiquitous. Take your smartphone, for example. Everywhere you go, this minicomputer allows you to chat with your friends online, send emails, and look up new information with just the press of a button. Only upping the ante, 5G is set to roll out across the nation, bringing greater speed to handheld devices with more data and lower latency. These benefits will set the stage for more IoT devices, such as your smart refrigerator or smart plug, to connect to the network as well. The ability to control the temperature of your refrigerator from your smartphone is a pretty cool capability. But what happens if your smartphone gets hacked and a cybercriminal remotely disables your refrigerator? You may be left with a bigger problem than some spoiled food.

With all of your smart devices on the same 5G network, malicious actors can gain full access to the data that lives in your smart home technology through just your mobile phone. The increase in devices on the 5G network also increases the risk of Distributed Denial-of-service, or DDoS, attacks. These attacks are caused by cybercriminals flooding a network with so much traffic that it can’t operate or communicate as it normally would. And with more IoT devices operating on the 5G network, the consequences of such a cyberattack could be truly crippling. So, how can we continue to trust the devices we use on a daily basis despite the cybersecurity risks caused by greater connectivity?

Digital trust, or the level of confidence consumers have in their technology and mobile devices, is extremely delicate. And as our experiences with our devices become more and more personalized thanks to intelligent connectivity, it’s important to realize that it can’t be intelligent if there is no trust. That’s why consumers should embrace advancements in mobile technology but remember to keep cybersecurity practices at the forefront.

Whether you’re headed out to Barcelona for MWC 2019 or watching from afar, we here at McAfee are committed to helping you take the necessary precautions required in order to connect with confidence in a world where everything is built to connect.

Stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats by following @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

The post MWC 2019: The Key to Establishing Digital Trust with Intelligent Connectivity appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

Clipper Malware Found Masquerading as Legitimate Service on Google Play Store

Security researchers discovered a sample of clipper malware that targeted Android users by lurking in the Google Play store.

ESET first came across Android/Clipper.C masquerading as MetaMask, a service that allows users to access Ethereum-enabled distributed applications, in February 2019. This new threat is capable of stealing users’ credentials and private keys to gain access to their Ethereum funds. But Android/Clipper.C is a bit more sophisticated: It’s also a form of clipper malware in that it can replace a bitcoin or Ethereum wallet address copied from the clipboard with one under the attacker’s control.

ESET researchers discovered the malicious app on the Google Play store shortly after it became available for download on Feb. 1. They reported their findings to Google’s security team, which subsequently removed the app from the app marketplace.

Android/Clipper.C is not the only malware sample that’s impersonated MetaMask. Other programs used the MetaMask disguise to phish for sensitive data and steal access to users’ cryptocurrency funds.

The Growing Problem of Clipper Malware

Android/Clipper.C is just the latest instance of clipper malware to prey on users. In March 2018, ESET learned about one sample of this threat category targeting Monero users by masquerading as a Win32 Disk Imager application on download.com.

A few months later, Bleeping Computer discovered another cryptocurrency clipboard hijacker that was monitoring 2.3 million cryptocurrency addresses at the time of discovery. Dr.Web also uncovered an Android clipper in summer 2018, though this threat was not available for download on the Google Play store at that time.

How to Defend Against Disguised Malware Threats

Security professionals can help defend against threats like Android/Clipper.C by investing in a unified endpoint management (UEM) solution that can alert users when malware is detected and automatically uninstall infected apps. They should also leverage artificial intelligence (AI) to spot malicious behaviors and stop malware like Android/Clipper.C in its tracks.

The post Clipper Malware Found Masquerading as Legitimate Service on Google Play Store appeared first on Security Intelligence.

Roses Are Red, Violets Are Blue – What Does Your Personal Data Say About You?

A classic meet-cute – the moment where two people, destined to be together, meet for the first time. This rom-com cornerstone is turned on its head by Netflix’s latest bingeable series “You.” For those who have watched, we have learned two things. One, never trust someone who is overly protective of their basement. And two, in the era of social media and dating apps, it’s incredibly easy to take advantage of the amount of personal data consumers readily, and somewhat naively, share online and with the cloud every day.

We first meet Joe Goldberg and Guinevere Beck – the show’s lead characters – in a bookstore, she’s looking for a book, he’s a book clerk. They flirt, she buys a book, he learns her name. For all intents and purposes, this is where their story should end – but it doesn’t. With a simple search of her name, Joe discovers the world of Guinevere Beck’s social media channels, all conveniently set to public. And before we know it, Joe has made himself a figurative rear-window into Beck’s life, which brings to light the dangers of social media and highlights how a lack of digital privacy could put users in situations of unnecessary risk. With this information on Beck, Joe soon becomes both a physical and digital stalker, even managing to steal her phone while trailing her one day, which as luck would have it, is not password protected. From there, Joe follows her every text, plan and move thanks to the cloud.

Now, while Joe and Beck’s situation is unique (and a tad dramatized), the amount of data exposed via their interactions could potentially occur through another romantic avenue – online dating. Many millennial couples meet on dating sites where users are invited to share personal anecdotes, answer questions, and post photos of themselves. The nature of these apps is to get to know a stranger better, but the amount of personal information we choose to share can create security risks. We have to be careful as the line between creepy and cute quickly blurs when users can access someone’s every status update, tweet, and geotagged photo.

While “You” is an extreme case of social media gone wrong, dating app, social media, and cloud usage are all very predominant in 2019. Therefore, if you’re a digital user, be sure to consider these precautions:

  • Always set privacy and security settings. Anyone with access to the internet can view your social media if it’s public, so turn your profiles to private in order to have control over who can follow you. Take it a step further and go into your app settings to control which apps you want to share your location with and which ones you don’t.
  • Use a screen name for social media accounts. If you don’t want a simple search of your name on Google to lead to all your social media accounts, consider using a different variation of your real name.
  • Watch what you post. Before tagging your friends or location on Instagram and posting your location on Facebook, think about what this private information reveals about you publicly and how it could be used by a third-party.
  • Use strong passwords. In the chance your data does become exposed, or your device is stolen, a strong, unique password can help prevent your accounts from being hacked.
  • Leverage two-factor authentication. Remember to always implement two-factor authentication to add an extra layer of security to your device. This will help strengthen your online accounts with a unique, one-time code required to log in and access your data.
  • Use the cloud with caution. If you plan to store your data in the cloud, be sure to set up an additional layer of access security (one way of doing this is through two-factor authentication) so that no one can access the wealth of information your cloud holds. If your smartphone is lost or stolen, you can access your password protected cloud account to lock third-parties out of your device, and more importantly your personal data.

Interested in learning more about IoT and mobile security trends and information? Follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, and ‘Like” us on Facebook.

The post Roses Are Red, Violets Are Blue – What Does Your Personal Data Say About You? appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

Employees Are Working From Home — Do You Know Where Your Remote Work Policy Is?

The remote work trend is here to stay — and it’s a growing phenomenon.

Nearly two-thirds (63 percent) of companies have employees who work remotely, yet more than half of those companies (57 percent) do not have a remote work policy, according to a 2018 report from the freelancing website Upwork. What’s more, many of the companies that do have a remote work policy said it hasn’t been updated in the past five years or has become more lenient over that time.

Remote work security is a lot like mobile security, and the work-at-home trend is a lot like the bring-your-own-device (BYOD) trend. You likely have a policy that covers mobile security. You need one that covers remote work.

What Could Go Wrong?

The elevated exposure associated with remote work is undeniable. In fact, it’s not even a controversial point. According to Shred-it, 86 percent of C-level executives believe that the risk of a data breach is higher when employees work remotely. Additionally, CybSafe reported that one-third of U.K. businesses have suffered a data breach because of remote work in the past 12 months.

All of those numbers make sense. Simply working outside the office comes with inherent risks. Remote workers are more likely to connect via insecure WiFi, either at home or while working in public spaces such as coffee shops. A study by OneLogin even found that more than half of remote workers spend up to one day per week connected to unsecured networks.

Sensitive conversations — or talk that could help threat actors do their work — involving remote workers are more likely to take place in writing (via chat or email) than in person, which creates a record that could be accessed by cybercriminals. Work-from-home employees are also more likely to mix professional and personal equipment, software, data and online activity. That means threat actors could more easily breach personal consumer hardware and software as an entry point into company networks. In other words, hacking a remote worker may offer a higher payoff than hacking an in-office employee.

Furthermore, remote, freelance and contract workers are more likely to use their own equipment and perform their own IT tasks than in-office staff. And most remote workers are neither experts in choosing secure hardware nor skilled in the complexities of IT security. They’re also more vulnerable to hardware theft, shoulder surfing and other risks.

Don’t Forget About Compliance

Beyond the obvious security risks, remote work policies dramatically enhance regulatory compliance. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) led the way, California followed, and soon, many U.S. states will have strong regulations around security and privacy. Yet many of the remote work policies currently in place were created before the GDPR even started making headlines.

A good remote work policy covers a broad range of categories, from employment rules to expense reporting to legal obligations. But the data security provisions are probably the most important. And because the security and regulatory landscapes — as well as attitudes and demands around remote work — keep changing, your company’s remote work policy should keep changing too.

Components of a Good Remote Work Policy

Clearly, it’s important to create a good remote work policy if you don’t have one — or update the one you’ve got to reflect current realities and best practices. But what exactly makes a good policy?

First, create a detailed plan for communication and training related to remote workers, and specify this plan in the policy. Clarify that the remote work policy applies to all workers, even if they do work at home one hour a month. Keep in mind the differences (legal and otherwise) between permanent, full-time employees on the one hand and contract, freelance, temporary or contingent workers on the other. Your policy is one tool for the company to help employees boost security in their homes, which is always a good idea.

Next, align the policy with remote work infrastructure and software. Be clear about rules for company-owned equipment. List all user tools (e.g., cloud document platforms, workgroup communication, video conferencing, project management, etc.) so that remote and in-office employees are all on the same page — literally — and using the same approved and security-monitored tools.

You’ll then want to draft a notification process in the event of a security event and include the steps that each employee must take in the event of a breach. Include clear actions to keep operating systems, applications, certificates, and security and networking software up to date. Include all applicable in-office rules, such as the password policy and other security-related rules. It’s also important to make remote work policies compatible with employee contracts — i.e., make sure overlapping or contradicting areas are addressed.

Lastly, make sure you plan to monitor policy adoption and adherence. Learn from security successes and failures and keep the policy flexible. Importantly, update the remote work policy frequently by setting a schedule for reviewing it on a regular basis.

Address Your Remote Security Gap

The bottom line is that the reality of remote work extends the enterprise attack surface to include employees’ homes. It’s vital to address this gaping hole with a clear, up-to-date remote work policy that is consistently monitored and enforced.

The post Employees Are Working From Home — Do You Know Where Your Remote Work Policy Is? appeared first on Security Intelligence.

Facebook’s Plans to Merge Messaging Platforms: What This Means for Online Safety

Integration: it seems to be all the rage. As technology becomes more sophisticated, we sprint to incorporate these new innovations into our everyday lives. But as we celebrate Safer Internet Day, one can’t help but wonder, is all integration good when it comes to information shared online? Major privacy concerns have been raised surrounding Facebook’s recent plans to merge Messenger, WhatsApp, and Instagram. This integration will allow cross-messaging between the three platforms (which will all still operate as standalone apps), so users could talk to their Messenger-only friends without leaving WhatsApp.

While Facebook’s plans to merge the messaging platforms are not yet finalized, the company is in the process of rebuilding the underlying infrastructure so that users who might utilize only one of the apps will be able to communicate with others within the company’s ecosystem. Facebook plans to include end-to-end encryption for the apps, ensuring that only the participants of a conversation can view the messages being sent. By allowing each app to speak to one another across platforms, Facebook hopes users become more engaged and use this as their primary messaging service.

But Facebook’s messaging changes have greater implications for online safety as consumers become more protective of their data. For example, WhatsApp only requires a phone number to sign up for the app while Facebook asks users to verify their identities. Will this force more data to be shared with WhatsApp, or will its encryption become less secure? While nothing has been finalized, it’s important for users to think about how the information they share online could be affected by this merge.

Although the internet has paved the way for advancements in social media and technology in general, users need to make sure they’re aware of the potential risks involved. And while this merge hasn’t happened yet, Safer Internet Day helps remind us to make good choices when it comes to browsing online. Following these tips can help keep you and your data safe and secure:

  • Get selective about what you share. Although social media is a great way to keep your friends and family in the loop on your daily life, be conservative about the information you put on the internet. Additionally, be cautious of what you send through messaging platforms, especially when it comes to your personally identifiable information.
  • Update your privacy settings. To make sure that you’re sharing your status with just your intended audience, check your privacy settings. Choose which apps you wish to share your location with and turn your profiles to private if you don’t want all users to have access to your information.
  • Keep your apps up-to-date. Keeping your social media apps updated can prevent exposure to threats brought on by software bugs. Turn on automatic updates so you always have the latest security patches, and make sure that your security software is set to run regular scans.
  • Click with caution. Cybercriminals can leverage social media messaging to spread phishing links. Don’t interact with users or messages that seem suspicious and keep your guard up by blocking unfamiliar users who try to send you sketchy content.
  • Stay secure while you browse online. Security solutions like McAfee WebAdvisor can help block malware and phishing sites if you accidentally click on a malicious link. This can help protect you from potential threats when you access your social channels from a desktop or laptop.

And, as always, stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats by following @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

The post Facebook’s Plans to Merge Messaging Platforms: What This Means for Online Safety appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

MalBus: Popular South Korean Bus App Series in Google Play Found Dropping Malware After 5 Years of Development

McAfee’s Mobile Research team recently learned of a new malicious Android application masquerading as a plugin for a transportation application series developed by a South Korean developer. The series provides a range of information for each region of South Korea, such as bus stop locations, bus arrival times and so on. There are a total of four apps in the series, with three of them available from Google Play since 2013 and the other from around 2017. Currently, all four apps have been removed from Google Play while the fake plugin itself was never uploaded to the store. While analyzing the fake plugin, we were looking for initial downloaders and additional payloads – we discovered one specific version of each app in the series (uploaded at the same date) which was dropping malware onto the devices on which they were installed, explaining their removal from Google Play after 5 years of development.

Figure 1. Cached Google Play page of Daegu Bus application, one of the apps in series

When the malicious transportation app is installed, it downloads an additional payload from hacked web servers which includes the fake plugin we originally acquired. After the fake plugin is downloaded and installed, it does something completely different – it acts as a plugin of the transportation application and installs a trojan on the device, trying to phish users to input their Google account password and completely take control of the device. What is interesting is that the malware uses the native library to take over the device and also deletes the library to hide from detection. It uses names of popular South Korean services like Naver, KakaoTalk, Daum and SKT. According to our telemetry data, the number of infected devices was quite low, suggesting that the final payload was installed to only a small group of targets.

The Campaign

The following diagram explains the overall flow from malware distribution to device infection.

Figure 2. Device infection process

When the malicious version of the transportation app is installed, it checks whether the fake plugin is already installed and, if not, downloads from the server and installs it. After that, it downloads and executes an additional native trojan binary which is similar to the trojan which is dropped by the fake plugin. After everything is done, it connects with the C2 servers and handles received commands.

Initial Downloader

The following table shows information about the malicious version of each transportation app in the series. As the Google Play number of install stats shows, these apps have been downloaded on many devices.

Unlike the clean version of the app, the malicious version contains a native library named “libAudio3.0.so”.

Figure 3. Transportation app version with malicious native library embedded

In the BaseMainActivity class of the app, it loads the malicious library and calls startUpdate() and updateApplication().

Figure 4. Malicious library being loaded and executed in the app

startUpdate() checks whether the app is correctly installed by checking for the existence of a specific flag file named “background.png” and whether the fake plugin is installed already. If the device is not already infected, the fake plugin is downloaded from a hacked web server and installed after displaying a toast message to the victim. updateApplication() downloads a native binary from the same hacked server and dynamically loads it. The downloaded file (saved as libSound1.1.so) is then deleted after being loaded into memory and, finally, it executes an exported function which acts as a trojan. As previously explained, this file is similar to the file dropped by the fake plugin which is discussed later in this post.

Figure 5 Additional payload download servers

Fake Plugin

The fake plugin is downloaded from a hacked web server with file extension “.mov” to look like a media file. When it is installed and executed, it displays a toast message saying the plugin was successfully installed (in Korean) and calls a native function named playMovie(). The icon for the fake plugin soon disappears from the screen. The native function implemented in LibMovie.so, which is stored inside the asset folder, drops a malicious trojan to the current running app’s directory masquerading as libpng.2.1.so file. The dropped trojan is originally embedded in the LibMovie.so xor’ed, which is decoded at runtime. After giving permissions, the address of the exported function “Libfunc” in the dropped trojan is dynamically retrieved using dlsym(). The dropped binary in the filesystem is deleted to avoid detection and finally Libfunc is executed.

Figure 6 Toast message when malware is installed

In the other forked process, it tries to access the “naver.property” file on an installed SD Card, if there is one, and if it succeeds, it tries starting “.KaKaoTalk” activity which displays a Google phishing page (more on that in the next section) . The overall flow of the dropper is explained in the following diagram:

Figure 7. Execution flow of the dropper

Following is a snippet of a manifest file showing that “.KaKaoTalk” activity is exported.

Figure 8. Android Manifest defining “.KaKaoTalk” activity as exported

Phishing in JavaScript

KakaoTalk class opens a local HTML file, javapage.html, with the user’s email address registered on the infected device automatically set to log into their account.

Figure 9. KakaoTalk class loads malicious local html file

The victim’s email address is set to the local page through a JavaScript function setEmailAddress after the page is finished loading. A fake Korean Google login website is displayed:

Figure 10. The malicious JavaScript shows crafted Google login page with user account

We found the following attempts of exploitation of Google legitimate services by the malware author:

  • Steal victim’s Google account and password
  • Request password recovery for a specific account
  • Set recovery email address when creating new Google account

An interesting element of the phishing attack is that the malware authors tried to set their own email as the recovery address on Google’s legitimate services. For example, when a user clicks on the new Google account creation link in the phishing page, the crafted link is opened with the malware author’s email address as a parameter of RecoveryEmailAddress.

Figure 11. The crafted JavaScript attempts to set recovery email address for new Google account creation.

Fortunately for end users, none of the above malicious attempts are successful. The parameter with the malware author’s email address is simply ignored at the account creation stage.

Trojan

In addition to the Google phishing page, when “Libfunc” function of the trojan (dropped by the fake plugin or downloaded from the server) is executed, the mobile phone is totally compromised. It receives commands from the following hardcoded list of C2 servers. The main functionality of the trojan is implemented in a function called “doMainProc()”. Please note that there are a few variants of the trojanwith different functionality but, overall, they are pretty much the same.

Figure 12. Hardcoded list of C2 servers

The geolocation of hardcoded C2 servers lookslike the following:

Figure 13. Location of C2 Servers

Inside doMainProc(), the trojan receives commands from the C2 server and calls appropriate handlers. Part of the switch block below gives us an idea of what type of commands this trojan supports.

Figure 14. Subset of command handlers implemented in the dropped trojan.

As you can see, it has all the functionality that a normal trojan has. Downloading, uploading and deleting files on the device, leaking information to a remote server and so on. The following table explains supported C2 commands:

Figure 15. C2 Commands

Before entering the command handling loop, the trojan does some initialization, like sending device information files to the server and checking the UID of the device. Only after the UID checking returns a 1 does it enter the loop.

Figure 16 Servers connected before entering command loop

Among these commands, directory indexing in particular is important. The directory structure is saved in a file named “kakao.property” and while indexing the given path in the user device, it checks the file with specific keywords and if it matches, uploads the file to the remote upload server. These keywords are Korean and its translated English version is as per the following table:

Figure 17 Search file keywords

By looking at the keywords we can anticipate that the malware authors were looking for files related to the military, politics and so on. These files are uploaded to a separate server.

Figure 18 Keyword matching file upload server

Conclusion

Applications can easily trick users into installing them before then leaking sensitive information. Also, it is not uncommon to see malware sneaking onto the official Google Play store, making it hard for users to protect their devices. This malware has not been written for ordinary phishing attempts, but rather very targeted attacks, searching the victim’s devices for files related to the military and politics, likely trying to leak confidential information. Users should always install applications that they can fully trust even though they are downloaded from trusted sources.

McAfee Mobile Security detects this threat as Android/MalBus and alerts mobile users if it is present, while protecting them from any data loss. For more information about McAfee Mobile Security, visit https://www.mcafeemobilesecurity.com.

