Category Archives: IoT

Cr1ptT0r Ransomware targets D-Link NAS Devices and embedded systems

A new piece of ransomware called Cr1ptT0r infects embedded systems and network attached storage (NAS) devices exposed online.

A new piece of ransomware called Cr1ptT0r was discovered by experts, it infects embedded systems and network attached storage (NAS) devices exposed online.

The discovery of the Cr1ptT0r ransomware was first reported on a discussion in the BleepingComputerforums. A user reported that its D-Link DNS-320 device was infected by malicious code.

The D-Link DNS-320 model is no more available for sale, one of the members of
the forum explained that the firmware of its NAS was never updated and its
device was exposed to WAN through ports 8080, FTP port 21, and a range of ports
for port forwarding.

The newest firmware revision is bated back 2016 and its known to be affected by several
bugs that can be exploited to compromise the device.

At the time of the discovery, the malicious ELF binary showed a minimum detection rate on VirusTotal.

Information shared by BleepingComputer forum members suggests attackers leveraged known flaws in old firmware, a circumstance that was confirmed by a member of the Cr1ptT0r team to us, saying that there are so many vulnerabilities in D-Link DNS-320 NAS models that they should be built from scratch to make things better.

The list of flaws in old versions of the firmware for D-Link DNS-320 includes at least a remote code execution vulnerability, and a hard-coded backdoor published in 2018 for ShareCenter DNS‑320L.

At the time of the discovery, the malicious ELF binary showed a minimum detection rate on VirusTotal.

Once the malware has infected a system drops two plain text files, one is a ransom note called “_FILES_ENCRYPTED_README.txt,” which gives information to the victim on what has happened and instruction to pay the ransom.


Cr1ptT0r ransom-note

Like other ransomware, the operators allow victims to unlock a file for free.

The second text file named “_cr1ptt0r_support.txt” includes the onion address for a website that offers support to the victims. The hidden service enables a remote shell on an infected device if it is online.

“The Cr1ptT0r group member added that the URLs and IP addresses are not logged, so there is no correlation between data and the victim.” wrote Bleeping Computer.

“Although the Cr1ptT0r member says they are just interested in getting paid and that spying is not on their agenda, they cannot guarantee privacy.”

Operators offer decryption keys via OpenBazaar marketplace, for BTC 0.30672022 (about $1,200). It is also possible to decrypt single files paying $19.99, in this case, victims have to send the encrypted file to the operators.

Bleeping Computer noticed that operators of the ransomware also offer decryption keys for the Synolocker ransomware for the same price. This second ransomware made the headlines in 2014 when it infected NAS servers from Synology that ran outdated versions of the DiskStation Manager.

No extension added to locked files

The ransomware is an ELF ARM binary that does not append a specific extension to the encrypted files.

The popular malware researcher Michael Gillespie discovered the ransomware adds the end-of-file marker “_Cr1ptT0r_” to the encrypted files.

“He also says that the strings he noticed suggest that this ransomware strain uses the Sodium crypto library and that it uses the “curve25519xsalsa20poly1305″ algorithm for asymmetric encryption. We received confirmation about these details from the Cr1ptT0r group member we talked to.” continues Bleeping Computer.

“The public key (256-bit) used for encrypting the data is available in a separate file named “cr1ptt0r_logs.txt,” which stores a list of the encrypted files as well, and it is also appended at the end of the encrypted files, just before the marker. Gillespie says that it matches the encryption algorithm he noted above.”

Even if Cr1ptT0r has appeared in the threat landscape recently, experts believe it will be a dangerous threats due to its ability to infect embedded systems and the possibility to adapt its code to infect Windows machines.

Further details, including IoCs are reported in the analysis published by Bleeping Computer.


Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – Cr1ptT0r, ranomware)

The post Cr1ptT0r Ransomware targets D-Link NAS Devices and embedded systems appeared first on Security Affairs.

Smart Home Threats: Securing Your IoT Devices Against Cybercrime and Oversharing

The Internet of Things (IoT) encompasses the billions of devices that are connected to the web all over the world. Smart home devices, like virtual assistants, make our lives more convenient but

The post Smart Home Threats: Securing Your IoT Devices Against Cybercrime and Oversharing appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

Vulnerability In Xiaomi Electric Scooters Allows Attackers to Take Control of the Machine

Electric scooters have proved to be a convenient form of travel for some over short distances. Security researchers have highlighted

Vulnerability In Xiaomi Electric Scooters Allows Attackers to Take Control of the Machine on Latest Hacking News.

IT Security Expert Blog: The Business of Organised Cybercrime

Guest article by David Warburton, Senior Threat Research Evangelist, F5 Networks

Team leader, network administrator, data miner, money specialist. These are just some of the roles making a difference in today’s enterprises. The same is also true for sophisticated cybergangs.

Many still wrongly believe that the dark web is exclusively inhabited by hoodie-clad teenagers and legions of disaffected disruptors. The truth is, the average hacker is just a cog in a complex ecosystem more akin to that of a corporate enterprise than you think. The only difference is the endgame, which is usually to cause reputational or financial damage to governments, businesses and consumers.