Hashes (SHA-256)

Initial Downloader (APK)
• 19162b063503105fdc1899f8f653b42d1ff4fcfcdf261f04467fad5f563c0270
• bed3e665d2b5fd53aab19b8a62035a5d9b169817adca8dfb158e3baf71140ceb
• 3252fbcee2d1aff76a9f18b858231adb741d4dc07e803f640dcbbab96db240f9
• e71dc11e8609f6fd84b7af78486b05a6f7a2c75ed49a46026e463e9f86877801

Fake Plugin (APK)
• ecb6603a8cd1354c9be236a3c3e7bf498576ee71f7c5d0a810cb77e1138139ec
• b8b5d82eb25815dd3685630af9e9b0938bccecb3a89ce0ad94324b12d25983f0

Trojan (additional payload)
• b9d9b2e39247744723f72f63888deb191eafa3ffa137a903a474eda5c0c335cf
• 12518eaa24d405debd014863112a3c00a652f3416df27c424310520a8f55b2ec
• 91f8c1f11227ee1d71f096fd97501c17a1361d71b81c3e16bcdabad52bfa5d9f
• 20e6391cf3598a517467cfbc5d327a7bb1248313983cba2b56fd01f8e88bb6b9

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Several Popular Beauty Camera Apps Caught Stealing Users’ Photos

Just because an app is available on Google Play Store doesn't mean that it is a legitimate app. Despite so many efforts by Google, some fake and malicious apps do sneak in and land millions of unaware users on the hunting ground of scammers and hackers. Cybersecurity firm Trend Micro uncovered at least 29 devious photo apps that managed to make its way onto Google Play Store and have been

Researchers reveal new privacy attack against 3G, 4G, and 5G mobile users

5G cellular mobile communications, when implemented, are expected to provide high bandwidth, low latency, energy savings, better connectivity, but security and privacy must also be assured. The security challenges are many but, luckily for us all, researchers are already probing the draft standard for weaknesses. Much of the research has focused on the security and privacy of 5G AKA, the Authenticated Key Exchange standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 5G. A new, … More

The post Researchers reveal new privacy attack against 3G, 4G, and 5G mobile users appeared first on Help Net Security.

SecurityWeek RSS Feed: New York Investigating Apple’s Response to FaceTime Spying Bug

New York authorities have announced the launch of an investigation into the recently disclosed FaceTime vulnerability that can be exploited to spy on users. The probe focuses on Apple’s failure to warn customers and the company’s slow response.

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Hey Siri, Get My Coffee, Hold the Malware

With Apple’s introduction of iOS 12 for all their supported mobile devices came a powerful new utility for automation of common tasks called Siri Shortcuts. This new feature can be enabled via third-party developers in their apps, or custom built by users downloading the shortcuts app from the app store. Once downloaded and installed, the Shortcuts app grants the power of scripting to perform complex tasks on users’ personal devices.

But accessing the phone from Siri Shortcuts also presents some potential security risks that were discovered by X-Force IRIS and reported to Apple’s security team. This post gives some insight into potential attack scenarios using Shortcuts and reminds users that keeping a tight lid on app permissions is a critical step to upping security on devices and the way we use them.

Shortcuts Make Life Easier, Right?

Want to turn all your lights to disco, play your favorite soundtrack, and text your friends to come over? Or maybe perform complex mathematical computations with a single voice command? Siri Shortcuts can help do that and facilitate much more in user interaction with their devices, directly from the lock screen or via existing apps they use. These shortcuts can also be shared between users, using the app itself via iCloud, which means they can be passed around rather easily.

Beyond users wishing to automate daily activities, app developers can create shortcuts and present them to their user base from within their apps. The shortcut can then appear on the lock screen or in ‘search’ when it is deemed appropriate to show it to the user based on time, location and context. For example, a user approaches their usual coffee shop, and the relevant app pops up a shortcut on the screen to allow them to order the usual cup of java and pay for it on the app before they even enter the coffee shop.

These shortcuts are a nifty addition to Siri’s functionality, but while allowing extended functionality and personalization of the use of Siri, there are some less favorable scenarios to consider.

Siri Shortcuts Can Also Be Abused by Attackers

Siri Shortcuts can be a useful tool for both users and app developers who wish to enhance the level of interaction users have with their apps. But this access can potentially also be abused by malicious third parties. According to X-Force IRIS research, there are security concerns that should be taken into consideration in using Siri Shortcuts.

Siri Demanding Ransom?

Using Siri for malicious purposes, Shortcuts could be created for scareware, a pseudo ransom campaign to try to scare victims into paying a criminal by making them believe their data is in the hands of a remote attacker.

Using native shortcut functionality, a script could be created to speak the ransom demands to the device’s owner by using Siri’s voice. To lend more credibility to the scheme, attackers can automate data collection from the device and have it send back the user’s current physical address, IP address, contents of the clipboard, stored pictures/videos, contact information and more. This data can be displayed to the user to convince them that an attacker can make use of it unless they pay a ransom.

To move the user to the ransom payment stage, the shortcut could automatically access the Internet, browsing to a URL that contains payment information via cryptocurrency wallets, and demand that the user pay-up or see their data deleted, or exposed on the Internet.

The More the Merrier

To add to this scenario, the malicious shortcut can also be configured to spread to other devices by messaging everyone on the victim’s contact list, prompting them to download and install the same shortcut. This would be a cost effective and hard to detect distribution method, coming from a trusted contact.

In a video we created we show how native functionality can be used to make convincing ransom threats to someone running a malicious Siri Shortcut.

Pay attention to the following steps taking place in the video:

  1. The shortcut is configured to gather personal data from the device:
  • It can collect photos from the camera roll.
  • Grab the contents of the clipboard.
  • Get the physical address of the device’s location.
  • Find the external IP address.
  • Get the device’s model.
  • Get the device’s current mobile carrier
  1. The Siri Shortcut can message the information to an external party; this data can also be sent over SSH to the attacker’s server using native functionality.
  2. The Shortcut can set the brightness and volume of the device to 100%
  3. It can turn the device’s flashlight on and off while vibrating at the same time to get the user’s attention and make them believe their device has been taken over.
  4. The Shortcut can be made to speak a ransom note which can include convincing personal details to make the user believe the attacker. For example, it can indicate the IP address and physical address of the person and demand payment.
  5. The Shortcut can be further programmed to then display the spoken note in a written alert format on the device.
  6. To nudge the user to pay up, the Shortcut can be configured to open a webpage, accessing a URL that contains payment information to a cryptocurrency wallet, or a phishing page demanding payment card/account information[1].
  7. To spread around, and since Siri Shortcuts can be shared among users, the malicious Shortcut could also send a link to everyone in the user’s contact list giving it a “worm like” capability[2] that’s easy to deploy but harder to detect.

Not Only Ransom

In our security research labs, we tested the ransom attack scenario. The shortcut we created was named “Ransom” in the video, but it could easily be named any other name to entice users to run it. Lures, such as game cheats/hacking, unlocking secret functionality in apps, or getting free money, often entice users to tap on a shortcut and see where it leads.

From our researchers’ experience, users may fall prey to social engineering and end up installing and running malicious code or apps on their devices.

Using Siri Shortcuts More Safely

Siri Shortcuts has its merits and some security concerns to be aware of. Yet, it is possible to use this functionality in a safer manner.

  1. Never install a Shortcut from an untrusted source.
  2. Check the permissions that the shortcut is requesting and never give permission to portions of your phone you are not comfortable with. Things like photos, location and camera could be used to obtain sensitive information.

Siri Shortcut on iOS12

  1. Use the show actions button before installing a third-party shortcut to see the underlying actions the shortcut might take. Look for things like messaging data to numbers you don’t recognize, emailing data out, or making SSH server connections to servers.

Checking permissions for Siri Shortcut

Apple Controls Centralized Patch Control

Siri Shortcuts is a native feature of iOS12; however, in order to utilize custom shortcuts, one must download the Shortcuts app from Apple’s app store. This gives Apple the ability to patch/update the functionality of the Shortcuts app without having to update the entire OS version.

Users Should Be Very Selective with App Permissions

It’s also important to note that using the shortcuts is designed for, and therefore requires, a lot of user interaction. First, users must download and install the shortcut from a shared source, and then manually tap it to run. Users must also grant access to photos, contacts or any sensitive data the shortcut wants access too.

A sharp reminder to validate anything you install on your mobile device as Shortcuts allows you to see everything the script is capable of before installing. As tempting as it might be to just scroll past that text and hit accept, users must be more aware of good security practices, which includes reading and understanding anything they authorize to run on their device.

[1] Not shown in this video

[2] Not shown in this video

The post Hey Siri, Get My Coffee, Hold the Malware appeared first on Security Intelligence.

Major Apple Security Bug Lets You Spy on Your Buddies

Earlier today Apple users from all over the world, including US citizens and permanent residents, realized that they could spy on each other by taking advantage of a FaceTime exploit that allows eavesdropping. First reported by 9 to 5 Mac, the bug in Apple’s videotelephony app allowed users without any technical skills to eavesdrop on virtually anyone in the world who uses FaceTime. By simply making a FaceTime video call users were able to listen through the callee’s device, even if the call recipient was not picking up. All users had to do was to create a “group call” by adding themselves to a standard two-way video call. The self-addition was tricking the system into thinking that all participants have picked up the phone. This ended up resulting in eavesdropping on the callee’s device. Here’s a video that shows the exploit in action:

What made the bug even worse was the fact that the caller was able to see a video stream directly from the recipient’s device should the recipient hit the power button to “reject” the video call. In response to the major privacy breach, Apple decided to turn off the group FaceTime feature, until they figure out how to get it fixed.

The FaceTime bug is currently one of the trending stories on all social media platforms. Dozens of users have already uploaded videos replicating the exploit. Some users even reported that they have managed to reproduce the FaceTime bug with an iPhone calling a Mac.

After the bug was discovered Apple issued a statement acknowledging it and stated that they plan to issue a fix later this week. New York City governor Andrew Cuomo called the FaceTime bug an “egregious breach of privacy that puts New Yorkers at risk.” Governor Cuomo added that he is “deeply concerned by this irresponsible bug that can be exploited for unscrupulous purposes.” It is currently unknown for long has the exploit been active.

The bug comes only weeks after Apple started using the following slogan “What happens on your iPhone, stays in on your iPhone.”, a wordplay from the famous Las Vegas slogan “What happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas.” Coincidently, the bug was also discovered on the national Data Privacy Day.  Unaware of the exploit, and hours after the bug was discovered, Apple’s CEO Tim Cook tweeted that people “must keep fighting for the kind of world we want to live in. On this #DataPrivacyDay let us all insist on action and reform for vital privacy protections. The dangers are real, and the consequences are too important.”

What has Apple done to stop the bug?

Apple managed to anger the crowds by stating that they will patch the bug “later this week” but failed to take any immediate action to prevent people from spying on each other. However, hours after they realized the seriousness of the issue, they completely turned off the group FaceTime feature on all Apple devices and issued an update to patch the exploit. The group FaceTime feature is still temporarily unavailable.

What should you do?

First and foremost, you can delete the FaceTime app from your iPhone or Mac and reinstall it after Apple confirms that the issue has been officially fixed. If you do not wish to remove the app, you can disable the app through the settings of your iPhone or Mac.

This is a yet another great example why keeping your OS fully up-to-date is vital. Apple just issued a patch that fixes the exploit so if you are an Apple user, now is a good time to go and update your OS if you haven’t done so already.

Last but not least, install antivirus software on all your connected devices. Having another layer of protection on all your Apple products will prevent hackers from obtaining any missing pieces they may need from you to commit cybercrimes.

The post Major Apple Security Bug Lets You Spy on Your Buddies appeared first on Panda Security Mediacenter.

AWS Provides Secure Access to Internal Assets With Amazon WorkLink

Amazon Web Services (AWS) on Wednesday announced the launch of Amazon WorkLink, a service that enables organizations to provide employees easy and secure access to internal websites and applications from their mobile devices without the need for a VPN or custom browser.

read more

As BYOD Adoption and Mobile Threats Increase, Can Enterprise Data Security Keep Up?

While most security professionals have come to embrace — or, at least, accept — bring-your-own-device (BYOD) policies, leadership still often lacks confidence in the data security of employees’ personal phones, tablets and laptops.

In a recent study from Bitglass, 30 percent of the 400 IT experts surveyed were hesitant to adopt BYOD due to security concerns such as data leakage, shadow IT and unauthorized data access. As the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and other data privacy mandates go into full swing, it’s more important than ever for organizations to monitor and protect enterprise data on mobile devices. However, BYOD may still be the Wild West of network access, especially given the rapid proliferation of new endpoints.

All these moving parts beg the question: Is BYOD security any better today than it was when personal devices first entered the workforce?

The Ten Rules of BYOD

Growing Acceptance of Personal Devices in the Enterprise

It wasn’t long ago that corporate leadership balked at the idea of their employees using personal devices for work. While workers had been using their personal computers and laptops to access company networks, it wasn’t until smartphones and digital tablets were introduced that the concept of BYOD caught on. Security for these devices wasn’t very mature back then, and IT and security decision-makers had well-founded concerns.

Over the past decade, of course, phones have evolved into personal hand-held computers. According to Comscore, only 17 percent of consumers were using smartphones in 2009, compared to 81 percent in 2016. That irreversible trend, along with the rise of the internet of things (IoT) and wearable devices, linked personal technology inextricably with enterprise networks.

Employees believe they are more productive and efficient when using not only their device of choice, but also their preferred software and apps. Apparently, leadership agrees: The same Bitglass study found that 85 percent of companies now allow not only employees, but even contractors, customers and suppliers to access enterprise data from their personal devices. Despite this shift, more than half of those surveyed believe mobile threats have gotten worse.

Mobile Threats Are Rising, but Security Hasn’t Changed Much

Given the ubiquity and relative insecurity of mobile devices in the workplace, it’s no surprise that criminals are targeting them. Threat actors can gain access to both corporate data and personal data from one easy-to-breach device. Basic mobile security protections, such as remote wiping and mobile device management tools, are deployed in just over half of the organizations surveyed by Bitglass. In addition, many security teams lack visibility into apps used on personal devices.

Most threat actors who attack mobile devices are after passwords, according to mobile security expert Karen Scarfone, as quoted by Wired.

“A lot of email passwords still go back and forth in the clear,” she said. “That’s a big problem.”

Passwords remain the keys to the data castle, and they are largely unencrypted and unprotected on mobile devices. This, coupled with the password reuse epidemic, means that threat actors can gain virtually unlimited access to corporate networks through personal devices.

Clearly, there’s plenty of room for improvement when it comes to mobile security. A U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) study mandated by the Cybersecurity Act of 2015 found that while the federal government’s use of mobile technology is improving, “many communication paths remain unprotected and leave the overall ecosystem vulnerable to attacks.”

Similar security holes exist in the private sector. According to SyncDog, mobile devices are the most dangerous point of intrusion to corporate networks. In large enterprises in particular, “mobile devices are looked at as toys with games on them, and protecting them comes last in line to application management, network security, mainframes and other larger IT concerns.”

BYOD Security Starts With Smart Policies

How can chief information security officers (CISOs) and IT leaders ensure that employees use their personal devices in a smart, secure way? First, determine whether the employee needs to use personal devices for work at all. If there are jobs within the organization that don’t require regular access to networks, or if employees are working remotely, these users should not be allowed to participate in a BYOD program because their devices are neither authorized nor consistently monitored.

Second, employees should be required — or, at least, highly encouraged — to update their device software, especially operating systems and any security software. Consider requiring all employees who use personal devices to install the corporate security software and use the company’s security protocols if they are connecting to enterprise networks.

Third, communicate BYOD policies to employees and implement effective measures to enforce them. Policies should include the most basic data security best practices, such as implementing multifactor authentication (MFA), creating strong and unique passwords, using virtual private networks (VPNs) over public WiFi, and locking devices with biometric controls. In addition to protecting enterprise networks, these steps will help secure employees’ personal data on devices. But remember, a policy is useless if you don’t enforce it. People will break the rules if they know there are no consequences to pay.

When it comes to worker productivity, the embrace of BYOD has been a good thing for businesses. But in a world where cyberthreats loom large and data loss could result in huge fines and reputational damage, enterprises need to prioritize the security of their critical assets — and that of the thousands of endpoints that access them.

To learn more, read the IBM white paper, “The Ten Rules of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD).”

Read the white paper

The post As BYOD Adoption and Mobile Threats Increase, Can Enterprise Data Security Keep Up? appeared first on Security Intelligence.

McAfee Blogs: How Safe is Your Child’s School WiFi?

School WiFi. For many of our digital natives, school WiFi may even be a more important part of their daily life than the canteen!! And that is saying something…

You’d be hard pressed to find a child who rocked up to school without a device in their backpack in our digital age. The vast majority of schools have embraced the many positive learning benefits that internet-connected devices offer our kids. The traditional blackboard and textbook lessons that were confined to the four walls of the classroom are gone. Instead our kids can research, discover, collaborate, create and most importantly, learn like never before.

But in order for this new learning to occur, our kids need to be internet connected. And this is where school WiFi comes into play.

Do Parents Need to Be Concerned About School WiFi?

As parents, we have a responsibility to ensure our kids are safe and not at risk – and that includes when they are using the WiFi at school. Ideally, your child’s school should have a secure WiFi network but unfortunately, that doesn’t mean that they do. School budgets are tight and top-notch secure WiFi networks are expensive, so in some cases, security maybe jeopardised.

The other factor we shouldn’t ignore is that our batch of digital natives are very tech literate. The possibility that one of them may choose to cause some mayhem to their school WiFi network should also not be ignored!!

At the end of the day, the security of a WiFi network is all about whether it has tight access controls. If it allows only approved devices and people to connect via a secure login then it is more secure than public WiFi. However, if it is open to anyone or easy for anyone to connect to it, then you need to treat it like public WiFi.

What Are the Risks?

An unsecured school WiFi network is as risky as public WiFi which, according to the Harvard Business Review, is as risky as rolling a dice,

Students and staff who use an unsecured WiFi network are at risk of receiving phishing emails, being the victim of a ransomware attack or even having their data or personal details stolen. There is also a risk that the entire school’s operations could be disrupted and possibly even closed down through a DDOS – a Denial of Service Attack.

What Can Parents Do to Ensure Their Kids Are Safe Using School WiFi?

There are several steps parents can take to minimise the risks when their offspring use school WiFi.

  1. Talk To Your School

The first thing to do is speak to your child’s school to understand exactly how secure their network is. I’d recommend asking who has access to the network, what security practices they have in place and how they manage your child’s private data.

  1. Install Security Software

Operating a device without security software is no different to leaving your front door unlocked. Installing security software on all devices, including smartphones, will provide protection against viruses, online threats, risky websites and dangerous downloads. Check out McAfee’s Total Protection security software for total peace of mind!

  1. Keep Device Software Up To Date

Software updates are commonly designed to address security issues. So ensuring ALL your devices are up to date is a relatively easy way of minimising the risk of being hacked.

  1. Schedule Regular Data Back Up

If you are the victim of a ransomware attack and your data is backed up then you won’t even have to consider paying the hefty fee to retrieve your (or your child’s) data. Backing up data regularly should be not negotiable however life can often get in the way. Why not schedule automatic backups? I personally love online backup options such as Dropbox and Google Drive however you may choose to invest in a hard drive.

  1. Public Wi-Fi Rules?

If after talking to your school, you aren’t convinced that your child’s school WiFi network is secure, then I recommend that your kids should treat it as if it was public WiFi. This means that they should NEVER conduct any financial transactions using it and never share any personal details. But the absolute best way of ensuring your child is safe using an unsecured WiFi network, is to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). A VPN like McAfee’s Safe Connect creates an encrypted tunnel so anything that is shared over WiFi is completely safe.

As a mum of 4, I am very keen to ensure my kids are engaged with their learning. And in our digital times, this means devices and WiFi. So, let’s support our kids and their teachers in their quest for interactive, digital learning but please don’t forget to check in and ensure your kids are as safe as possible while using WiFi at school.

Take Care

Alex xx

The post How Safe is Your Child’s School WiFi? appeared first on McAfee Blogs.



McAfee Blogs

How Safe is Your Child’s School WiFi?

School WiFi. For many of our digital natives, school WiFi may even be a more important part of their daily life than the canteen!! And that is saying something…

You’d be hard pressed to find a child who rocked up to school without a device in their backpack in our digital age. The vast majority of schools have embraced the many positive learning benefits that internet-connected devices offer our kids. The traditional blackboard and textbook lessons that were confined to the four walls of the classroom are gone. Instead our kids can research, discover, collaborate, create and most importantly, learn like never before.

But in order for this new learning to occur, our kids need to be internet connected. And this is where school WiFi comes into play.

Do Parents Need to Be Concerned About School WiFi?

As parents, we have a responsibility to ensure our kids are safe and not at risk – and that includes when they are using the WiFi at school. Ideally, your child’s school should have a secure WiFi network but unfortunately, that doesn’t mean that they do. School budgets are tight and top-notch secure WiFi networks are expensive, so in some cases, security maybe jeopardised.

The other factor we shouldn’t ignore is that our batch of digital natives are very tech literate. The possibility that one of them may choose to cause some mayhem to their school WiFi network should also not be ignored!!

At the end of the day, the security of a WiFi network is all about whether it has tight access controls. If it allows only approved devices and people to connect via a secure login then it is more secure than public WiFi. However, if it is open to anyone or easy for anyone to connect to it, then you need to treat it like public WiFi.

What Are the Risks?

An unsecured school WiFi network is as risky as public WiFi which, according to the Harvard Business Review, is as risky as rolling a dice,

Students and staff who use an unsecured WiFi network are at risk of receiving phishing emails, being the victim of a ransomware attack or even having their data or personal details stolen. There is also a risk that the entire school’s operations could be disrupted and possibly even closed down through a DDOS – a Denial of Service Attack.

What Can Parents Do to Ensure Their Kids Are Safe Using School WiFi?

There are several steps parents can take to minimise the risks when their offspring use school WiFi.

  1. Talk To Your School

The first thing to do is speak to your child’s school to understand exactly how secure their network is. I’d recommend asking who has access to the network, what security practices they have in place and how they manage your child’s private data.

  1. Install Security Software

Operating a device without security software is no different to leaving your front door unlocked. Installing security software on all devices, including smartphones, will provide protection against viruses, online threats, risky websites and dangerous downloads. Check out McAfee’s Total Protection security software for total peace of mind!

  1. Keep Device Software Up To Date

Software updates are commonly designed to address security issues. So ensuring ALL your devices are up to date is a relatively easy way of minimising the risk of being hacked.

  1. Schedule Regular Data Back Up

If you are the victim of a ransomware attack and your data is backed up then you won’t even have to consider paying the hefty fee to retrieve your (or your child’s) data. Backing up data regularly should be not negotiable however life can often get in the way. Why not schedule automatic backups? I personally love online backup options such as Dropbox and Google Drive however you may choose to invest in a hard drive.

  1. Public Wi-Fi Rules?

If after talking to your school, you aren’t convinced that your child’s school WiFi network is secure, then I recommend that your kids should treat it as if it was public WiFi. This means that they should NEVER conduct any financial transactions using it and never share any personal details. But the absolute best way of ensuring your child is safe using an unsecured WiFi network, is to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). A VPN like McAfee’s Safe Connect creates an encrypted tunnel so anything that is shared over WiFi is completely safe.

As a mum of 4, I am very keen to ensure my kids are engaged with their learning. And in our digital times, this means devices and WiFi. So, let’s support our kids and their teachers in their quest for interactive, digital learning but please don’t forget to check in and ensure your kids are as safe as possible while using WiFi at school.

Take Care

Alex xx

The post How Safe is Your Child’s School WiFi? appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

The App Approval Workflow Keeps Enterprise Security in Check Without Disrupting Productivity

Mobile applications have become a part of our everyday lives. We use them to get where we’re going, stay in constant communication with others and get the information we need to be productive. Apps are no longer a novelty for today’s workforce; they’re a necessity. And with that necessity comes risk. Just like any enterprise technology, it’s crucial to take security measures to prevent data loss, threats and breaches.

But in the context of the enterprise, where apps are used to drive business outcomes, increase efficiency and improve worker productivity, how do they impact enterprise security? What can IT and security leaders do to ensure that the apps being pushed out to hundreds or even thousands of corporate devices meet security standards?

Security should always be a top priority in the enterprise, especially in today’s malware landscape. Chief information officers (CIOs) and chief information security officers (CISOs) are already taking proactive approaches to stay safe from attackers and combat exposures. With the help of a unified endpoint management (UEM) solution, mobile app security only takes a few steps, and it’s easier than you think.

Do Your Due Diligence Before App Deployment

Security teams must implement processes to prepare applications for enterprise use. To guarantee that apps follow the proper security protocols, IT must ask the following questions:

  • Were the apps developed with security in mind?
    With the abundance of available apps on the market, IT leaders should ensure the apps they need have been developed with no security flaws that could pose a risk to their critical enterprise security and data.
  • Have the apps been properly vetted? What steps and tools have been implemented to ensure the apps IT pushes to end users are, in fact, safe? This examination process helps IT leaders confirm apps are secure and can be approved for deployment.
  • Are existing tools and technologies being used to scan for malicious code and irregularities? Out of all the available tools for IT teams, it’s best to find and use a solution that offers a built-in approach, rather than trying to make multiple tools communicate in a productive manner.

These questions are important to the enterprise at large because they will help guarantee the overall security of mobile applications before they’re distributed to end users.

Register for the Feb. 7 webinar to learn more

A New Framework for App Review and Approval

To get the most out of your apps while ensuring their predeployment security, your IT teams must follow the app approval workflow. It’s now easier to deploy enterprise apps so that every stakeholder — including security officers, IT administrators and development teams — has an opportunity to engage at the right stage of the process and weigh in to verify that the apps are secure and ready for deployment.

The approval workflow follows a logical sequence to make sure every precaution and test is completed to get the app approved for distribution. Third-party vendors have security and malware checks in place to review private enterprise apps. Working in conjunction with a UEM solution, it is now easier to upload, check and deploy enterprise apps to your fleet of devices.

Once the workflow is completed, IT and security leaders can rest assured that they’ve taken all the necessary steps to secure their apps before users even download them.

Follow These Steps for Total Enterprise Security

The app approval framework is now available to all IBM MaaS360 with Watson administrators to help them securely deploy their enterprise apps while using existing technology.

An example of the app approval workflow follows as such:

  1. App upload: The UEM admin uploads the enterprise app to the portal, but does not yet deploy it. Instead, the admin goes to the app approval menu.
  2. Vendor integration: UEM integration must be completed on the security vendor’s site before any approval workflow can begin.
  3. App review: The admin chooses a security vendor for the application approval and submits the app for review.
  4. Results: An email containing the results of the scan is sent to an app approver, such as a security officer who is a UEM admin, for review. The app approver provides a quality check of the results and shares them with internal stakeholders. If the app doesn’t pass enterprise security criteria, it must be patched or coded and resubmitted for review.
  5. App deployment: Once the app is fully approved, it can be deployed to the entire fleet of devices within the UEM portal.

App Approval Workflow Diagram

By having an all-encompassing solution that focuses on desktop, mobile and web apps, IT and security leaders can save time and resources and get their apps reviewed, approved and deployed in no time. This process can also prevent the headache of a potential security breach, which can be a costly endeavor to fix.

Register for the Feb. 7 webinar to learn more

The post The App Approval Workflow Keeps Enterprise Security in Check Without Disrupting Productivity appeared first on Security Intelligence.

5G Is Coming: Security Risks You Need to Know About

The future of connectivity is here ­– 5G. This new network is set to roll out across the nation this coming year and bring greater speed to our handheld devices, which means more data and lower latency. But perhaps one of the most anticipated and popular benefits is it will allow even more IoT devices to come online and encourage more connection between said devices. This would enable users to remotely connect to or monitor their IoT devices like kitchen or security gadgets. The promise of more connectivity, smoother IoT user experience, and even more devices online, means there are likely more opportunities and avenues for cyberattacks. 5G will no doubt shape the foreseeable future, let’s see how.

Today, interconnected devices operate on low-powered, low-data-rate networks, such as Cat-M and NB-IoT. With the introduction of 5G networks across the world, the capabilities of VR and AR, AI and ML, and automation and robotics will enhance immensely. Take self-driving cars, for example. These machines require close proximity to their computing to reduce the latency of decision making. The capabilities of 5G don’t end there either. From manufacturing, transportation and logistics, to public safety and the establishment of smart cities, industries are at the ready to take their business to the next level with 5G. With this newfound growing anticipation for the future of 5G, the question has to be asked, what are the security implications for smaller IoT devices?

From an innovation standpoint, 5G is a beacon of light, but from a cybersecurity standpoint, 5G is a “hotbed for a new era of intensified cyberwar.” Denial-of-service attacks, or DDoS, are particular causes of concern for cybersecurity researchers. Devices like refrigerators, thermometers, even light bulbs, will be able to come online because of 5G. Users will be able to remotely check on these appliances through a simple app, but these devices can also be usurped by malicious characters. This increased connectivity and power could see big name sites down for days, or even affect city utility capabilities. Government agencies and private entities are not immune either, but they do have plans in place in the event a DDoS attack occurs.

While consumers can only wait and see what happens with the rollout, industries across the board will want to harness the benefits of 5G. However, consumers and organizations alike need to be cautious in terms of how 5G could be used to help, or hinder, us in the future. Rest assured, even if malicious actors utilize this technology, McAfee’s security strategy will continue to keep pace with the ever-changing threat landscape.

Interested in learning more about IoT and mobile security trends and information? Follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, and ‘Like” us on Facebook.

The post 5G Is Coming: Security Risks You Need to Know About appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

What Does Healthcare Cybersecurity Look Like in a Future of Connected Medical Devices?

As technology continues to transform the way healthcare is delivered, the industry is burdened by the growing cybersecurity risks inherent in the expansion of connected devices. Understanding that each connected device opens another pathway for threat actors, it’s incumbent upon device manufacturers to keep security foremost throughout the development life cycle.

The question is, how can manufacturers ensure the security of the devices they create? Furthermore, what can healthcare companies do to mitigate the risks inherent in the future of healthcare cybersecurity?

Taking the Pulse of Health Care Cybersecurity Today

Because they are so often the target of cyberattacks, healthcare organizations took a beating once again in 2018. We saw some significant data breaches last year, such as the attack on Med Associates where more than 270,000 patient records were breached.

New research from Clearwater found that the three most common vulnerabilities in healthcare cybersecurity are user authentication deficiencies, endpoint leakage and excessive user permissions — which, combined, account for nearly 37 percent of all critical risk scenarios. Credential misuse continues to threaten enterprise security across all sectors, including healthcare.

“When malicious actors gain access to accounts — whether by weak passwords or phishing attacks — they are given the literal keys to the kingdom,” said Justin Jett, director of audit and compliance for Plixer.

When it comes to medical devices, however, cybersecurity is making progress. According to Leon Lerman, CEO of Cynerio, “We are currently in the increased awareness state where healthcare providers, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and device manufacturers are starting to be more active in the space.”

Moving Toward a More Secure Future

The good news is that healthcare providers at hospitals are starting to include cybersecurity requirements in their procurement process. In fact, some are no longer depending on the medical device manufacturers and instead actively looking for dedicated device security solutions.

According to Lerman, the FDA and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently launched a joint initiative to “increase coordination in dealing with threats related to medical devices.” In addition, HHS released cybersecurity best practices to help healthcare organizations manage threats and protect patients from internet of things (IoT)-based attacks and other threats.

Manufacturers have not progressed alongside hospitals, though there are more conversations about strengthening the security of their devices, taking part in cybersecurity testing and streamlining the patching process. In reality, though, it’s only been within the last decade that these conversations have been taking place, and according to Anura Fernando, chief innovation architect at UL, medical devices can take at least that long to develop and get into the market.

“If you couple that with the fact that many devices are used by hospitals for 20–25 years, you can see that there is a major legacy systems issue, with many devices lacking security controls at the device level. Based on that timing offset, it could easily be five to 10 years before we see the complete turnover of equipment in use by hospitals that didn’t even have cybersecurity considered during design,” Fernando explained.

The Challenges of Securing Connected Devices

Legacy systems present myriad cybersecurity challenges, but there are other obstacles to securing medical devices. One that is closely related to legacy equipment is that of component obsolescence.

“When you consider the lengthy development timelines associated with most devices, it can easily be the case that security-related components such as operating systems and microcontrollers cease to be supported by the component vendor soon after a medical device reaches the market,” Fernando said.

As a result, maintenance activities such as security patches are no longer feasible for hospitals. Let’s say that security patches are released by the vendors, however. The time and cost it takes to validate these updates to devices is onerous.

“Even once this validation process is complete, it can be a daunting task to manage the deployment of a patch into the highly dynamic operational life cycle phase of a device, which may be in process of performing critical functions like life support,” said Fernando.

How Health Care Organizations Can Mitigate Security Risks

You can’t protect what you can’t see, so proper visibility into connected devices and their ecosystem is critical. Once you have visibility, understand the risk that each of these devices poses and take necessary proactive measures to minimize this risk, such as network segmentation, patching and removing devices from networks.

By monitoring device behavior and understanding what devices do in the context of medical workflows, you can detect anomalies when devices behave suspiciously. And, of course, early detection enables quicker response.

Strengthening password requirements can help you reduce risk, but when malicious actors gain a foothold, organizations need network traffic analytics to understand where the attack started and determine whether it has spread.

“By looking at how credentials are used throughout the network and creating a baseline of normal usage, network and security teams can be alerted to anomalous credential use and stop attacks as they happen,” Jett said.

Furthermore, all of the different stakeholders in the healthcare value chain need to be invested in securing the future of connected healthcare. Since this is a widespread effort across the healthcare environment, industry leaders should develop guidelines and standards to evaluate whether products and devices meet cybersecurity standards.

The post What Does Healthcare Cybersecurity Look Like in a Future of Connected Medical Devices? appeared first on Security Intelligence.

Where Can IT Get Expert Guidance for Managing Android in the Enterprise?

Over the past decade, Android has taken the enterprise by storm. In each new operating system (OS) version update, its capabilities continue to become more business-friendly as the strength and depth of its mobile security functionality improves. With these changes considered, it’s clear Google is committed to delivering an OS that transcends the consumer world into the enterprise. For this reason, it’s no surprise that one of the world’s most popular platforms appears on IT’s shortlist for new device investments and bring-your-own-device (BYOD) programs.

Despite its extensive improvements over time, one of the biggest questions that remains for IT decision-makers is, “How can I be certain I am managing and securing Android with the best tools and technical resources available to me?”

Register for the webinar

The Android Enterprise Recommended Program

With its introduction of the Android Enterprise Recommended program earlier this year, Google has improved this decision-making process for IT leaders, making it possible to zero in on the vendors that meet specifications across a broad range of stringent criteria. The limited number of vendors that achieve this validation have not only taken appropriate steps to support the full gamut of Android’s specifications — they have also gone the extra mile to partake in Google-led trainings that enable them to deliver an exceptional experience for partners and customers.

Android Enterprise Recommended

Up until this point, the Android Enterprise Recommended program has been available to help IT teams select smartphones, tablets and ruggedized devices that are well-suited for the enterprise setting. However, customers and partners have had to conduct independent research and assessments to determine which enterprise mobility management (EMM) solutions should be used to manage Android devices in the enterprise.

These evaluations cannot be taken lightly; enterprise use cases for Android have grown in number, and organizations need to ensure that their EMM of choice has what it takes to support them. Furthermore, security threats have evolved and become more complex, and endpoints and their users remain their biggest targets. The less careful organizations are about who they partner with in supporting their environment, the consequences become more severe.

These reasons considered, at minimum EMMs should be able to prove their ongoing commitment to delivering same-day support for the latest OS updates. As Android continues to roll out new functionality for Android in the enterprise — most recently zero-touch enrollment, managed Google Play, Verify Apps and SafetyNet APIs — the onus is also on EMMs to keep up.

A Program Expansion for Enterprise Mobility Management Vendors

To stay ahead of the evolving threat landscape and more effectively manage Android devices, IT decision-makers need to fast-track the EMM selection process. That’s why Google expanded its Android Recommended Program to help security leaders gain confidence in their EMM selection, streamline deployment and deliver up-to-date support for the latest updates.

IBM MaaS360 with Watson is a validated solution in the Android Enterprise Recommended program for EMMs, placing it among the select few EMMs that meet these new comprehensive program requirements.

Recognizing the value of the overall Android Enterprise Recommended program, MaaS360 delivers support for all Android Enterprise Recommended OEM devices, including both categories of knowledge worker and rugged use cases.

To learn more, register for our Jan. 31 webinar, “IBM Joins Google in Announcing Android Enterprise Recommended Program for EMMs” or watch it on-demand thereafter.

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Google and Android are trademarks of Google LLC.

The post Where Can IT Get Expert Guidance for Managing Android in the Enterprise? appeared first on Security Intelligence.

Android devices 50 times more infected with malware compared to iOS.

Android-powered connected devices are fifty times more likely to be infected with malware when compared to iOS.

Android devices are nearly fifty times more likely to be infected by malware than Apple devices, revealed Nokia’s latest threat intelligence report. According to the whitepaper, Android devices were responsible for 47.15% of the observed malware infections, Windows/ PCs for 35.82%, IoT for 16.17% and iPhones for less than 1%. We’ve compiled a list top three reasons that explain why almost half of all malware-infected devices are running the Google-created platform.

Market share

Cyber-criminals are aiming at the largest crowd. Currently, there are more than two billion devices operating the Google-created platform making it the most popular end-user OS in the world. Google claims Android managed to surpass the number of Windows-powered devices back in 2017. The continuously growing amounts of cell phones and tablets is the primary driver for the recent change. The more active devices are out there, the bigger the chances for human error are.

Android’s open source

The fact that Android is open source makes it a fantastic OS option for many vendors. However, granting companies with the ability to modify the Google-owned OS increase the chances for human error. Small tweaks in the OS can end up being potential security holes. And the fact that currently half of the world’s malware-infected devices are running Android means that betting that no one will ever find out about possible security issues is not a good idea. One way or another, someone finds out about the loophole and exploits it until a patch is released.

Updates

Apple is strict on getting its users to keep their OS up-to-date. Many are unhappy that Apple always finds a way to make them update and generally want to control everything that appears on the platform. However, it is a fact that if Android users were more diligent in updating their OS, Android-enabled devices would’ve not been topping the list of most malware-infected products in the world. Making sure that your OS is up-to-date is the first step towards securing your device.

Android Oreo, the eight major update by the Google-created OS, is undoubtedly a step forward towards better protection. Google is doing its best to decrease the number of possible vulnerabilities by making it not as open as its predecessors. However, vulnerabilities are still appearing, and hackers are not thinking of giving up. Even though Apple seems to be well ahead, the fact is that no matter what OS devices you operate, you will end up getting infected if you do not use them with caution and proper protection. End-users who wish to be fully protected must have quality anti-virus software installed on all their connected devices.

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Phone-Based Phishing Scam Reveals the Growing Sophistication of Attacks Against Apple Users

A new phone-based phishing scam reveals how fraudsters are devising more sophisticated schemes to prey on Apple device users.

According to KrebsOnSecurity, the phishing scam began for Global Cyber Risk LLC CEO Jody Westby when she received an automated call that displayed Apple’s logo, physical address, company domain and customer support phone number. The call warned Westby that unknown attackers had compromised multiple servers containing users’ Apple IDs. It then urged her to ring a 1-866 number immediately.

Suspicious of the call, Westby contacted Apple’s support number directly and requested a callback from a support representative. The agent who called back reassured Westby that Apple had not placed the original call. But when she looked at her phone, Westby observed that her iPhone had lumped together both the scam call and the official callback under Apple’s contact profile on her device. Not surprisingly, this failure of Apple’s own devices to spot a spoof call could potentially fool many users.

The Prevalence of Phishing Attacks Targeting Apple Users

This phony call scam stands out for its extensive use of Apple branding. But by no means is it the only phone-related phishing scam targeting Apple users in recent history. For example, in July 2018, Ars Technica identified an India-based tech support scam using a fake Apple website that popped up a system dialog box with a prompt to call the fraudsters.

These phishing instances come after enterprise mobile security and data management provider Wandera found in 2017 that nearly two-thirds of mobile phishing attacks occur on iOS devices. This rate means that Apple users are twice as likely to experience phishing on their devices than Android users.

Help Your Employees Defend Against Phishing Scams

Security professionals can help employees defend against phishing scams by creating a security awareness training program that uses clear, concise policies based around business requirements. Organizations should also take a layered approach to email security — requiring a mix of both technology and education — to better defend against email-borne phishing campaigns.

The post Phone-Based Phishing Scam Reveals the Growing Sophistication of Attacks Against Apple Users appeared first on Security Intelligence.

Pre-Installed Malware Targets Critical System Apps on Mobile Devices

Several new types of pre-installed malware are targeting critical system apps on mobile devices, making them difficult to remove.

Researchers at Malwarebytes came across two instances of pre-installed malware targeting applications in /system/priv-app/, where critical apps such as settings and system UI reside. The first infection occurred on a THL T9 Pro device. The malware repeatedly installed variants of Android/Trojan.HiddenAds, which is known for displaying lock screen advertisements that take up the device’s entire screen. In this particular case, the infection wrapped itself up in the critical system Android app System UI.

The second infection occurred on a UTOK Q55. In that case, the threat came hardcoded in the device’s Settings app. It fit the “monitor” category of potentially unwanted programs (PUP), which are capable of collecting and reporting users’ information.

The Pre-Installed Malware Problem Persists

These two instances of pre-installed malware aren’t the first detected by Malwarebytes. In March 2017, researchers at the security software provider observed mobile devices manufactured by BLU being shipped out with Android/Adware.YeMobi. Then in December of that year, the researchers found an auto-installer known as FWUpgradeProvider pre-installed on devices bought from legitimate phone carriers in the U.K. and elsewhere.

Other security firms have detected pre-installed malware more recently. For instance, Check Point discovered RottenSys disguised as a system Wi-Fi service; the threat targeted nearly 5 million users for fraudulent ad revenues as of March 2018. A few months later, Avast Threat Labs found adware known as Cosiloon pre-installed on hundreds of Android device models.