There is no way around it; cybercrime is now run like an industry with multiple levels of deceit shielding those at the very top from capture. Therefore, it’s more important than ever for businesses to re-evaluate cybercriminal perceptions and ensure effective protective measures are in place.

Current perceptions surrounding cybergangs Cybergangs as a collective are often structured like legitimate businesses, including partner networks, resellers and vendors. Some have even set up call centres to field interactions with ransomware victims. Meanwhile, entry-level hackers across the world are embarking on career development journeys of sorts, enjoying opportunities to learn and develop skills. This includes the ability to write their own tools or enhance the capabilities of others. In many ways, it is a similar path to that of an intern. They often become part of sophisticated groups or operations once their abilities reach a certain level. Indeed, a large proportion of hackers are relatively new entrants to the cybercrime game and still use low-level tools to wreak havoc. This breed of cybercriminal isn’t always widely feared by big corporations. They should be.

How Cybergangs are using Technology to Work Smarter and Cheaper Cybergangs often work remotely across widely dispersed geographies, which makes them tricky to detect and deal with. The nature of these structures also means that cyber attacks are becoming more automated, rapid and cost-effective. The costs and risks are further reduced when factoring in the fluidity and inherent anonymity of cryptocurrencies and the dark web.
The industry has become so robust that hackers can even source work on each link in an attack chain at an affordable rate. Each link is anonymous to other threat actors in the chain to vastly reduce the risk of detection.
IoT Vulnerabilities on the RiseAccording to IHS Markit, there will be 125 billion IoT devices on the planet by 2030.

With so much hype surrounding the idea of constant and pervasive connectivity, individuals and businesses are often complacent when it comes to ensuring all devices are secure.

Significantly, it is easier to compromise an IoT device that is exposed to the public Internet and protected with known vendor default credentials than it is to trick an individual into clicking on a link in a phishing email.

Consequently, it is crucial for organisations to have an IoT strategy in place that encompasses the monitoring and identification of traffic patterns for all connected devices. Visibility is essential to understand network behaviour and any potential suspicious activities that may occur on it.

Why Cybersecurity Mindsets must Change IT teams globally have been lecturing staff for years on the importance of creating different passwords. Overall, the message is not resonating enough.

To combat the issue, businesses need to consider alternative tactics such as password manager applications, as well as ensuring continuous security training is available and compulsory for all staff.

It is worth noting that the most commonly attacked credentials are the vendor defaults for some of the most commonly used applications in enterprise environments. Simply having a basic system hardening policy that ensures vendor default credentials are disabled or changed before the system goes live will prevent this common issue from becoming a painful breach. System hardening is a requirement in every best practice security framework or compliance requirement.

Ultimately, someone with responsibility for compliance, audit, or security should be continually reviewing access to all systems. Commonly, security teams will only focus on systems within the scope of some compliance or regulatory obligation. This can lead to failure to review seemingly innocuous systems that can occasionally result in major breaches.

In addition to continual access reviews, monitoring should be in place to detect access attacks. Brute force attacks can not only lead to a breach, they can also result in performance impacts on the targeted system or lock customers out of their accounts. As a result, there are significant financial incentives for organisations to equip themselves with appropriate monitoring procedures.

Cybergangs use many different methods to wreak havoc, making it increasingly difficult to identify attacks in a timely manner. Businesses are often ignorant about the size of attacks, the scope of what has been affected, and the scale of the operation behind them. You are operating in the dark without doing the utmost to know your enemy. Failing to do so will continue to put information, staff and customers at risk by allowing cybergangs to operate in the shadows.
David Warburton, Senior Threat Research Evangelist with F5 Labs with over 20 years’ experience in IT and security.



IT Security Expert Blog

The Business of Organised Cybercrime

Guest article by David Warburton, Senior Threat Research Evangelist, F5 Networks

Team leader, network administrator, data miner, money specialist. These are just some of the roles making a difference in today’s enterprises. The same is also true for sophisticated cybergangs.

Many still wrongly believe that the dark web is exclusively inhabited by hoodie-clad teenagers and legions of disaffected disruptors. The truth is, the average hacker is just a cog in a complex ecosystem more akin to that of a corporate enterprise than you think. The only difference is the endgame, which is usually to cause reputational or financial damage to governments, businesses and consumers.

There is no way around it; cybercrime is now run like an industry with multiple levels of deceit shielding those at the very top from capture. Therefore, it’s more important than ever for businesses to re-evaluate cybercriminal perceptions and ensure effective protective measures are in place.

Current perceptions surrounding Cybergangs

Cybergangs as a collective are often structured like legitimate businesses, including partner networks, resellers and vendors. Some have even set up call centres to field interactions with ransomware victims. Meanwhile, entry-level hackers across the world are embarking on career development journeys of sorts, enjoying opportunities to learn and develop skills. 