How to Protect Mobile Devices From Pre-Installed Malware

Security professionals can protect mobile devices from pre-installed malware and other threats by using a unified endpoint management (UEM) solution to monitor how these devices report to the corporate IT environment. They should also use behavioral analysis to help defend mobile devices against zero-day threats.

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Kicking off CES 2019 with New Security Solutions and Collaborations

Today, we at McAfee are announcing some exciting new security solutions and integrations at CES in Las Vegas. For those of you who are unfamiliar with CES, it is the global stage for innovators to showcase the next generation of consumer technologies. McAfee now delivers protection to more than 500 million customers worldwide, and we understand the importance of creating new solutions for those who want to live their connected lives with confidence. To help empower our customers to do this, we’ve added to our security lineup and are working with other tech innovators who understand the importance of protecting users’ online safety.

One addition to our lineup of security solutions is McAfee Gamer Security. In a recent gaming survey, we discovered that 75% of gamers are worried about the security of gaming as online threats continue to rise. To help combat these threats, we developed McAfee Gamer Security, which protects gamers while optimizing their gaming experience. Some of the product’s key features include Game Mode, a gamer-centric interface, and minimal security resource consumption. These features help optimize gamers’ computing resources, provide system status updates, and equip users with lightweight security protection.

In addition to our latest product advancements, we’ve also teamed up with other companies looking to better the cybersecurity landscape for consumers. The first is Google. In order to further simplify the process of securing today’s connected home, McAfee will provide McAfee Secure Home Platform voice commands for the Google Assistant. McAfee Secure Home Platform provides an extra layer of security to help automatically protect all of the connected devices on the user’s home network. Soon, Google Assistant users can easily manage their connected home security by just using their voice.

While it’s important to secure the connected home, it is also important to protect your mobile and IoT devices as well. According to McAfee Labs 2019 predictions, cybercriminals will leverage trusted devices like smartphones and tablets to try and access users’ IoT devices in the upcoming year. To help customers stay safeguarded from this threat, we’ve teamed up with Verizon to protect their home networks through Verizon Home Network Protection. This McAfee-powered solution helps Verizon Fios customers stay secured against malicious websites, provide parental controls, and protect all devices connected to their home network.

Furthermore, we at McAfee and Dell have teamed up to protect consumers and small businesses as they enjoy the benefits of today’s technology. To do this, we’ve expanded our collaboration to provide pre-installed McAfee software on PCs and laptops globally to both consumer and small business customers. Customers who purchase a new laptop or PC will also have the option to extend McAfee protection beyond their Dell device to their smartphones and tablets. This allows users to have a more robust security shield around all of their connected devices, creating a safer overall online experience. Dell consumer and small business customers who purchase Dell Inspiron, XPS, Vostro, and G-Series laptops will receive a 30-day or 1-year subscription. Customers who purchase Alienware, OptiPlex, Latitude, and Precision will have the option of adding a 30-day free subscription or purchasing a 1-year subscription.

Another one of our latest innovations is the addition of Cryptojacking Blocker to McAfee WebAdvisor. As we observed in our latest McAfee Labs report, coin mining malware is on the rise, growing more than  4000% in the last year. Cryptojacking Blocker helps protect users from having their devices hijacked without their knowledge or permission. The tool helps prevents websites from mining for cryptocurrency and is included in all McAfee suites that include McAfee WebAdvisor. Users can update their existing WebAdvisor software to get Cryptojacking Blocker or download WebAdvisor for free.

So far, CES 2019 has proven that innovation will continue to evolve, just as the cybersecurity landscape will continue to mature. By working together to improve the technology that protects connected devices, we can help users optimize their digital life without compromising their online safety.

To stay on top of McAfee’s CES news and the latest consumer and mobile security threats, be sure to follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

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How To Tell If Your Smartphone Has Been Hacked

Your home screen is just a matrix of numbers. Your device loses its charge quickly, or restarts suddenly. Or, you notice outgoing calls that you never dialed. Chances are your smartphone has been hacked. The sad truth is that hackers now have a multitude of ways to get into your phone, without ever touching it.

Given that our smartphones have become our new wallets, containing a treasure trove of personal and financial information, a breach can leave you at serious risk.

The intruder could log in to your accounts as you, spam your contacts with phishing attacks, or rack up expensive long-distance charges. They could also access any passwords saved on your phone, potentially opening the door to sensitive financial accounts. That’s why it’s important to be able to recognize when your smartphone has been hacked, especially since some of the signs can be subtle.

Here are some helpful clues:

Performance Differences

Is your device operating slower, are web pages and apps harder to load, or does your battery never seem to keep a charge? What about your data plan? Are you exceeding your normal limits? These are all signs that you have malware running in the background, zapping your phone’s resources.

You may have downloaded a bad app, or clicked on a dangerous link in a text message. And malware, like Bitcoin miners, can strain computing power, sometimes causing the phone to heat up, even when you aren’t using it.

Mystery Apps or Data

If you find apps you haven’t downloaded, or calls, texts, and emails that you didn’t send, a hacker is probably in your system. They may be using your device to send premium rate calls or messages, or to spread malware to your contacts.

Pop-ups or Strange Screen Savers

Malware can also be behind spammy pop-ups, changes to your home screen, or bookmarks to suspicious websites. In fact, if you see any configuration changes you didn’t personally make, this is another big clue that your smartphone has been hacked.

What To Do

If any of these scenarios sound familiar, it’s time to take action. Start by deleting any apps or games you didn’t download, erasing risky messages, and running mobile security software, if you have it. Warn your contacts that your phone has been compromised, and to ignore any suspicious links or messages coming from you.

If the problem still doesn’t go away, consider restoring your phone to its original settings. Search online for instructions for your particular phone and operating system to learn how.

Now, let’s look at how to avoid getting hacked in the first place.

Secure Smartphone Tips

1. Use mobile security software—These days your smartphone is just as data rich as your computer. Make sure to protect your critical information, and your privacy, by using comprehensive mobile security software that not only protects you from online threats, but offers anti-theft and privacy protection.

2. Lock your device & don’t store passwords—Make sure that you are using a passcode or facial ID to lock your device when you’re not using it. This way, if you lose your phone it will be more difficult for a stranger to access your information.

Also, remember not to save password or login information for banking apps and other sensitive accounts. You don’t want a hacker to be able to automatically login as you if they do gain access to your device.

3. Avoid using public Wi-Fi—Free Wi-Fi networks, like those offered in hotels and airports, are often unsecured. This makes it easy for a hacker to potentially see the information you are sending over the network. Also, be wary of using public charging stations, unless you choose a “charging only” cable that cannot access your data.

 4. Never leave your device unattended in public—While many threats exist online, you still have to be aware of real-world threats, like someone grabbing your device when you’re not looking. Keep your smartphone on you, or within view, while in public.

If you have a “phone visibility” option, turn it off. This setting allows nearby devices to see your phone and exchange data with it.

5. Stay aware—New mobile threats are emerging all the time. Keep up on the latest scams and warning signs, so you know what to look out for.

Looking for more mobile security tips and trends? Be sure to follow @McAfee Home on Twitter, and like us on Facebook.

The post How To Tell If Your Smartphone Has Been Hacked appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

What To Do When Your Social Media Account Gets Hacked

You log in to your favorite social media site and notice a string of posts or messages definitely not posted by you. Or, you get a message that your account password has been changed, without your knowledge. It hits you that your account has been hacked. What do you do?

This is a timely question considering that social media breaches have been on the rise. A recent survey revealed that 22%of internet users said that their online accounts have been hacked at least once, while 14% reported they were hacked more than once. And, earlier this year Facebook itself got hacked, exposing the identity information of 50 million users.

Your first move—and a crucial one—is to change your password right away, and notify your connections that your account has been hacked. This way your friends know not to click on any suspicious posts or messages that appear to be coming from you because they might contain malware or phishing attempts. But that’s not all. There may be other, hidden threats to having your social media account hacked.

The risks associated with a hacker poking around your social media have a lot to do with how much personal information you share. Does your account include personal information that could be used to steal your identity, or guess your security questions on other accounts?

These could include your date of birth, address, hometown, or names of family members and pets. Just remember, even if you keep your profile locked down with strong privacy settings, once the hacker logs in as you, everything you have posted is up for grabs.

You should also consider whether the password for the compromised account is being used on any of your other accounts, because if so, you should change those as well. A clever hacker could easily try your email address and known password on a variety of sites to see if they can log in as you, including on banking sites.

Next, you have to address the fact that your account could have been used to spread scams or malware. Hackers often infect accounts so they can profit off clicks using adware, or steal even more valuable information from you and your contacts.

You may have already seen the scam for “discount Ray-Ban” sunglasses that plagued Facebook a couple of years ago, and recently took over Instagram. This piece of malware posts phony ads to the infected user’s account, and then tags their friends in the post. Because the posts appear in a trusted friend’s feed, users are often tricked into clicking on it, which in turn compromises their own account.

So, in addition to warning your contacts not to click on suspicious messages that may have been sent using your account, you should flag the messages as scams to the social media site, and delete them from your profile page.

Finally, you’ll want to check to see if there are any new apps or games installed to your account that you didn’t download. If so, delete them since they may be another attempt to compromise your account.

Now that you know what do to after a social media account is hacked, here’s how to prevent it from happening in the first place.

How To Keep Your Social Accounts Secure

  • Don’t click on suspicious messages or links, even if they appear to be posted by someone you know.
  • Flag any scam posts or messages you encounter on social media to the website, so they can help stop the threat from spreading.
  • Use unique, complicated passwords for all your accounts.
  • If the site offers multi-factor authentication, use it, and choose the highest privacy setting available.
  • Avoid posting any identity information or personal details that might allow a hacker to guess your security questions.
  • Don’t log in to your social accounts while using public Wi-Fi, since these networks are often unsecured and your information could be stolen.
  • Always use comprehensive security software that can keep you protected from the latest threats.
  • Keep up-to-date on the latest scams and malware threats

Looking for more mobile security tips and trends? Be sure to follow @McAfee Home on Twitter, and like us on Facebook.

The post What To Do When Your Social Media Account Gets Hacked appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

Kaspersky Security Bulletin 2018. Top security stories

Introduction

The internet is now woven into the fabric of our lives. Many people routinely bank, shop and socialize online and the internet is the lifeblood of commercial organizations. The dependence on technology of governments, businesses and consumers provides a broad attack surface for attackers with all kinds of motives – financial theft, theft of data, disruption, damage, reputational damage or simply ‘for the lulz’. The result is a threat landscape that ranges from highly sophisticated targeted attacks to opportunistic cybercrime. All too often, both rely on manipulating human psychology as a way of compromising entire systems or individual computers. Increasingly, the devices targeted also include those that we don’t consider to be computers – from children’s toys to security cameras. Here is our annual round-up of major incidents and key trends from 2018

Targeted attack campaigns

At this year’s Security Analyst Summit we reported on Slingshot – a sophisticated cyber-espionage platform that has been used to target victims in the Middle East and Africa since 2012. We discovered this threat – which rivals Regin and ProjectSauron in its complexity – during an incident investigation. Slingshot uses an unusual (and, as far as we know, unique) attack vector: many of the victims were attacked by means of compromised MikroTik routers. The exact method for compromising the routers is not clear, but the attackers have found a way to add a malicious DLL to the device: this DLL is a downloader for other malicious files that are then stored on the router. When a system administrator logs in to configure the router, the router’s management software downloads and runs a malicious module on the administrator’s computer. Slingshot loads a number of modules on a compromised computer, but the two most notable are Cahnadr and GollumApp – which are, respectively, kernel mode and user mode modules. Together, they provide the functionality to maintain persistence, manage the file system, exfiltrate data and communicate with the C2 (command-and-control) server. The samples we looked at were marked as ‘version 6.x’, suggesting that the threat has existed for a considerable length of time. The time, skill and cost involved in creating Slingshot indicates that the group behind it is likely to be highly organized and professional, and probably state sponsored.

Soon after the start of the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, we began receiving reports of malware attacks on infrastructure related to the games. Olympic Destroyer shut down display monitors, killed Wi-Fi and took down the Olympics website – preventing visitors from printing tickets. The attack also affected other organizations in the region – for example, ski gates and ski lifts were disabled at several South Korean ski resorts. Olympic Destroyer is a network worm, the main aim of which is to wipe files from remote network shares of its victims. In the days that followed the attack, research teams and media companies around the world variously attributed the attack to Russia, China and North Korea – based on a number of features previously attributed to cyber-espionage and sabotage groups allegedly based in those countries or working for the governments of those countries. Our own researchers were also trying to understand which group was behind the attack. At one stage during our research, we discovered something that seemed to indicate that the Lazarus group was behind the attack. We found a unique trace left by the attackers that exactly matched a previously known Lazarus malware component. However, the lack of obvious motive and inconsistencies with known Lazarus TTPs (tactics, techniques and procedures) that we found during our on-site investigation at a compromised facility in South Korea led us to look again at this artefact. When we did so, we discovered that the set of features didn’t match the code – it had been forged to perfectly match the fingerprint used by Lazarus. So we concluded that the ‘fingerprint’ was a very sophisticated false flag, intentionally placed inside the malware in order to give threat hunters the impression that they had found a ‘smoking gun’ and diverting them from a more accurate attribution.


OlympicDestroyer component relations

We continued to track this APT group’s activities and noticed in June that they had started a new campaign with a different geographical distribution and using new themes. Our telemetry, and the characteristics of the spear-phishing documents we analysed, indicated that the attacker behind Olympic Destroyer was targeting financial and biotechnology-related organizations based in Europe – specifically, Russia, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Ukraine. The earlier Olympic Destroyer attacks – designed to destroy and paralyze the infrastructure of the Winter Olympic Games and related supply chains, partners and venues – were preceded by a reconnaissance operation. This suggested to us that the new activities were part of another reconnaissance stage that would be followed by a wave of destructive attacks with new motives. The variety of financial and non-financial targets could indicate that the same malware was being used by several groups with different interests. This could also be the result of cyberattack outsourcing, which is not uncommon among nation-state threat actors. However, it’s also possible that the financial targets are another false-flag operation by a threat actor that has already shown that they excel at this.

In April, we reported the workings of Operation Parliament, a cyber-espionage campaign aimed at high-profile legislative, executive and judicial organizations around the world – with its main focus in the Middle East and North Africa region, especially Palestine. The attacks, which started early in 2017, targeted parliaments, senates, top state offices and officials, political science scholars, military and intelligence agencies, ministries, media outlets, research centers, election commissions, Olympic organizations, large trading companies and others. The targeting of victims was unlike that of previous campaigns in the region (Gaza Cybergang or Desert Falcons) and points to an elaborate information-gathering exercise that was carried out prior to the attacks (physical and/or digital). The attackers have been particularly careful to verify victim devices before proceeding with the infection, safeguarding their C2 servers. The attacks slowed down after the start of 2018, probably because the attackers achieved their objectives.

We have continued to track the activities of Crouching Yeti (aka Energetic Bear), an APT group that has been active since at least 2010, mainly targeting energy and industrial companies. The group targets organizations around the world, but with a particular focus on Europe, the US and Turkey – the latter being a new addition to the group’s interests during 2016-17. The group’s main tactics include sending phishing emails with malicious documents and infecting servers for different purposes, including hosting tools and logs and watering-hole attacks. Crouching Yeti’s activities against US targets have been publicly discussed by US-CERT and the UK National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC). In April, Kaspersky Lab ICS CERT provided information on identified servers infected and used by Crouching Yeti and presented the findings of an analysis of several web servers compromised by the group during 2016 and early 2017. You can read the full report here, but below is a summary of our findings.

  1. With rare exceptions, the group’s members get by with publicly available tools. The use of publicly available utilities by the group to conduct its attacks renders the task of attack attribution without any additional group ‘markers’ very difficult.
  2. Potentially, any vulnerable server on the internet is of interest to the attackers when they want to establish a foothold in order to develop further attacks against target facilities.
  3. In most cases that we have observed, the group performed tasks related to searching for vulnerabilities, gaining persistence on various hosts, and stealing authentication data.
  4. The diversity of victims may indicate the diversity of the attackers’ interests.
  5. It can be assumed with some degree of certainty that the group operates in the interests of or takes orders from customers that are external to it, performing initial data collection, the theft of authentication data and gaining persistence on resources that are suitable for the attack’s further development.

In May, researchers from Cisco Talos published the results of their research into VPNFilter, malware used to infect different brands of router – mainly in Ukraine, although affecting routers in 54 countries in total. You can read their analysis here and here. Initially, they believed that the malware had infected around 500,000 routers – Linksys, MikroTik, Netgear and TP-Link networking equipment in the small office/home office (SOHO) sector, and QNAP network-attached storage (NAS) devices. However, it later became clear that the list of infected routers was much longer – 75 in total, including ASUS, D-Link, Huawei, Ubiquiti, UPVEL and ZTE. The malware is capable of bricking the infected device, executing shell commands for further manipulation, creating a TOR configuration for anonymous access to the device or configuring the router’s proxy port and proxy URL to manipulate browsing sessions. However, it also spreads into networks supported by the device, thereby extending the scope of the attack. Researchers from our Global Research and Analysis Team (GReAT) took a detailed look at the C2 mechanism used by VPNFilter. One of the interesting questions is who is behind this malware. Cisco Talos indicated that a state-sponsored or state affiliated threat actor is responsible. In its affidavit for sink-holing the C2, the FBI suggests that Sofacy (aka APT28, Pawn Storm, Sednit, STRONTIUM, and Tsar Team) is the culprit. There is some code overlap with the BlackEnergy malware used in previous attacks in Ukraine (the FBI’s affidavit makes it clear that they see BlackEnergy (aka Sandworm) as a sub-group of Sofacy).

Sofacy is a highly active and prolific cyber-espionage group that Kaspersky Lab has been tracking for many years. In February, we published an overview of Sofacy activities in 2017, revealing a gradual move away from NATO-related targets at the start of 2017, towards targets in the Middle East, Central Asia and beyond. Sofacy uses spear-phishing and watering-hole attacks to steal information, including account credentials, sensitive communications and documents. This threat actor also makes use of zero-day vulnerabilities to deploy its malware.

Sofacy deploys different tools for different target profiles. Early in 2017 the group’s Dealer’s Choice campaign was used to target military and diplomatic organizations (mainly in NATO countries and Ukraine). Later in the year, the group used other tools from its arsenal, Zebrocy and SPLM, to target a broader range of organizations, including science and engineering centers and press services, with more of a focus on Central Asia and the Far East. Like other sophisticated threat actors, Sofacy continually develops new tools, maintains a high level of operational security and focuses on making its malware hard to detect. Once any signs of activity by an advanced threat actor such as Sofacy have been found in a network, it’s important to review logins and unusual administrator access on systems, thoroughly scan and sandbox incoming attachments, and maintain two-factor authentication for services such as email and VPN access. The use of APT intelligence reports, threat hunting tools such as YARA and advanced detection solutions such as KATA (Kaspersky Anti Targeted Attack Platform) will help you to understand their targeting and provide powerful ways of detecting their activities.

Our research shows that Sofacy is not the only threat actor operating in the Far East and this sometimes results in a target overlap between very different threat actors. We have seen cases where the Sofacy Zebrocy malware has competed for access to victims’ computers with the Russian-speaking Mosquito Turla clusters; and where its SPLM backdoor has competed with the traditional Turla and Chinese-speaking Danti attacks. The shared targets included government administration, technology, science and military-related organizations in or from Central Asia. The most intriguing overlap is probably that between Sofacy and the English-speaking threat actor behind the Lamberts family. The connection was discovered after researchers detected the presence of Sofacy on a server that threat intelligence had previously identified as compromised by Grey Lambert malware. The server belongs to a Chinese conglomerate that designs and manufactures aerospace and air defense technologies. However, in this case the original SPLM delivery vector remains unknown. This raises a number of hypothetical possibilities, including the fact that Sofacy could be using a new, and as yet undetected, exploit or a new strain of its backdoor, or that Sofacy somehow managed to harness Grey Lambert’s communication channels to download its malware. It could even be a false flag, planted during the previous Lambert infection. We think that the most likely answer is that an unknown new PowerShell script or legitimate but vulnerable web app was exploited to load and execute the SPLM code.

In June, we reported an ongoing campaign targeting a national data centre in Central Asia. The choice of target was especially significant – it means that the attackers were able to gain access to a wide range of government resources in one fell swoop. We think they did this by inserting malicious scripts into the country’s official websites in order to conduct watering-hole attacks. We attribute this campaign to the Chinese-speaking threat actor, LuckyMouse (aka EmissaryPanda and APT27) because of the tools and tactics used in the campaign, because the C2 domain – ‘update.iaacstudio[.]com’ – was previously used by this group and because they have previously targeted government organizations, including Central Asian ones. The initial infection vector used in the attack against the data center is unclear. Even where we observed LuckyMouse using weaponized documents with CVE-2017-118822 (Microsoft Office Equation Editor, widely used by Chinese-speaking actors since December 2017), we couldn’t prove that they were related to this particular attack. It’s possible that the attackers used a watering hole to infect data center employees.

We reported another LuckyMouse campaign in September. Since March, we had found several infections where a previously unknown Trojan was injected into the ‘lsass.exe’ system process memory. These implants were injected by the digitally signed 32- and 64-bit network filtering driver NDISProxy. Interestingly, this driver is signed with a digital certificate that belongs to the Chinese company LeagSoft, a developer of information security software based in Shenzhen, Guangdong. We informed the company about the issue via CN-CERT. This campaign targeted Central Asian government organizations and we believe the attack was linked to a high-level meeting in the region. The choice of the Earthworm tunneler used in the attack is typical for Chinese-speaking actors. Also, one of the commands used by the attackers (‘-s rssocks -d 103.75.190[.]28 -e 443’) creates a tunnel to a previously known LuckyMouse C2 server. The choice of victims in this campaign also aligns with the previous interests shown by this threat actor. We did not see any indications of spear-phishing or watering-hole activity: and we think that the attackers spread their infectors through networks that were already compromised.

Lazarus is a well-established threat actor that has conducted cyber-espionage and cybersabotage campaigns since at least 2009. In recent years, the group has launched campaigns against financial organizations around the globe. In August we reported that the group had successfully compromised several banks and infiltrated a number of global crypto-currency exchanges and fintech companies. While assisting with an incident response operation, we learned that the victim had been infected with the help of a Trojanized crypto-currency trading application that had been recommended to the company over email. An unsuspecting employee had downloaded a third-party application from a legitimate looking website, infecting their computer with malware known as Fallchill, an old tool that Lazarus has recently started using again. It seems as though Lazarus has found an elaborate way to create a legitimate looking site and inject a malicious payload into a ‘legitimate looking’ software update mechanism – in this case, creating a fake supply chain rather than compromising a real one. At any rate, the success of the Lazarus group in compromising supply chains suggests that it will continue to exploit this method of attack. The attackers went the extra mile and developed malware for non-Windows platforms – they included a Mac OS version and the website suggests that a Linux version is coming soon. This is probably the first time that we’ve seen this APT group using malware for Mac OS. It looks as though, in the chase after advanced targets, software developers from supply chains and some high-profile targets, threat actors are forced to develop Mac OS malware tools. The fact that the Lazarus group has expanded its list of targeted operating systems should be a wake-up call for users of non-Windows platforms. You can read our report on Operation AppleJeus here.

Turla (aka Venomous Bear, Waterbug, and Uroboros) is best known for what was, at the time, an ultra-complex Snake rootkit focused on NATO-related targets. However, this threat actor’s activity is much broader. In October, we reported on the Turla group’s recent activities, revealing an interesting mix of old code, new code, and new speculations as to where they will strike next and what they will shed. Much of our 2018 research focused on the group’s KopiLuwak JavaScript backdoor, new variants of the Carbon framework and Meterpreter delivery techniques. Other interesting aspects were the changing Mosquito delivery techniques, customized PoshSec-Mod open-source PowerShell use and borrowed injector code. We tied some of this activity together with infrastructure and data points from WhiteBear and Mosquito infrastructure and activity in 2017 and 2018. One interesting aspect of our research was the lack of ongoing targeting overlap with other APT activity. Turla was absent from the milestone DNC hack event – where Sofacy and CozyDuke were both present – but the group was quietly active around the globe on other projects. This provides some insight into the ongoing motivations and ambitions of the group. It is interesting that data related to these organizations has not been weaponized and found online while this Turla activity quietly carries on. Both Mosquito and Carbon projects focus mainly on diplomatic and foreign affairs targets, while WhiteAtlas and WhiteBear activity stretched across the globe to include organizations related to foreign affairs, but not all targeting has consistently followed this profile: the group also targeted scientific and technical centres, along with organizations outside the political arena. The group’s KopiLuwak activity does not necessarily focus on diplomatic and foreign affairs. Instead, 2018 activity targeted government-related scientific and energy research organizations and a government-related communications organization in Afghanistan. This highly selective but wider targeting set will probably continue into 2019.

In October, we reported the recent activity of the MuddyWater APT group. Our past telemetry indicates that this relatively new threat actor, which surfaced in 2017, has focused mainly on government targets in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. However, the group behind MuddyWater has been known to target other countries in the Middle East, Europe and the US. We recently noticed a large number of spear-phishing documents that appear to be targeting government bodies, military entities, telcos and educational institutions in Jordan, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Pakistan, in addition to the continuous targeting of Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Other victims were detected in Mali, Austria, Russia, Iran and Bahrain. These new documents have appeared throughout 2018 and the activity escalated from May onwards. The new spear-phishing documents rely on social engineering to persuade the victims to enable macros. The attackers rely on a range of compromised hosts to deliver their attacks. In the advanced stages of our research, we were able not only to observe additional files and tools from the group’s arsenal but also some OPSEC mistakes made by the attackers. In order to protect against malware attacks, we would recommend the following measures:

  • Educate general staff so that they are able to identify malicious behaviour such as phishing links.
  • Educate information security staff to ensure that they have full configuration, investigative and hunting abilities.
  • Use a proven corporate-grade security solution in combination with anti-targeted attack solutions capable of detecting attacks by analyzing network anomalies.
  • Provide security staff with access to the latest threat intelligence data, which will arm them with helpful tools for targeted attack prevention and discovery, such as IoCs (indicators of compromise) and YARA rules.
  • Establish enterprise-grade patch management processes.

High-profile organizations should adopt elevated levels of cybersecurity, since attacks against them are inevitable and are unlikely to ever cease.

DustSquad is another threat actor that has targeted organizations in Central Asia. Kaspersky Lab has been monitoring this Russian language cyber-espionage group for the last two years, providing private intelligence reports to our customers on four of their campaigns involving custom Android and Windows malware. Recently, we described a malicious program called Octopus, used by DustSquad to target diplomatic bodies in the region – the name was originally coined by ESET in 2017, after the 0ct0pus3.php script used by the actor on their old C2 servers. Using the Kaspersky Attribution Engine, based on similarity algorithms, we discovered that Octopus is related to DustSquad. In our telemetry, we tracked this campaign back to 2014 in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia (still mostly Russian-speaking) and in Afghanistan. In April, we discovered a new Octopus sample masquerading as Telegram Messenger with a Russian interface. We were unable to find legitimate software that this malware is impersonating – in fact, we don’t believe it exists. However, the attackers used the potential Telegram ban in Kazakhstan to push its dropper as alternative communication software for the political opposition. By subscribing to our APT intelligence reports, you can get access to our investigations and discoveries as they happen, including comprehensive technical data.

In October, we published our analysis of Dark Pulsar. Our investigation started in March 2017, when the Shadow Brokers published stolen data that included two frameworks – DanderSpritz and FuzzBunch. DanderSpritz contains various types of plugin designed to analyze victims, exploit vulnerabilities, schedule tasks, etc. The DanderSpritz framework is designed to examine already controlled machines and gather intelligence. Together, they provide a very powerful platform for cyber-espionage. The leak didn’t include the Dark Pulsar backdoor itself: rather, it contained an administrative module for controlling the backdoor. However, by creating special signatures based on some magic constants in the administrative module, we were able to catch the implant itself. This implant gives the attackers remote control over compromised devices. We found 50 victims, all located in Russia, Iran and Egypt, but we believe there were probably many more. For one thing, the DanderSpritz interface is able to manage a large number of victims at the same time. In addition, the attackers often delete their malware once the campaign has ended. We think that the campaign stopped following the ‘Lost in Translation’ leak by the Shadow Brokers in April 2017. You can find our suggested mitigation strategies for complex threats such as Dark Pulsar here.

Mobile APT campaigns

The mobile APT threats segment saw three significant events: the detection of the Zoopark, BusyGasper and Skygofree cyber-espionage campaigns.

Technically, all three are well-designed and similar in their primary purpose – spying on selected victims. Their main aim is to steal all available personal data from a mobile device: interception of calls, messages, geolocation, etc. There is even a function for eavesdropping via the microphone – the smartphone is used as a ‘bug’ that doesn’t even need to be hidden from an unsuspecting target.

The cybercriminals paid particular attention to the theft of messages from popular instant messaging services, which have now largely replaced standard means of communication. In several cases, the attackers used exploits that were capable of escalating the Trojans’ local privileges on a device, opening up virtually unlimited access to remote monitoring, and often device management.

Keylogger functionality was also implemented in two of the three malicious programs, with the cybercriminals recording every keystroke on a device’s keyboard. It’s noteworthy that in order to intercept clicks the attackers didn’t even require elevated privileges.

Geographically, victims were recorded in a variety of countries: Skygofree targeted users in Italy, BusyGasper attacked individual Russian users, and Zoopark operated in the Middle East.

It’s also worth noting that there’s an increasingly prominent trend of criminals involved in espionage showing a preference for mobile platforms, because they offer a lot more personal data.

Exploits

Exploiting vulnerabilities in software and hardware remains an important means of compromising devices of all kinds.

Early this year, two severe vulnerabilities affecting Intel CPUs were reported. Dubbed Meltdown and Spectre respectively, they both allow an attacker to read memory from any process and from its own process respectively. The vulnerabilities have been around since at least 2011. Meltdown (CVE-2017-5754) affects Intel CPUs and allows an attacker to read data from any process on the host system. While code execution is required, this can be obtained in various ways – for example, through a software bug or by visiting a malicious website that loads JavaScript code that executes the Meltdown attack. This means that all the data residing in memory (passwords, encryption keys, PINs, etc.) could be read if the vulnerability is exploited properly. Vendors were quick to publish patches for the most popular operating systems. The Microsoft update, released on January 3, was not compatible with all antivirus programs – possibly resulting in a BSoD (Blue Screen of Death) on incompatible systems. So updates could only be installed if an antivirus product had first set a specific registry key, to indicate that there were no compatibility problems. Spectre (CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715) is slightly different. Unlike Meltdown, this attack also works on other architectures (such as AMD and ARM). Also, Spectre is only able to read the memory space of the exploited process, and not that of any process. More importantly, aside from some countermeasures in some browsers, no universal solution is readily available for Spectre. It became clear in the weeks following the reports of the vulnerabilities that they are not easily fixable. Most of the released patches have reduced the attack surface, mitigating against known ways of exploiting the vulnerabilities, but they don’t eradicate the danger completely. Since the problem is fundamental to the working of the vulnerable CPUs, it was clear that vendors would probably have to grapple with new exploits for years to come. In fact, it didn’t take years. In July, Intel paid out a $100,000 bug bounty for new processor vulnerabilities related to Spectre variant one (CVE-2017-5753). Spectre 1.1 (CVE-2018-3693) can be used to create speculative buffer overflows. Spectre 1.2 allows an attacker to overwrite read-only data and code pointers to breach sandboxes on CPUs that don’t enforce read-write protections. These new vulnerabilities were uncovered by MIT researcher Vladimir Kiriansky and independent researcher Carl Waldspurger.

On April 18, someone uploaded an interesting exploit to VirusTotal. This was detected by several security vendors, including Kaspersky Lab – using our generic heuristic logic for some older Microsoft Word documents. It turned out to be a new zero-day vulnerability for Internet Explorer (CVE-2018-8174) – patched by Microsoft on May 8, 2018. Following processing of the sample in our sandbox system, we noticed that it successfully exploited a fully patched version of Microsoft Word. This led us to carry out a deeper analysis of the vulnerability. The infection chain consists of the following steps. The victim receives a malicious Microsoft Word document. After opening it, the second stage of the exploit is downloaded – an HTML page containing VBScript code. This triggers a UAF (Use After Free) vulnerability and executes shellcode. Despite the initial attack vector being a Word document, the vulnerability is actually in VBScript. This is the first time we have seen a URL Moniker used to load an IE exploit in Word, but we believe that this technique will be heavily abused by attackers in the future, since it allows them to force victims to load IE, ignoring the default browser settings. It’s likely that exploit kit authors will start abusing it in both drive-by attacks (through the browser) and spear-phishing campaigns (through a document). To protect against this technique, we would recommend applying the latest security updates and using a security solution with behavior detection capabilities.

In August, our AEP (Automatic Exploit Prevention) technology detected a new kind of cyberattack that tried to use a zero-day vulnerability in the Windows driver file, ‘win32k.sys’. We informed Microsoft about the issue and on October 9 Microsoft disclosed the vulnerability (CVE-2018-8453) and published an update. This is a very dangerous vulnerability, giving attackers control over a compromised computer. The vulnerability was used in a highly targeted attack campaign on organizations in the Middle East – we found fewer than a dozen victims. We believe that these attacks were carried out by the FruityArmor threat actor.

In late October we reported another vulnerability to Microsoft, this time a zero-day elevation of privilege vulnerability in ‘win32k.sys’ – which can be used by an attacker to obtain the privileges necessary for persistence on a victim’s system. This vulnerability has also been exploited in a very limited number of attacks on organizations in the Middle East. Microsoft published an update for this vulnerability (CVE-2018-8589) on November 13. This threat was also detected by means of our proactive technologies – the advanced sandboxing and anti-malware engine for the Kaspersky Anti Targeted Attack Platform and our AEP technology.

Browser extensions – extending the reach of cybercriminals

Browser extensions can make our lives easier, hiding obtrusive advertising, translating text, helping us choose the goods we want in online stores and more. Unfortunately, there are also less desirable extensions that are used to bombard us with advertising or collect information about our activities. There are also extensions designed to steal money. Earlier this year, one of these caught our eye because it communicated with a suspicious domain. The malicious extension, named Desbloquear Conteúdo (‘Unblock Content’ in Portuguese), targeted customers of Brazilian online banking services, harvesting logins and passwords in order to obtain access to victims’ bank accounts.

In September, hackers published the private messages from at least 81,000 Facebook accounts, claiming that this was just a small fraction of a much larger haul comprising 120 million accounts. In a Dark Web advert, the attackers offered the messages for 10 cents per account. The attack was investigated by the BBC Russian Service and cybersecurity company Digital Shadows. They found that of 81,000 accounts, most were from Ukraine and Russia, although accounts from other countries were also among them, including the UK, the US and Brazil. Facebook suggested that the messages were stolen using a malicious browser extension.

Malicious extensions are quite rare, but we need to take them seriously because of the potential damage they can cause. You should only install verified extensions with large numbers of installations and reviews in the Chrome Web Store or other official service. Even so, in spite of the protection measures implemented by the owners of such services, malicious extensions can still end up being published there. So it’s a good idea to use an internet security product that gives you a warning if an extension acts suspiciously.

The World Cup of fraud

Social engineering remains an important tool in the arsenal of cyberattackers of all kinds. Fraudsters are always on the lookout for opportunities to make money off the back of major sporting events; and the FIFA World Cup is no different. Long before the event kicked off, cybercriminals had started to create phishing websites and send messages exploiting World Cup themes. These phishing messages included notifications of a fake lottery win, or a message offering tickets to one of the matches. Fraudsters often go to great lengths to mimic legitimate partner sites, creating well-designed pages and even including SSL certificates for added credibility. The criminals also extract data by mimicking official FIFA notifications: the victim receives a message telling them that the security system has been updated and all personal data must be re-entered to avoid lockout. These messages contain a link to a fake page where the scammers harvest the victim’s personal information.

You can find our report on the ways cybercriminals have exploited the World Cup in order to make money here. We also provided tips on how to avoid phishing scams – advice that holds true for any phishing scams, not just for those related to the World Cup.

In the run up to the tournament, we also analyzed wireless access points in the 11 cities hosting FIFA World Cup matches – nearly 32,000 Wi-Fi hotspots in total. While checking encryption and authentication algorithms, we counted the number of WPA2 and open networks, as well as their share among all the access points. More than a fifth of Wi-Fi hotspots were using unreliable networks. This meant that criminals simply needed to be located near an access point to intercept traffic and get their hands on people’s data. Around three quarters of all access points used WPA/WPA2 encryption, considered to be one of the most secure. The level of protection mostly depends on the settings, such as the strength of the password set by the hotspot owner. A complicated encryption key can take years to successfully hack. However, even reliable networks, like WPA2, cannot be automatically considered totally secure. They are still susceptible to brute-force, dictionary and key reinstallation attacks, for which there are a large number of tutorials and open source tools available online. Any attempt to intercept traffic from WPA Wi-Fi in public access points can also be made by penetrating the gap between the access point and the device at the beginning of the session.

You can read our report here, together with our recommendations on the safe use of Wi-Fi hotspots, advice that is valid wherever you may be – not just at the World Cup.

Financial fraud on an industrial scale

In August, Kaspersky Lab ICS CERT reported a phishing campaign designed to steal money from enterprises – primarily manufacturing companies. The attackers used standard phishing techniques to trick their victims into clicking on infected attachments, using emails disguised as commercial offers and other financial documents. The criminals used legitimate remote administration applications – either TeamViewer or RMS (Remote Manipulator System). These programs were employed to gain access to the device, scan for information on current purchases and details of financial and accounting software used by the victims. The attackers then used different ploys to steal company money – for example, by replacing the banking details in transactions. By the time we published our report, on August 1, we had seen infections on around 800 computers, spread across at least 400 organizations in a wide array of industries – including manufacturing, oil and gas, metallurgy, engineering, energy, construction, mining and logistics. The campaign has been ongoing since October 2017.

Our research highlights that, even when threat actors use simple techniques and known malware, they can successfully attack industrial companies by using social engineering tricks and hiding their code in target systems – using legitimate remote administration software to evade detection by antivirus solutions.

You can find out more about how attackers use remote administration tools to compromise their targets here, and an overview of attacks on ICS systems in the first half of 2018 here.

Ransomware – still a threat

The fall in the number of ransomware attacks in the last year or so has been well-documented. Nevertheless, this type of malware remains a significant problem and we continue to see the development of new ransomware families. Early in August, our anti-ransomware module started detecting the KeyPass Trojan. In just two days, we found this malware in more than 20 countries – Brazil and Vietnam were hardest hit, but we also found victims in Europe, Africa and the Far East. KeyPass encrypts all files, regardless of extension, on local drives and network shares that are accessible from the infected computer. It ignores some files, located in directories that are hardcoded in the malware. Encrypted files are given the additional extension ‘KEYPASS’ and ransom notes, called ‘!!!KEYPASS_DECRYPTION_INFO!!!.txt’, are saved in each directory containing encrypted files. The creators of this Trojan implemented a very simplistic scheme. The malware uses the symmetric algorithm AES-256 in CFB mode with zero IV and the same 32-byte key for all files. The Trojan encrypts a maximum of 0x500000 bytes (~5 MB) of data at the start of each file. Shortly after launch, the malware connects to its C2 server and obtains the encryption key and infection ID for the current victim. The data is transferred over plain HTTP in the form of JSON. If the C2 is unavailable – for example, if the infected computer is not connected to the internet, or the server is down – the malware uses a hardcoded key and ID. As a result, in the case of offline encryption, the decryption of the victim’s files is trivial.

Probably the most interesting feature of the KeyPass Trojan is the ability to take ‘manual control’. The Trojan contains a form that is hidden by default, but which can be shown after pressing a special button on the keyboard. This form allows the criminals to customize the encryption process by changing such parameters as the encryption key, the name of the ransom note, the text of the ransom, the victim ID, the extension of encrypted files and the list of directories to be excluded from encryption. This capability suggests that the criminals behind the Trojan might intend to use it in manual attacks.

However, it’s not only new ransomware families that are causing problems. One and a half years after the WannaCry epidemic, it continues to top the list of the most widespread cryptor families – so far, we have seen 74,621 unique attacks worldwide. These attacks accounted for 28.72% of all those targeted with cryptors in Q3 2018. This percentage has risen by two-thirds during the last year. This is especially alarming considering that a patch for the EternalBlue exploit used by WannaCry existed even before the initial epidemic in May 2017.

Asacub and banking Trojans

2018 showed the most impressive figures in terms of the number of attacks involving mobile banking Trojans. At the beginning of the year, this type of threat seemed to have leveled off both in number of unique samples detected and number of users attacked.

However, in the second quarter there was a dramatic change for the worse: record-breaking numbers of detected mobile banking Trojans and attacked users. The root cause of this significant upturn is unclear, though the main culprits were the creators of Asacub and Hqwar. An interesting feature of Asacub is its longevity: according to our data, the group behind it has been operating for more than three years.

Asacub evolved from an SMS Trojan, which from the very outset possessed techniques for preventing deletion and intercepting incoming calls and SMSs. The creators subsequently complicated the program logic and started the mass distribution of the malware. The chosen vector was the same as that at the very beginning – social engineering via SMS. However, this time the valid phone numbers were sourced from popular bulletin boards, with owners often expecting messages from unfamiliar subscribers.

The propagation technique then snowballed when the devices that the Trojan had infected started spreading the infection – Asacub self-proliferated to the victim’s entire contact list.

Smart doesn’t mean secure

These days we’re surrounded by smart devices. This includes everyday household objects such as TVs, smart meters, thermostats, baby monitors and children’s toys. But it also includes cars, medical devices, CCTV cameras and parking meters. We’re even seeing the emergence of smart cities. However, this offers a greater attack surface to anyone looking to take advantage of security weaknesses – for whatever purpose. Securing traditional computers is difficult. But things are more problematic with the internet of things (IoT), where lack of standardization leaves developers to ignore security, or consider it as an afterthought. There are plenty of examples to illustrate this.

In February, we explored the possibility that a smart hub might be vulnerable to attack. A smart hub lets you control the operation of other smart devices in the home, receiving information and issuing commands. Smart hubs might be controlled through a touch screen, or through a mobile app or web interface. If it’s vulnerable, it would potentially provide a single point of failure. While the smart hub our researchers investigated didn’t contain significant vulnerabilities, there were logical mistakes that were enough to allow our researchers to obtain remote access.

Researchers at Kaspersky Lab ICS CERT checked a popular smart camera to see how well protected it is from hackers. Smart cameras are now part of everyday life. Many now connect to the cloud, allowing someone to monitor what’s happening at a remote location – to check on pets, for security surveillance, etc. The model our researchers investigated is marketed as an all-purpose tool – suitable for use as a baby monitor, or as part of a security system. The camera is able to see in the dark, follow a moving object, stream footage to a smartphone or tablet and play back sound through a built-in speaker. Unfortunately, the camera turned out to have 13 vulnerabilities – almost as many as it has features – that could allow an attacker to change the administrator password, execute arbitrary code on the device, build a botnet of compromised cameras or stop it functioning completely.

Potential problems are not limited to consumer devices. Early this year, Ido Naor, a researcher from our Global Research and Analysis Team and Amihai Neiderman from Azimuth Security, discovered a vulnerability in an automation device for a gas station. This device was directly connected to the internet and was responsible for managing every component of the station, including fuel dispensers and payment terminals. Even more alarming, the web interface for the device was accessible with default credentials. Further investigation revealed that it was possible to shut down all fueling systems, cause a fuel leakage, change the price, circumvent the payment terminal (in order to steal money), capture vehicle license plates and driver identities, execute code on the controller unit and even move freely across the gas station network.

Technology is driving improvements in healthcare. It has the power to transform the quality and reduce the cost of health and care services. It can also give patients and citizens more control over their care, empower carers and support the development of new medicines and treatments. However, new healthcare technologies and mobile working practices are producing more data than ever before, at the same time providing more opportunities for data to be lost or stolen. We’ve highlighted the issues several times over the last few years (you can read about it here, here and here). We continue to track the activities of cybercriminals, looking at how they penetrate medical networks, how they find data on publicly available medical resources and how they exfiltrate it. In September, we examined healthcare security. More than 60% of medical organizations had some kind of malware on their computers. In addition, attacks continue to grow in the pharmaceutical industry. It’s vital that medical facilities remove all nodes that process personal medical data, update software and remove applications that are no longer needed, and do not connect expensive medical equipment to the main LAN. You can find our detailed advice here.

This year, we also investigated smart devices for animals – specifically, trackers to monitor the location of pets. These gadgets are able to access the pet owner’s home network and phone, and their pet’s location. We wanted to find out how secure they are. Our researchers looked at several popular trackers for potential vulnerabilities. Four of the trackers we looked at use Bluetooth LE technology to communicate with the owner’s smartphone. But only one does so correctly. The others can receive and execute commands from anyone. They can also be disabled, or hidden from the owner – all that’s needed is proximity to the tracker. Only one of the tested Android apps verifies the certificate of its server, without relying solely on the system. As a result, they are vulnerable to man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks—intruders can intercept transmitted data by ‘persuading’ victims to install their certificate.

Some of our researchers also looked at human wearable devices – specifically, smart watches and fitness trackers. We were interested in a scenario where a spying app installed on a smartphone could send data from the built-in motion sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) to a remote server and use the data to piece together the wearer’s actions – walking, sitting, typing, etc. We started with an Android-based smartphone, created a simple app to process and transmit the data and then looked at what we could get from this data. Not only was it possible to work out that the wearer is sitting or walking, but also figure out if they are out for a stroll or changing subway trains, because the accelerometer patterns differ slightly – this is how fitness trackers distinguish between walking and cycling. It is also easy to see when someone is typing. However, finding out what they are typing would be hard and would require repeated text entry. Our researchers were able to recover a computer password with 96 per cent accuracy and a PIN code entered at an ATM with 87 per cent accuracy. However, it would be much harder to obtain other information – for example, a credit card number or CVC code – because of the lack of predictability about when the victim would type such information. In reality, the difficulty involved in obtaining such information means that an attacker would have to have a strong motive for targeting someone specific. Of course, there are situations where this might be worthwhile for attackers.

There has been a growth in car sharing services in recent years. Such services clearly provide flexibility for people wanting to get around major cities. However, it raises the question of security – how safe is the personal information of people using the services? In July, we tested 13 apps, to see if their developers have considered security. The results of our tests were not encouraging. It’s clear that app developers don’t fully understand the current threats to mobile platforms – this is true for both the design stage and when creating the infrastructure. A good first step would be to expand the functionality for notifying customers of suspicious activities – only one service currently sends notifications to customers about attempts to log in to their account from a different device. The majority of the apps we analyzed are poorly designed from a security standpoint and need to be improved. Moreover, many of the programs are not just very similar to each other but are actually based on the same code. You can read our report here, including advice for customers of car sharing services and recommendations for developers of car sharing apps.

The use of smart devices is increasing. Some forecasts suggest that by 2020 the number of smart devices will exceed the world’s population several times over. Yet manufacturers still don’t prioritize security: there are no reminders to change the default password during initial setup or notifications about the release of new firmware versions. And the updating process itself can be complex for the average consumer. This makes IoT devices a prime target for cybercriminals. Easier to infect than PCs, they often play an important role in the home infrastructure: some manage internet traffic, others shoot video footage and still others control domestic devices – for example, air conditioning. Malware for smart devices is increasing not only in quantity, but also quality. More and more exploits are being weaponized by cybercriminals, and infected devices are used to launch DDoS attacks, to steal personal data and to mine crypto-currency. In September, we published a report on IoT threats, and this year we have started to include data on IoT attacks in our quarterly and end-of-year statistics reports.

It’s vital that vendors improve their security approach, ensuring that security is considered when products are being designed. Governments in some countries, in an effort to encourage security by design in manufacturers of smart devices, are introducing guidelines. In October, the UK government launched its code of practice for consumer IoT security. The German government recently published its suggestions for minimum standards for broadband routers.

It’s also important that consumers consider security before buying any connected device.

  • Consider if you really need the device. If you do, check the functions available and disable any that you don’t need to reduce your attack surface.
  • Look online for information about any vulnerabilities that have been reported.
  • Check to see if it’s possible to update the firmware on the device.
  • Always change the default password and replace it with a unique, complex password.
  • Don’t share serial numbers, IP addresses and other sensitive data relating to the device online.

Our data in their hands

Personal information is a valuable commodity. This is evident from the steady stream of data breaches reported in the news – these include Under Armour, FIFA, Adidas, Ticketmaster, T-Mobile, Reddit, British Airways and Cathay Pacific.

The scandal involving the use, by Cambridge Analytica, of Facebook data is a reminder that personal information is not just valuable to cybercriminals. In many cases, personal data is the price people pay to obtain a product or service – ‘free’ browsers, ‘free’ email accounts, ‘free’ social network accounts, etc. But not always. Increasingly, we’re surrounded by smart devices that are capable of gathering details on the minutiae of our lives. Earlier this year, one journalist turned her apartment into a smart home in order to measure how much data was being collected by the firms that made the devices. Since we generally pay for such devices, the harvesting of data can hardly be seen as the price we pay for the benefits they bring in these cases.

Some data breaches have resulted in fines for the companies affected (the UK Information Commissioner’s Office fined Equifax and Facebook, for example). However, so far fines levied have been for breaches that occurred before the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into force in May. The penalties for any serious breaches that occur in the future are likely to be much higher.

There’s no such thing as 100% security, of course. But any organization that holds personal data has a duty of care to secure it effectively. And where a breach results in the theft of personal information, companies should alert their customers in a timely manner, enabling them to take steps to limit the potential damage that can occur.

While there’s nothing that we, as individuals, can do to prevent the theft of our personal information from an online provider, it’s important that we take steps to secure our online accounts and to minimize the impact of any breach – in particular, by using unique passwords for each site, and by using two-factor authentication.

McAfee Labs 2019 Threats Predictions Report

These predictions were written by Eoin Carroll, Taylor Dunton, John Fokker, German Lancioni, Lee Munson, Yukihiro Okutomi, Thomas Roccia, Raj Samani, Sekhar Sarukkai, Dan Sommer, and Carl Woodward.

As 2018 draws to a close, we should perhaps be grateful that the year has not been entirely dominated by ransomware, although the rise of the GandCrab and SamSam variants show that the threat remains active. Our predictions for 2019 move away from simply providing an assessment on the rise or fall of a particular threat, and instead focus on current rumblings we see in the cybercriminal underground that we expect to grow into trends and subsequently threats in the wild.

We have witnessed greater collaboration among cybercriminals exploiting the underground market, which has allowed them to develop efficiencies in their products. Cybercriminals have been partnering in this way for years; in 2019 this market economy will only expand. The game of cat and mouse the security industry plays with ransomware developers will escalate, and the industry will need to respond more quickly and effectively than ever before.

Social media has been a part of our lives for more than a decade. Recently, nation-states have infamously used social media platforms to spread misinformation. In 2019, we expect criminals to begin leveraging those tactics for their own gain. Equally, the continued growth of the Internet of Things in the home will inspire criminals to target those devices for monetary gain.

One thing is certain: Our dependency on technology has become ubiquitous. Consider the breaches of identity platforms, with reports of 50 million users being affected. It is no longer the case that a breach is limited to that platform. Everything is connected, and you are only as strong as your weakest link. In the future, we face the question of which of our weakest links will be compromised.

—Raj Samani, Chief Scientist and McAfee Fellow, Advanced Threat Research

Twitter @Raj_Samani

 

Predictions

Cybercriminal Underground to Consolidate, Create More Partnerships to Boost Threats

Artificial Intelligence the Future of Evasion Techniques

Synergistic Threats Will Multiply, Requiring Combined Responses

Misinformation, Extortion Attempts to Challenge Organizations’ Brands

Data Exfiltration Attacks to Target the Cloud

Voice-Controlled Digital Assistants the Next Vector in Attacking IoT Devices

Cybercriminals to Increase Attacks on Identity Platforms and Edge Devices Under Siege

Cybercriminal Underground to Consolidate, Create More Partnerships to Boost Threats

Hidden hacker forums and chat groups serve as a market for cybercriminals, who can buy malware, exploits, botnets, and other shady services. With these off-the-shelf products, criminals of varying experience and sophistication can easily launch attacks. In 2019, we predict the underground will consolidate, creating fewer but stronger malware-as-a-service families that will actively work together. These increasingly powerful brands will drive more sophisticated cryptocurrency mining, rapid exploitation of new vulnerabilities, and increases in mobile malware and stolen credit cards and credentials.

We expect more affiliates to join the biggest families, due to the ease of operation and strategic alliances with other essential top-level services, including exploit kits, crypter services, Bitcoin mixers, and counter-antimalware services. Two years ago, we saw many of the largest ransomware families, for example, employ affiliate structures. We still see numerous types of ransomware pop up, but only a few survive because most cannot attract enough business to compete with the strong brands, which offer higher infection rates as well as operational and financial security. At the moment the largest families actively advertise their goods; business is flourishing because they are strong brands (see GandCrab) allied with other top-level services, such as money laundering or making malware undetectable.

Underground businesses function successfully because they are part of a trust-based system. This may not be a case of “honor among thieves,” yet criminals appear to feel safe, trusting they cannot be touched in the inner circle of their forums. We have seen this trust in the past, for example, with the popular credit card shops in the first decade of the century, which were a leading source of cybercrime until major police action broke the trust model.

As endpoint detection grows stronger, the vulnerable remote desktop protocol (RDP) offers another path for cybercriminals. In 2019 we predict malware, specifically ransomware, will increasingly use RDP as an entry point for an infection. Currently, most underground shops advertise RDP access for purposes other than ransomware, typically using it as a stepping stone to gain access to Amazon accounts or as a proxy to steal credit cards. Targeted ransomware groups and ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) models will take advantage of RDP, and we have seen highly successful under-the-radar schemes use this tactic. Attackers find a system with weak RDP, attack it with ransomware, and propagate through networks either living off the land or using worm functionality (EternalBlue). There is evidence that the author of GandCrab is already working on an RDP option.

We also expect malware related to cryptocurrency mining will become more sophisticated, selecting which currency to mine on a victim’s machine based on the processing hardware (WebCobra) and the value of a specific currency at a given time.

Next year, we predict the length of a vulnerability’s life, from detection to weaponization, will grow even shorter. We have noticed a trend of cybercriminals becoming more agile in their development process. They gather data on flaws from online forums and the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures database to add to their malware. We predict that criminals will sometimes take a day or only hours to implement attacks against the latest weaknesses in software and hardware.

We expect to see an increase in underground discussions on mobile malware, mostly focused on Android, regarding botnets, banking fraud, ransomware, and bypassing two-factor authentication security. The value of exploiting the mobile platform is currently underestimated as phones offer a lot to cybercriminals given the amount of access they have to sensitive information such as bank accounts.

Credit card fraud and the demand for stolen credit card details will continue, with an increased focus on online skimming operations that target third-party payment platforms on large e-commerce sites. From these sites, criminals can silently steal thousands of fresh credit cards details at a time. Furthermore, social media is being used to recruit unwitting users, who might not know they are working for criminals when they reship goods or provide financial services.

We predict an increase in the market for stolen credentials—fueled by recent large data breaches and by bad password habits of users. The breaches lead, for example, to the sale of voter records and email-account hacking. These attacks occur daily.

Artificial Intelligence the Future of Evasion Techniques

To increase their chances of success, attackers have long employed evasion techniques to bypass security measures and avoid detection and analysis. Packers, crypters, and other tools are common components of attackers’ arsenals. In fact, an entire underground economy has emerged, offering products and dedicated services to aid criminal activities. We predict in 2019, due to the ease with which criminals can now outsource key components of their attacks, evasion techniques will become more agile due to the application of artificial intelligence. Think the counter-AV industry is pervasive now? This is just the beginning.

In 2018 we saw new process-injection techniques such as “process doppelgänging” with the SynAck ransomware, and PROPagate injection delivered by the RigExploit Kit. By adding technologies such as artificial intelligence, evasion techniques will be able to further circumvent protections.

Different evasions for different malware

In 2018, we observed the emergence of new threats such as cryptocurrency miners, which hijack the resources of infected machines. With each threat comes inventive evasion techniques:

  • Cryptocurrency mining: Miners implement a number of evasion techniques. Minerva Labs discovered WaterMiner, which simply stops its mining process when the victim runs the Task Manager or an antimalware scan.
  • Exploit kits: Popular evasion techniques include process injection or the manipulation of memory space and adding arbitrary code. In-memory injection is a popular infection vector for avoiding detection during delivery.
  • Botnets: Code obfuscation or anti-disassembling techniques are often used by large botnets that infect thousands of victims. In May 2018, AdvisorsBot was discovered using junk code, fake conditional instructions, XOR encryption, and even API hashing. Because bots tend to spread widely, the authors implemented many evasion techniques to slow reverse engineering. They also used obfuscation mechanisms for communications between the bots and control servers. Criminals use botnets for activities such as DDOS for hire, proxies, spam, or other malware delivery. Using evasion techniques is critical for criminals to avoid or delay botnet takedowns.
  • Advanced persistent threats: Stolen certificates bought on the cybercriminal underground are often used in targeted attacks to bypass antimalware detection. Attackers also use low-level malware such as rootkits or firmware-based threats. For example, in 2018 ESET discovered the first UEFI rootkit, LoJax. Security researchers have also seen destructive features used as anti-forensic techniques: The OlympicDestroyer malware targeted the Olympic Games organization and erased event logs and backups to avoid investigation.

Artificial intelligence the next weapon

In recent years, we have seen malware using evasion techniques to bypass machine learning engines. For example, in 2017 the Cerber ransomware dropped legitimate files on systems to trick the engine that classifies files. In 2018, PyLocky ransomware used InnoSetup to package the malware and avoid machine learning detection.

Clearly, bypassing artificial intelligence engines is already on the criminal to-do list; however, criminals can also implement artificial intelligence in their malicious software. We expect evasion techniques to begin leveraging artificial intelligence to automate target selection, or to check infected environments before deploying later stages and avoiding detection.

Such implementation is game changing in the threat landscape. We predict it will soon be found in the wild.

Synergistic Threats Will Multiply, Requiring Combined Responses

This year we have seen cyber threats adapt and pivot faster than ever. We have seen ransomware evolving to be more effective or operate as a smoke screen. We have seen cryptojacking soar, as it provides a better, and safer, return on investment than ransomware. We can still see phishing going strong and finding new vulnerabilities to exploit. We also noticed fileless and “living off the land” threats are more slippery and evasive than ever, and we have even seen the incubation of steganography malware in the Pyeongchang Olympics campaign. In 2019, we predict attackers will more frequently combine these tactics to create multifaced, or synergistic, threats.

What could be worse?

Attacks are usually centered on the use of one threat. Bad actors concentrate their efforts on iterating and evolving one threat at a time for effectiveness and evasion. When an attack is successful, it is classified as ransomware, cryptojacking, data exfiltration, etc., and defenses are put in place. At this point, the attack’s success rate is significantly reduced. However, if a sophisticated attack involves not one but five top-notch threats synergistically working together, the defense panorama could become very blurry. The challenge arises when an attempt is made to identify and mitigate the attack. Because the ultimate attack goals are unknown, one might get lost in the details of each threat as it plays a role in the chain.

One of the reasons synergic threats are becoming a reality is because bad actors are improving their skills by developing foundations, kits, and reusable threat components. As attackers organize their efforts into a black-market business model, they can focus on adding value to previous building blocks. This strategy allows them to orchestrate multiple threats instead of just one to reach their goals.

An example is worth a thousand words

Imagine an attack that starts with a phishing threat—not a typical campaign using Word documents, but a novel technique. This phishing email contains a video attachment. When you open the video, your video player does not play and prompts you to update the codec. Once you run the update, a steganographic polyglot file (a simple GIF) is deployed on your system. Because it is a polyglot (a file that conforms to more than one format at the same time), the GIF file schedules a task that fetches a fileless script hosted on a compromised system. That script running in memory evaluates your system and decides to run either ransomware or a cryptocurrency miner. That is a dangerous synergistic threat in action.

The attack raises many questions: What are you dealing with? Is it phishing 2.0? Is it stegware? Is it fileless and “living off the land”? Cryptojacking? Ransomware? It is everything at the same time.

This sophisticated but feasible example demonstrates that focusing on one threat may not be enough to detect or remediate an attack. When you aim to classify the attack into a single category, you might lose the big picture and thus be less effective mitigating it. Even if you stop the attack in the middle of the chain, discovering the initial and final stages is as important for protecting against future attempts.

Be curious, be creative, connect your defenses

Tackling sophisticated attacks based on synergic threats requires questioning every threat. What if this ransomware hit was part of something bigger? What if this phishing email pivots to a technique that employees are not trained for? What if we are missing the real goal of the attack?

Bearing these questions in mind will not only help capture the big picture, but also get the most of security solutions. We predict bad actors will add synergy to their attacks, but cyber defenses can also work synergistically.

Cybercriminals to Use Social Media Misinformation, Extortion Campaigns to Challenge Organizations’ Brands

The elections were influenced, fake news prevails, and our social media followers are all foreign government–controlled bots. At least that’s how the world feels sometimes. To say recent years have been troubled for social media companies would be an understatement. During this period a game of cat and mouse has ensued, as automated accounts are taken down, adversaries tactics evolve, and botnet accounts emerge looking more legitimate than ever before. In 2019, we predict an increase of misinformation and extortion campaigns via social media that will focus on brands and originate not from nation-state actors but from criminal groups.

Nation-states leverage bot battalions to deliver messages or manipulate opinion, and their effectiveness is striking. Bots often will take both sides of a story to spur debate, and this tactic works. By employing a system of amplifying nodes, as well as testing the messaging (including hashtags) to determine success rates, botnet operators demonstrate a real understanding of how to mold popular opinion on critical issues.

In one example, an account that was only two weeks old with 279 followers, most of which were other bots, began a harassment campaign against an organization. By amplification, the account generated an additional 1,500 followers in only four weeks by simply tweeting malicious content about their target.

Activities to manipulate public opinion have been well documented and bots well versed in manipulating conversations to drive agendas stand ready. Next year we expect that cybercriminals will repurpose these campaigns to extort companies by threatening to damage their brands. Organizations face a serious danger.

Data Exfiltration Attacks to Target the Cloud

In the past two years, enterprises have widely adopted the Software-as-a-Service model, such as Office 365, as well as Infrastructure- and Platform-as-a-Service cloud models, such as AWS and Azure. With this move, far more corporate data now resides in the cloud. In 2019, we expect a significant increase in attacks that follow the data to the cloud.

With the increased adoption of Office 365, we have noticed a surge of attacks on the service— especially attempts to compromise email. One threat the McAfee cloud team uncovered was the botnet KnockKnock, which targeted system accounts that typically do not have multifactor authentication. We have also seen the emergence of exploits of the trust model in the Open Authorization standard. One was launched by Fancy Bear, the Russian cyber espionage group, phishing users with a fake Google security app to gain access to user data.

Similarly, during the last couple of years we have seen many high-profile data breaches attributed to misconfigured Amazon S3 buckets. This is clearly not the fault of AWS. Based on the shared responsibility model, the customer is on the hook to properly configure IaaS/PaaS infrastructure and properly protect their enterprise data and user access. Complicating matters, many of these misconfigured buckets are owned by vendors in their supply chains, rather than by the target enterprises. With access to thousands of open buckets and credentials, bad actors are increasingly opting for these easy pickings.

McAfee has found that 21% of data in the cloud is sensitive—such as intellectual property, and customer and personal data—according to the McAfee Cloud Adoption and Risk Report. With a 33% increase in users collaborating on this data during the past year, cybercriminals know how to seek more targets:

  • Cloud-native attacks targeting weak APIs or ungoverned API endpoints to gain access to the data in SaaS as well as in PaaS and serverless workloads
  • Expanded reconnaissance and exfiltration of data in cloud databases (PaaS or custom applications deployed in IaaS) expanding the S3 exfiltration vector to structured data in databases or data lakes
  • Leveraging the cloud as a springboard for cloud-native man-in-the-middle attacks (such as GhostWriter, which exploits publicly writable S3 buckets introduced due to customer misconfigurations) to launch cryptojacking or ransomware attacks into other variants of MITM attacks.

Voice-Controlled Digital Assistants the Next Vector in Attacking IoT Devices

As tech fans continue to fill their homes with smart gadgets, from plugs to TVs, coffee makers to refrigerators, and motion sensors to lighting, the means of gaining entry to a home network are growing rapidly, especially given how poorly secured many IoT devices remain.

But the real key to the network door next year will be the voice-controlled digital assistant, a device created in part to manage all the IoT devices within a home. As sales increase—and an explosion in adoption over the holiday season looks likely—the attraction for cybercriminals to use assistants to jump to the really interesting devices on a network will only continue to grow.

For now, the voice assistant market is still taking shape, with many brands still looking to dominate the market, in more ways than one, and it is unclear whether one device will become ubiquitous. If one does take the lead, its security features will quite rightly fall under the microscope of the media, though not perhaps before its privacy concerns have been fully examined in prose.

(Last year we highlighted privacy as the key concern for home IoT devices. Privacy will continue to be a concern, but cybercriminals will put more effort into building botnets, demanding ransoms, and threatening the destruction of property of both homes and businesses).

This opportunity to control a home’s or office’s devices will not go unnoticed by cybercriminals, who will engage in an altogether different type of writing in relation to the market winner, in the form of malicious code designed to attack not only IoT devices but also the digital assistants that are given so much license to talk to them.

Smartphones have already served as the door to a threat. In 2019, they may well become the picklock that opens a much larger door. We have already seen two threats that demonstrate what cybercriminals can do with unprotected devices, in the form of the Mirai botnet, which first struck in 2016, and IoT Reaper, in 2017. These IoT malware appeared in many variants to attack connected devices such as routers, network video recorders, and IP cameras. They expanded their reach by password cracking and exploiting known vulnerabilities to build worldwide robot networks.

Next year we expect to see two main vectors for attacking home IoT devices: routers and smartphones/ tablets. The Mirai botnet demonstrated the lack of security in routers. Infected smartphones, which can already monitor and control home devices, will become one of the top targets of cybercriminals, who will employ current and new techniques to take control.

Malware authors will take advantage of phones and tablets, those already trusted controllers, to try to take over IoT devices by password cracking and exploiting vulnerabilities. These attacks will not appear suspicious because the network traffic comes from a trusted device. The success rate of attacks will increase, and the attack routes will be difficult to identify. An infected smartphone could cause the next example of hijacking the DNS settings on a router. Vulnerabilities in mobile and cloud apps are also ripe for exploitation, with smartphones at the core of the criminals’ strategy.

Infected IoT devices will supply botnets, which can launch DDoS attacks, as well as steal personal data. The more sophisticated IoT malware will exploit voice-controlled digital assistants to hide its suspicious activities from users and home-network security software. Malicious activities such as opening doors and connecting to control servers could be triggered by user voice commands (“Play music” and “What is today’s weather?”). Soon we may hear infected IoT devices themselves exclaiming: “Assistant! Open the back door!”

Cybercriminals to Increase Attacks on Identity Platforms and Edge Devices Under Siege

Large-scale data breaches of identity platforms—which offer centralized secure authentication and authorization of users, devices, and services across IT environments—have been well documented in 2018. Meanwhile, the captured data is being reused to cause further misery for its victims. In 2019, we expect to see large-scale social media platforms implement additional measures to protect customer information. However, as the platforms grow in numbers, we predict criminals will further focus their resources on such attractive, data-rich environments. The struggle between criminals and big-scale platforms will be the next big battleground.

Triton, malware that attacks industrial control systems (ICS), has demonstrated the capabilities of adversaries to remotely target manufacturing environments through their adjacent IT environments. Identity platform and “edge device” breaches will provide the keys to adversaries to launch future remote ICS attacks due to static password use across environments and constrained edge devices, which lack secure system requirements due to design limitations. (An edge device is any network-enabled system hardware or protocol within an IoT product.) We expect multifactor authentication and identity intelligence will become the best methods to provide security in this escalating battle. We also predict identity intelligence will complement multifactor authentication to strengthen the capabilities of identity platforms.

Identity is a fundamental component in securing IoT. In these ecosystems, devices and services must securely identify trusted devices so that they can ignore the rest. The identity model has shifted from user centric in traditional IT systems to machine centric for IoT systems. Unfortunately, due to the integration of operational technology and insecure “edge device” design, the IoT trust model is built on a weak foundation of assumed trust and perimeter-based security.

At Black Hat USA and DEF CON 2018, 30 talks discussed IoT edge device exploitation. That’s a large increase from just 19 talks on the topic in 2017. The increase in interest was primarily in relation to ICS, consumer, medical, and “smart city” verticals. (See Figure 1.) Smart edge devices, combined with high-speed connectivity, are enabling IoT ecosystems, but the rate at which they are advancing is compromising the security of these systems.

Figure 1: The number of conference sessions on the security of IoT devices has increased, matching the growing threat to poorly protected devices. 

Most IoT edge devices provide no self-defense (isolating critical functions, memory protection, firmware protection, least privileges, or security by default) so one successful exploit owns the device. IoT edge devices also suffer from “break once, run everywhere” attacks—due to insecure components used across many device types and verticals. (See articles on WingOS and reverse engineering.)

McAfee Advanced Threat Research team engineers have demonstrated how medical device protocols can be exploited to endanger human life and compromise patients’ privacy due to assumed trust. These examples illustrate just a few of many possible scenarios that lead us to believe adversaries will choose IoT edge devices as the path of least resistance to achieve their objectives. Servers have been hardened over the last decade, but IoT hardware is far behind. By understanding an adversary’s motives and opportunities (attack surface and access capability), we can define a set of security requirements independent of a specific attack vector.

Figure 2 gives a breakdown of the types of vulnerabilities in IoT edge devices, highlighting weak points to address by building identity and integrity capabilities into edge hardware to ensure these devices can deflect attacks.

Figure 2: Insecure protocols are the primary attack surface in IoT edge devices.

IoT security must begin on the edge with a zero-trust model and provide a hardware root of trust as the core building block for protecting against hack and shack attacks and other threats. McAfee predicts an increase in compromises on identity platforms and IoT edge devices in 2019 due to the adoption of smart cities and increased ICS activity.

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8 Ways to Secure Your Family’s Online Holiday Shopping

It’s officially the most wonderful time of the year — no doubt about it. But each year, as our reliance and agility on our mobile devices increases, so too might our impulsivity and even inattention when it comes to digital transactions.

Before getting caught up in the whirlwind of gift giving and the thrill of the perfect purchase, consider taking a small pause. Stop to consider that as giddy as you may be to find that perfect gift, hackers are just as giddy this time of year to catch shoppers unaware and snatch what they can from the deep, digital holiday coffers. In fact, according to the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center, the number one cybercrime of 2017 was related to online shopping; specifically, payment for or non-delivery of goods purchased.

8 Ways to Secure Your Family’s Holiday Shopping Online

  1. Make it a family discussion. Make no assumptions when it comes to what your kids do and do not understand (and practice) when it comes to shopping safely online. Go over the points below as a family. Because kids are nearly 100% mobile, online shopping and transactions can move swiftly, and the chances of making a mistake or falling prey to a scam can increase. Caution kids to slow down and examine every website and link in the buying journey.
  2. Beware of malicious links. The most common forms of fraud and cyber attacks are phishing scams and socially-engineered malware. Check links before you click them and consider using McAfee® WebAdvisor, a free download that safeguards you from malware and phishing attempts while you surf — without impacting your browsing performance.
  3. Don’t shop on unsecured wi-fi. Most public networks don’t encrypt transmitted data, which makes all your online activity on public wi-fi vulnerable to hackers. Resist shopping on an unsecured wireless network (at a coffee shop, library, airport). Instead, do all of your online shopping from your secure home computer. If you have to conduct transactions on a public Wi-Fi connection use a virtual private network (VPN) such as McAfee® SafeConnect to maintain a secure connection in public places. To be sure your home network is safe, secure your router.
  4. Is that site legit? Before purchasing a product online, check the URL carefully. If the address bar says “HTTP” instead of “HTTPS” in its URL, do not purchase from the site. As of July 2018, unsecured sites now include a “Not Secure” warning, which is very helpful to shoppers. Also, an icon of a locked padlock will appear to the left of the URL in the address bar or the status bar down below depending on your browser. Cybercriminals can make a fake site look very close to the real thing. One added step: Google the site if anything feels wrong about it, and you may find some unlucky consumers sharing their stories.
  5. Review bills closely. Review your credit card statements in January and February, when your holiday purchases will show up. Credit cards offer better fraud protection than debit. So, if you’re shopping online during the holidays, give yourself an extra layer of protection from scams by using a credit card. Think about using the same card between family members to make checking your bill easier.
  6. Create new, strong passwords. If you are getting ready to do a lot of shopping online, it’s a great time to update your passwords. Choose a password that is unhackable rather than one that is super easy to remember.
  7. Verify charities. One of the best things about the holidays is the spirit of giving. Hackers and crooks know this and are working hard to trick innocent givers. This reality means that some seasonal charities may be well-devised scams. Before you donate, be sure to do a little research. Look at the website’s URL; it’s design, its security badges. Google the charity and see if any scams have been reported.
  8. Protect your data from third parties. Sites may contain “third parties,” which are other embedded websites your browser talks to such as advertisers, website analytics engines, that can watch your browsing behavior. To protect your data when shopping and get rid of third-party access, you need to wipe your cookies (data trackers) clean using your settings, then change your browser settings (choose “block third-party cookies and site data”) to make sure the cookies can’t track your buying behavior. You can also go into your settings and direct your browser to shop in private or incognito mode.

No one is immune to holiday scams. Many scams are intricately designed and executed so that even the savviest consumer is duped. You can enjoy the shopping that comes with the holidays by keeping these few safety precautions in mind. Don’t let your emotional desire for that perfect gift override your reasoning skills. Listen to your intuition when it comes to suspicious websites, offers, emails, pop-up ads, and apps. Pause. Analyze. And make sure you are purchasing from a legitimate site.

Stay safe and WIN: Now that you’ve read about safe shopping basics, head over to our Protect What Matters site. If you successfully complete the Holiday Online Shopping Adventure quiz, you can enter your email address for the chance to win a tech prize pack with some of this season’s hottest smart gadgets. Have fun, and stay safe online this holiday season!

 

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IoT Lockdown: Ways to Secure Your Family’s Digital Home and Lifestyle

Internet Of ThingsIf you took an inventory of your digital possessions chances are, most of your life — everything from phones to toys, to wearables, to appliances — has wholly transitioned from analog to digital (rotary to wireless). What you may not realize is that with this dramatic transition, comes a fair amount of risk.

Privacy for Progress

With this massive tech migration, an invisible exchange has happened: Privacy for progress. Here we are intentionally and happily immersed in the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is defined as everyday objects with computing devices embedded in them that can send and receive data over the internet.

That’s right. Your favorite fitness tracking app may be collecting and giving away personal data. That smart toy, baby device, or video game may be monitoring your child’s behavior and gathering information to influence future purchases. And, that smart coffee maker may be transmitting more than just good morning vibes.

Gartner report estimated there were 8.4 billion connected “things” in 2017 and as many as 20 billion by 2020. The ability of some IoT devices is staggering and, frankly, a bit frightening. Data collection ability from smart devices and services on the market is far greater than most of us realize. Rooms, devices, and apps come equipped with sensors and controls that can gather and inform third parties about consumers.

Internet Of Things

Lockdown IoT devices:

  • Research product security. With so many cool products on the market, it’s easy to be impulsive and skip your research but don’t. Read reviews on a product’s security (or lack of). Going with a name brand that has a proven security track record and has worked out security gaps may be the better choice.
  • Create new passwords. Most every IoT device will come with a factory default password. Hackers know these passwords and will use them to break into your devices and gain access to your data. Take the time to go into the product settings (general and advanced) and create a unique, strong password.
  • Keep product software up-to-date. Manufacturers often release software updates to protect customers against vulnerabilities and new threats. Set your device to auto-update, if possible, so you always have the latest, safest upgrade.
  • Get an extra layer of security. Managing and protecting multiple devices in our already busy lives is not an easy task. To make sure you are protected consider investing in software that will give you antivirus, identity and privacy protection for your PCs, Macs, smartphones, and tablets—all in one subscription.
  • Stay informed. Think about it, crooks make it a point to stay current on IoT news, so shouldn’t we? Stay a step ahead by staying informed. Keep an eye out for any news that may affect your IoT security (or specific products) by setting up a Google alert.Internet Of Things

A connected life is a good life, no doubt. The only drawback is that criminals fully understand our growing dependence and affection for IoT devices and spend most of their time looking for vulnerabilities. Once they crack our network from one angle, they can and reach other data-rich devices and possibly access private and financial data.

As Yoda says, “with much power comes much responsibility.” Discuss with your family the risks that come with smart devices and how to work together to lock down your always-evolving, hyper-connected way of life.

Do you enjoy podcasts and wish you could find one that helps you keep up with digital trends and the latest gadgets? Then give McAfee’s podcast Hackable a try.

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How to Squash the Android/TimpDoor SMiShing Scam

As technology becomes more advanced, so do cybercriminals’ strategies for gaining access to our personal information. And while phishing scams have been around for over two decades, attackers have adapted their methods to “bait” victims through a variety of platforms. In fact, we’re seeing a rise in the popularity of phishing via SMS messages, or SMiShing. Just recently, the McAfee Mobile Research team discovered active SMiShing campaigns that are tricking users into downloading fake voice-messaging apps, called Android/TimpDoor.

So how does Android/TimpDoor infect a user’s device? When a victim receives the malicious text, the content will include a link. If they click on it, they’ll be directed to a fake web page. The website will then prompt the victim to download the app in order to listen to phony voice messages. Once the app has been downloaded, the malware collects the device information including device ID, brand, model, OS version, mobile carrier, connection type, and public/local IP address. TimpDoor allows cybercriminals to use the infected device as a digital intermediary without the user’s knowledge. Essentially, it creates a backdoor for hackers to access users’ home networks.

According to our team’s research, these fake apps have infected at least 5,000 devices in the U.S. since the end of March. So, the next question is what can users do to defend themselves from these attacks? Check out the following tips to stay alert and protect yourself from SMS phishing:

  • Do not install apps from unknown sources. If you receive a text asking you to download something onto your phone from a given link, make sure to do your homework. Research the app developer name, product title, download statistics, and app reviews. Be on the lookout for typos and grammatical errors in the description. This is usually a sign that the app is fake.
  • Be careful what you click on. Be sure to only click on links in text messages that are from a trusted source. If you don’t recognize the sender, or the SMS content doesn’t seem familiar, stay cautious and avoid interacting with the message.
  • Enable the feature on your mobile device that blocks texts from the Internet. Many spammers send texts from an Internet service in an attempt to hide their identities. Combat this by using this feature to block texts sent from the Internet.
  • Use a mobile security software. Make sure your mobile devices are prepared for TimpDoor or any other threat coming their way. To do just that, cover these devices with a mobile security solution, such as McAfee Mobile Security.

And, as always, to stay up-to-date on the latest consumer and mobile security threats, be sure to follow me and @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

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Android/TimpDoor Turns Mobile Devices Into Hidden Proxies

The McAfee Mobile Research team recently found an active phishing campaign using text messages (SMS) that tricks users into downloading and installing a fake voice-message app which allows cybercriminals to use infected devices as network proxies without users’ knowledge. If the fake application is installed, a background service starts a Socks proxy that redirects all network traffic from a third-party server via an encrypted connection through a secure shell tunnel—allowing potential access to internal networks and bypassing network security mechanisms such as firewalls and network monitors. McAfee Mobile Security detects this malware as Android/TimpDoor.

Devices running TimpDoor could serve as mobile backdoors for stealthy access to corporate and home networks because the malicious traffic and payload are encrypted. Worse, a network of compromised devices could also be used for more profitable purposes such as sending spam and phishing emails, performing ad click fraud, or launching distributed denial-of-service attacks.

Based on our analysis of 26 malicious APK files found on the main distribution server, the earliest TimpDoor variant has been available since March, with the latest APK from the end of August. According to our telemetry data, these apps have infected at least 5,000 devices. The malicious apps have been distributed via an active phishing campaign via SMS in the United States since at least the end of March. McAfee notified the unwitting hosts of the phishing domains and the malware distribution server; at the time of writing this post we have confirmed that they are no longer active.

Campaign targets North America

Since at least the end of March users in the United States have reported suspicious text messages informing them that they have two voice messages to review and tricking them into clicking a URL to hear them:

Figure 1. User reporting a text that required downloading a fake voice app. Source 800notes.com.

Figure 2. An August 9 text. Source: findwhocallsyou.com.

Figure 3. An August 26 text. Source: 800notes.com.

If the user clicks on one of these links in a mobile device, the browser displays a fake web page that pretends to be from a popular classified advertisement website and asks the user to install an application to listen to the voice messages:

Figure 4. A fake website asking the user to download a voice app.

In addition to the link that provides the malicious APK, the fake site includes detailed instructions on how to disable “Unknown Sources” to install the app that was downloaded outside Google Play.

Fake voice app

When the user clicks on “Download Voice App,” the file VoiceApp.apk is downloaded from a remote server. If the victim follows the instructions, the following screens appear to make the app look legitimate:

Figure 5. Fake voice app initial screens.

The preceding screens are displayed only if the Android version of the infected device is 7.1 or later (API Level 25). If the Android version is earlier, the app skips the initial screens and displays the main fake interface to listen to the “messages”:

Figure 6. The main interface of the fake voice messages app.

Everything on the main screen is fake. The Recents, Saved, and Archive icons have no functionality. The only buttons that work play the fake audio files. The duration of the voice messages does not correspond with the length of the audio files and the phone numbers are fake, present in the resources of the app.

Once the user listens to the fake messages and closes the app, the icon is hidden from the home screen to make it difficult to remove. Meanwhile, it starts a service in the background without user’s knowledge:

Figure 7. Service running in the background.

Socks proxy over SSH

As soon as the service starts, the malware gathers device information: device ID, brand, model, OS version, mobile carrier, connection type, and public/local IP address. To gather the public IP address information, TimpDoor uses a free geolocation service to obtain the data (country, region, city, latitude, longitude, public IP address, and ISP) in JSON format. In case the HTTP request fails, the malware make an HTTP request to the webpage getIP.php of the main control server that provides the value “public_ip.”

Once the device information is collected, TimpDoor starts a secure shell (SSH) connection to the control server to get the assigned remote port by sending the device ID. This port will be later used for remote port forwarding with the compromised device acting as a local Socks proxy server. In addition to starting the proxy server through an SSH tunnel, TimpDoor establishes mechanisms to keep the SSH connection alive such as monitoring changes in the network connectivity and setting up an alarm to constantly check the established SSH tunnel:

Figure 8. An execution thread checking changes in connectivity and making sure the SSH tunnel is running.

To ensure the SSH tunnel is up, TimpDoor executes the method updateStatus, which sends the previously collected device information and local/public IP address data to the control server via SSH.

Mobile malware distribution server

By checking the IP address 199.192.19[.]18, which hosted VoiceApp.apk, we found more APK files in the directory US. This likely stands for United States, considering that the fake phone numbers in the voice app are in the country and the messages are sent from US phone numbers:

Figure 9. APK files in the “US” folder of the main malware distribution server.

According to the “Last modified” dates on the server, the oldest APK in the folder is chainmail.apk (March 12) while the newest is VoiceApp.apk (August 27) suggesting the campaign has run for at least five months and is likely still active.

We can divide the APK files into two groups by size (5.1MB and 3.1MB). The main difference between them is that the oldest use an HTTP proxy (LittleProxy) while the newest (July and August) use a Socks proxy (MicroSocks), which allows the routing of all traffic for any kind of network protocol (not only HTTP)TTp on any port. Other notable differences are the package name, control server URLs, and the value of appVersion in the updateStatus method—ranging from 1.1.0 to 1.4.0.

In addition to the US folder we also found a CA folder, which could stand for Canada.

Figure 10. The “CA” folder on the distribution server.

Checking the files in the CA folder we found that VoiceApp.apk and relevanbest.apk are the same file with appVersion 1.4.0 (Socks proxy server). Octarineiads.apk is version 1.1.0, with an HTTP proxy.

TimpDoor vs MilkyDoor

TimpDoor is not the first malware that turns Android devices into mobile proxies to forward network traffic from a control server using a Socks proxy though an SSH tunnel. In April 2017 researchers discovered MilkyDoor, an apparent successor of DressCode, which was found a year earlier. Both threats were distributed as Trojanized apps in Google Play. DressCode installs only a Socks proxy server on the infected device; MilkyDoor also protects that connection to bypass network security restrictions using remote port forwarding via SSH, just as TimpDoor does. However, there are some relevant differences between TimpDoor and MilkyDoor:

  • Distribution: Instead of being part of a Trojanized app in Google Play, TimpDoor uses a completely fake voice app distributed via text message
  • SSH connection: While MilkyDoor uploads the device and IP address information to a control server to receive the connection details, TimpDoor already has the information in its code. TimpDoor uses the information to get the remote port to perform dynamic port forwarding and to periodically send updated device data.
  • Pure proxy functionality: MilkyDoor was apparently an adware integrator in early versions of the SDK and later added backdoor functionality. TimpDoor’s sole purpose (at least in this campaign) is to keep the SSH tunnel open and the proxy server running in the background without the user’s consent.

MilkyDoor seems to be a more complete SDK, with adware and downloader functionality. TimpDoor has only basic proxy functionality, first using an HTTP proxy and later Socks.

Conclusion

TimpDoor is the latest example of Android malware that turns devices into mobile backdoors—potentially allowing cybercriminals encrypted access to internal networks, which represents a great risk to companies and their systems. The versions found on the distribution server and the simple proxy functionality implemented in them shows that this threat is probably still under development. We expect it will evolve into new variants.

Although this threat has not been seen on Google Play, this SMS phishing campaign distributing TimpDoor shows that cybercriminals are still using traditional phishing techniques to trick users into installing malicious applications.

McAfee Mobile Security detects this threat as Android/TimpDoor. To protect yourselves from this and similar threats, employ security software on your mobile devices and do not install apps from unknown sources.

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The Importance of Security Awareness in Our Connected Lifestyle

Not very long ago, people could be seen walking around waving their mobile phones in the air, looking for a network connection. Today, we are talking 5G! Our kids just can’t imagine a world without gadgets and internet! Little kids as young as four can turn on and instruct Alexa, search for new games on smartphones and talk to digital devices.

Moving Toward an Increasingly Connected Lifestyle

Ours is a connected world and we are constantly connected to the internet- be it through our smartphones, digital assistants, gaming and reading devices, laptops, wearable devices, remote monitoring devices like CCTV and many more. While this leads to time saving, higher efficiency, and greater comfort, there are a few safety checks, which if ignored, may lead to data and ID thefts.

I was recently reading an article on the 5G revolution. South Korea, I believe, already enjoys phenomenal browsing and download speeds, and so will rest of the world very soon. It will also hopefully reduce lags and connectivity disruptions that we currently experience. More IoT (Internet of Things) devices will come into play and home Wi-Fi routers will have a larger count of devices connected to it. Needless to say, this calls for ensuring maximum security for the router as well as all our devices.

Moreover, we often use public Wi-Fi connections to browse; which expose us to possible cyber attacks. Often, something as innocuous as using external storage devices or delaying the installation of updates can lead to malware entering the device system. What happens if cyber attackers worm into our systems? They can spy on us, regulate our smart devices, and even listen in on our baby monitor, to name a few.

As many countries observe October as Cybersecurity Month, it is the right time to have a discussion on how we can keep our connected homes safe.

Let’s discuss some of the common causes that can lead to device hacking:

  • Software updating not done: Security companies and your OS vendors keep sending patches to give cover for latest viruses and thus enhance protection against cyberattacks. Delay in patch installation exposes our device to attacks. It is therefore advisable to set updates to automatic.
  • Increasing use of IoT devices: Our smartwatch or smartphone, digital assistants or digital toys are all connected to Wi-Fi. This offers cyber criminals a bigger hunting ground. They try to find and exploit vulnerabilities in these devices
  • Outdated security: Despite being aware of safety issues related to not securing devices with licensed comprehensive software, we often neglect this very important step. At best, we download and use free security tools which may not offer cover against more sophisticated attacks.
  • Carelessness of users: But the security chain also includes us, the users. We may click on malicious links or download infected files. We may also visit unsafe websites, making it easy for cyber criminals to target us

How to use smart devices safely:

  • Use unique, complex passphrases: Strong passphrases (not passwords you will notice) will go a long way in keeping hackers at bay. If the thought of remembering several passphrases daunts you, go for a password manager
  • Set up autolock: Set up autolock and PIN protect your devices. Modern devices offer biometric locks as well. Make use of them
  • Keep auto update turned on: This way your OS and security tool would always receive patches and updates on time and you will receive maximum protection
  • Check security settings before buying IoT devices: Before buying any connected toy or device, research the manufacturer to find out if they give security top priority. Check out the security they offer and change default passcodes. Also, do read the terms and conditions to know how the vendor plans to secure your data
  • Secure your home Wi-Fi router: As this will be the point for connecting with the net, this device needs to be secured with a strong passphrase. It’s a good idea to change the passphrase from time to time. Keep an eye on data consumption too
  • Install and run licensed comprehensive security software: Don’t go for free, your devices and your personal data are at stake here. Instead, use a comprehensive security solutionto protect your technology
  • Be aware: Awareness pays. If you know of the latest threats doing the round, you would take necessary precautions and share your knowledge with friends and family accordingly

We can do it, can’t we? A few simple measures help secure our digital lives and allow us to take full advantage of what tech has to offer. Let us be ready to welcome 5G in our lives.

Stay safe, stay secure!

 

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Working Together to Ensure Better Cybersecurity

For many, it’s hard to picture a work environment that doesn’t revolve around the use of technology. Digital, cloud-based services coupled with access through mobile and IoT devices have completely reshaped organizations by streamlining business processes and enabling people to work anywhere, anytime. Thanks to these advances, there have also been a variety of recent shifts in how employers and employees interact with each other, ranging from liberal remote work policies companies asking employees to bring their own devices to work.

Often these changes feel remarkable, efficient and convenient, as they make our work lives much more efficient – but these advancements also create concerns around cybersecurity. Many devices contain both personal and professional data , and when we take our work home or on the go with us, we’re not constantly protected by a company firewall, safe Wi-Fi, or other standard cybersecurity measures. Regardless of what industry you are in, online safety is no longer just IT’s problem. Cybersecurity is now a shared responsibility between an organization and its employees.

Naturally, these changes require education and communication around cybersecurity best practices in order to develop positive habits that will keep both employers and employees safe. Getting a habit to stick also requires an organization to develop culture of security in tandem, in which every individual and department is accountable for cybersecurity and bands together with the shared objective of staying secure.

October is National Cybersecurity Awareness Month, which is a great time to look at how everyone can be a part of the cybersecurity solution within their organization. If cybersecurity has not historically not been a priority within an organization, starting a conversation about it can be difficult, whether you’re an employee or an employer. Consider using these tips to start thinking about personal cybersecurity and how that translates into an overall cybersecurity plan within your organization.

Employers can take the following steps:

  • Identify which company assets are of greatest value, then ensure security measures are in place. Employee, customer, and payment data are all assets that cybercriminals could leverage via phishing, malware, password breaches, and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Begin to develop a formal cybersecurity plan based on your specific needs.
  • Set up an alert system. Put a system into place that will alert employees and your organization of an incident. This also includes an avenue for employees to report problems they might notice before they become widespread. The sooner people know about a vulnerability, the faster they can respond and take action.
  • Develop a response plan. Practice an incident response plan to contain an attack or breach. Keep in mind the goal of maintaining business operations in the short term while assessing the long-term effects of the cyber incident.

Employees can follow these guidelines:

  • Regularly update your device’s software. This is the easiest way to ensure your devices are equipped with vital patches that protect against flaws and bugs that cybercriminals can exploit.
  • Take security precautions, even if your company isn’t there yet. Professional and personal information is often intertwined on our devices – especially our mobile phones. Keep all your data secure with comprehensive mobile security, such as McAfee® Mobile Security. Then work within your organization to develop a cybersecurity plan that works for all.

Interested in learning more about IoT and mobile security trends and information? Follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, and ‘Like” us on Facebook.

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The Dangers of Linking Your Apple ID to Financial Accounts

The digital wallets of Chinese citizens are under attack thanks to a few bad apples. A recent string of cyberattacks in China utilized stolen Apple IDs to break into customers’ accounts and steal an undisclosed amount of money, according to a Bloomberg report. Almost immediately, Chinese e-transaction giants Tencent Holdings and Alipay warned their customers to monitor their accounts carefully, especially those who have linked their Apple IDs to Alipay accounts, WeChat Pay or their digital wallets and credit cards.

While Alipay works with Apple to figure out how this rare security breach happened and how hackers were able to hijack Apple IDs, they’re urging customers to lower their transaction limits to prevent any further losses while this investigation remains ongoing. Because Apple has yet to resolve this issue, any users who have linked their Apple IDs to payment methods including WeChat Pay — the popular digital wallet of WeChat which boasts over a billion users worldwide and can be used to pay for almost anything in China — remain vulnerable to theft. Apple also advises users to change their passwords immediately.

This security breach represents a large-scale example of a trend that continues to rise: the targeting of digital payment services by cybercriminals, who are capitalizing on the growing popularity of these services. Apple IDs represent an easy entry point of attack considering they connect Apple users to all the information, devices and products they care about. That interconnectivity of personal data is a veritable goldmine for cybercriminals if they get their hands on something like an Apple ID. With so much at stake for something as seemingly small as an Apple ID, it’s important for consumers to know how to safeguard their digital identifiers against potential financial theft. Here are some ways they can go about doing so:

  • Make a strong password. Your password is your first line of defense against attack, so you should make it as hard as possible for any potential cybercriminals to penetrate it. Including a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols will help you craft a stronger, more complex password that’s difficult for cybercriminals to crack. Avoid easy to guess passwords like “1234” or “password” at all costs.
  • Change login information for different accounts. An easy trap is using the same email and password across a wide variety of accounts, including Apple IDs. To better protect your Apple ID, especially if it’s linked to your financial accounts, it’s best to create a wholly original and complex password for it.
  • Enable two-factor authentication. While Apple works on identifying how these hackers hijacked Apple IDs, do yourself a favor and add an extra layer of security to your account by enabling two-factor authentication. By having to provide two or more pieces of information to verify your identity before you can log into your account, you place yourself in a better position to avoid attacks.
  • Monitor your financial accounts. When linking credentials like Apple IDs to your financial accounts, it’s important to regularly check your online bank statements and credit card accounts for any suspicious activity or transactions. Most banks and credit cards offer free credit monitoring as well. You could also invest in an identity protection service, which will reimburse you in the case of identity fraud or financial theft.

Stay on top of the latest consumer and mobile security threats by following me and @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listening to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Liking’ us on Facebook.

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Digital Assistants, Cryptocurrency, Mobile Malware: Trends from ‘McAfee Labs Threats Report’

Every three months, our team crafts the McAfee Labs Threats Report. The quarterly report ranges in topic and severity but always touches on the most important and impactful threats afflicting consumers and companies alike. This year, the McAfee Labs team analyzed an average of 1,800,000 URLs, 800,000 files and 200,000 high-risk files to produce the McAfee Labs Threats Report: September 2018, which features digital assistants, cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminal gangs up to no good. Overall, it’s been an eventful quarter.

So, what are the key takeaways for you? Notably, our team has continued to track a downward trend in new malware attacks for the second successive quarter. Good news on the surface, but that trend may not be indicative of much; as we also saw a spike in new malware in Q4 2017. We’ll continue to watch this into next year. Significantly, we found that a good portion of net new malware is designed for mobile, which increased 27 percent over the previous quarter. In addition, here’s a look at the other trending stories we uncovered.

Digital Assistants

Digital assistants are advanced programs that we can converse with to research, act on our behalf and overall help make our digital lives more comfortable. Siri, Bixby and Google Assistant are few. But one digital assistant, Microsoft’s Cortana, is a little too helpful. The good news, Microsoft quickly rolled out a fix for this vulnerability to protect your Windows 10 computer. Be sure your software is up to date.

Cryptocurrency

The second story involves cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital tokens generated by a computer after solving complex mathematical functions. These functions are used to verify the authenticity of a ledger, or blockchain. Blockchains, by their nature, are relatively secure. But an account that is connected to a blockchain — usually, in this case, associated with a cryptocurrency — is not. And that’s where cybercriminals are focusing their efforts, with coin miner malware up 86% in Q2 2018.

Our report found cybercriminals are chasing after access to cryptocurrencies and they’re doing so using familiar tactics. For example, phishing attacks — where cybercriminals pose as someone else online — are popular tools to take over a cryptocurrency-related account. Malicious programs are also deployed to collect passwords and other information related to an account before stealing virtual currency. You can read more about blockchain and cryptocurrency vulnerabilities here. 

Malicious Apps

Finally, the McAfee Mobile Research team found a collection of malicious applications facilitating a scam in the Google Play store. The apps in question siphon money from unwary users through billing-fraud. Billing-fraud collects money from victims for “using” a “premium” service, such as sending texts to a particular number.

In this case, the cybercriminal ring known as the AsiaHitGroup Gang attempted to charge at least 20,000 victims for downloading fake or copied versions of popular applications. To increase its potential, AsiaHitGroup Gang is using geolocation to target vulnerable populations.

So, what can you do to stay safe in the face of these threats? Here are three quick tips:

  • Limit device access. If you can, limit the ability and access a digital assistant has to your device. Often, you can adjust where and how an assistant is activated through your settings. Otherwise, update your software regularly, as many updates contain security fixes.
  • Create strong passwords. If you’re participating in the cryptocurrency market, then make sure you use strong, robust passwords to protect your accounts. This means using upper case, lower case, symbols and numbers for passwords that are 12 characters long. Afraid you might forget the key to your account? Consider using a password manager.
  • Be careful what you download. Always do some light research on the developer of a mobile application. If the information is hard to come across or absent, consider using an alternative program. Additionally, never download mobile applications from third-party app stores. Genuine stores, like Google Play and Apple’s App Store, should provide you with what you need.

And, of course, stay informed. To keep atop of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, be sure to follow me and @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable? and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

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‘McAfee Labs Threats Report’ Highlights Cryptojacking, Blockchain, Mobile Security Issues

As we look over some of the key issues from the newly released McAfee Labs Threats Report, we read terms such as voice assistant, blockchain, billing fraud, and cryptojacking. Although voice assistants fall in a different category, the other three are closely linked and driven by the goal of fast, profitable attacks that result in a quick return on a cybercriminal’s investment.

One of the most significant shifts we see is that cryptojacking is still on the rise, while traditional ransomware attacks—aka “shoot and pray they pay”—are decreasing. Ransomware attacks are becoming more targeted as actors conduct their research to pick likely victims, breach their networks, and launch the malware followed by a high-pressure demand to pay the ransom. Although the total number of ransomware samples has fallen for two quarters, one family continues to spawn new variants. The Scarab ransomware family, which entered the threat landscape in June 2017, developed a dozen new variants in Q2. These variants combined make up more than 50% of the total number of Scarab samples to date.

What spiked the movement, starting in fall 2017, toward cryptojacking? The first reason is the value of cryptocurrency. If attacker can steal Bitcoins, for example, from a victim’s system, that’s enough. If direct theft is not possible, why not mine coins using a large number of hijacked systems. There’s no need to pay for hardware, electricity, or CPU cycles; it’s an easy way for criminals to earn money. We once thought that CPUs in routers and video-recording devices were useless for mining, but default or missing passwords wipe away this view. If an attacker can hijack enough systems, mining in high volume can be profitable. Not only individuals struggle with protecting against these attacks; companies suffer from them as well.

Securing cloud environments can be a challenge. Building applications in the cloud with container technology is effective and fast, but we also need to create the right amount of security controls. We have seen breaches in which bad actors uploaded their own containers and added them to a company’s cloud environment—which started to mine cryptocurrency.

New technologies and improvements to current ones are great, but we need to find the balance of securing them appropriately. Who would guess to use an embedded voice assistant to hack a computer? Who looks for potential attack vectors in new technologies and starts a dialog with the industry? One of those is the McAfee Advanced Threat Research team, which provides most of the analysis behind our threats reports. With a mix of the world’s best researchers in their key areas, they take on the challenge of making the (cyber) world safer. From testing vulnerabilities in new technologies to examining malware and the techniques of nation-state campaigns, we responsibly disclose our research to organizations and the industry. We take what we learn from analyzing attacks to evaluate, adapt, and innovate to improve our technology.

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Monitoring Vulnaggressive Apps on Google Play

Vulnaggressive Characteristics in Mobile Apps and Libraries

FireEye mobile security researchers have discovered a rapidly-growing class of mobile threats represented by popular ad libraries affecting apps with billions of downloads. These ad libraries are aggressive at collecting sensitive data and able to perform dangerous operations such as downloading and running new code on demand. They are also plagued with various classes of vulnerabilities that enable attackers to turn their aggressive behaviors against users. We coined the term “vulnaggressive” to describe this class of vulnerable and aggressive characteristics. We have published some of our findings in our two recent blogs about these threats: “Ad Vulna: A Vulnaggressive (Vulnerable & Aggressive) Adware Threatening Millions” and “Update: Ad Vulna Continues”.

As we reported in our earlier blog “Update: Ad Vulna Continues”, we have observed that some vulnaggressive apps have been removed from Google Play, and some app developers have upgraded their apps to a more secure version either by removing the vulnaggressive libraries entirely or by upgrading the relevant libraries to a more secure version which address the security issues. However, many app developers are still not aware of these security issues and have not taken such needed steps. We need to make a community effort to help app developers and library vendors to be more aware of these security issues and address them in a timely fashion.

To aid this community effort, we present the data to illustrate the changes over time as vulnaggressive apps are upgraded to a more secure version or removed from Google Play after our notification. We summarize our observations below, although we do not have specific information about the reasons that caused these changes we are reporting.

We currently only show the chart for one such vulnaggressive library, AppLovin (previously referred to by us as Ad Vulna for anonymity). We will add the charts for other vulnaggressive libraries as we complete our notification/disclosure process and the corresponding libraries make available new versions that fix the issues.

The Chart of Apps Affected by AppLovin

AppLovin (Vulna)’s vulnerable versions include 3.x, 4.x and 5.0.x. AppLovin 5.1 fixed most of the reported security issues. We urge app developers to upgrade AppLovin to the latest version and ask their users to update their apps as soon as the newer versions are available.

The figure below illustrates the change over time of the status of vulnerable apps affected by AppLovin on Google Play. In particular, we collect and depict the statistics of apps that we have observed on Google Play with at least 100k downloads and with at least one version containing the vulnerable versions of AppLovin starting September 20. Over time, a vulnerable app may be removed by Google Play (which we call “removed apps”, represented in gray), have a new version available on Google Play that addresses the security issues either by removing AppLovin entirely or by upgrading the embedded AppLovin to 5.1 or above (which we call “upgradable apps”, represented in green), or remain vulnerable (which we call “vulnerable apps”, represented in red), as shown in the legend in the chart.

Please note that we started collecting the data of app removal from Google Play on October 20, 2013. Thus, any relevant app removal between September 20 and October 20 will be counted and shown on October 20. Also, for each app included in the chart, Google Play shows a range of its number of downloads, e.g., between 1M and 5M. We use the lower end of the range in our download count so the statistics we show are conservative estimates.

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We are glad to see that over time, many vulnerable apps have been either removed from Google Play or have more secure versions available on Google Play. However, apps with hundreds of millions of downloads in total still remain vulnerable. In addition, note that while removing vulnaggressive apps from Google Play prevents more people from being affected, the millions of devices that already downloaded them remain vulnerable since they are not automatically removed from the devices. Furthermore, because many users do not update their downloaded apps often and older versions of Android do not auto-update apps, even after the new, more secure version of a vulnerable app is available on Google Play, millions of users of these apps will remain vulnerable until they update to the new versions of these apps on their devices. FireEye recently announced FireEye Mobile Threat Prevention. It is uniquely capable of protecting its customers from such threats.