This includes the ability to write their own tools or enhance the capabilities of others. In many ways, it is a similar path to that of an intern. They often become part of sophisticated groups or operations once their abilities reach a certain level. Indeed, a large proportion of hackers are relatively new entrants to the cybercrime game and still use low-level tools to wreak havoc. This breed of cybercriminal isn’t always widely feared by big corporations. They should be.

How Cybergangs are using Technology to Work Smarter and Cheaper

Cybergangs often work remotely across widely dispersed geographies, which makes them tricky to detect and deal with. The nature of these structures also means that cyber attacks are becoming more automated, rapid and cost-effective. The costs and risks are further reduced when factoring in the fluidity and inherent anonymity of cryptocurrencies and the dark web.

The industry has become so robust that hackers can even source work on each link in an attack chain at an affordable rate. Each link is anonymous to other threat actors in the chain to vastly reduce the risk of detection.

IoT Vulnerabilities on the Rise
According to IHS Markit, there will be 125 billion IoT devices on the planet by 2030.  With so much hype surrounding the idea of constant and pervasive connectivity, individuals and businesses are often complacent when it comes to ensuring all devices are secure. 

Significantly, it is easier to compromise an IoT device that is exposed to the public Internet and protected with known vendor default credentials than it is to trick an individual into clicking on a link in a phishing email.

Consequently, it is crucial for organisations to have an IoT strategy in place that encompasses the monitoring and identification of traffic patterns for all connected devices. Visibility is essential to understand network behaviour and any potential suspicious activities that may occur on it.

Why Cybersecurity Mindsets must Change

IT teams globally have been lecturing staff for years on the importance of creating different passwords. Overall, the message is not resonating enough.

To combat the issue, businesses need to consider alternative tactics such as password manager applications, as well as ensuring continuous security training is available and compulsory for all staff.

It is worth noting that the most commonly attacked credentials are the vendor defaults for some of the most commonly used applications in enterprise environments. Simply having a basic system hardening policy that ensures vendor default credentials are disabled or changed before the system goes live will prevent this common issue from becoming a painful breach. System hardening is a requirement in every best practice security framework or compliance requirement.

Ultimately, someone with responsibility for compliance, audit, or security should be continually reviewing access to all systems. Commonly, security teams will only focus on systems within the scope of some compliance or regulatory obligation. This can lead to failure to review seemingly innocuous systems that can occasionally result in major breaches.

In addition to continual access reviews, monitoring should be in place to detect access attacks. Brute force attacks can not only lead to a breach, they can also result in performance impacts on the targeted system or lock customers out of their accounts. As a result, there are significant financial incentives for organisations to equip themselves with appropriate monitoring procedures.

Cybergangs use many different methods to wreak havoc, making it increasingly difficult to identify attacks in a timely manner. Businesses are often ignorant about the size of attacks, the scope of what has been affected, and the scale of the operation behind them. You are operating in the dark without doing the utmost to know your enemy. Failing to do so will continue to put information, staff and customers at risk by allowing cybergangs to operate in the shadows.
David Warburton, Senior Threat Research Evangelist with F5 Labs with over 20 years’ experience in IT and security.

ThreatList: Latest DDoS Trends by the Numbers

Trends in DDoS attacks show a evolution beyond Mirai code and point to next-gen botnets that are better hidden and have a greater level of persistence on devices – making them "far more dangerous."

Infosec Pro: 2019 Digital Identity Progress Report

Schools out for summer?  Well not quite.  Unless you're living in the east coast of Australia, it's looking decidedly bleak weather wise for most of Europe and the American east coast.  But I digress.  Is it looking bleak for your digital identity driven projects?  What's been a success, where are we heading and what should we look out for?

Where We Are Today

Passwordless - (Reports says B-)

Over the last 24 months, there have been some pretty big themes that many organisations embarking on digital identity and security related projects, have been trying to succeed at.  First up, the age old chestnut...of passwordless authentication.  The password is dead, long live the password!  We are definitely making progress though.  Many of the top public sites (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter et al) provide multi-factor authentication options at least.  Passwords are still required as the first step, but the end user education and familiarity with something other than a password during login, must surely be the first steps to getting ridding of them entirely.  2018 also saw the rise of WebAuthn - the W3C standards based approach for crypto based challenge response authentication.  Could this hopefully accelerate adoption to a password-free world?

API Protection - (Report says C+)

API's will eat the world?  Well, digital disruption needs speed, agility and mashups.  API's help organisations achieve those basic aims, but where are we, with respect to the protection of those API's?  API management platforms are now common in most enterprise architectures.  They help to perform API provisioning, versioning and life cycle management, but what about security?  Many use cases fall into the API security band wagon such as service to service authentication, least privilege authorization, token exchange and contextual throttling.  Most API services are now sitting comfortably behind basic authentication, but fine grained controls and basic use cases such as token revocation and rotation are still in their infancy.  Report says "we must do better".

Microservices Protection - (Report says B-)

Not all API's are microservices, but many net new additions to projects will leverage this approach.  But microservices infrastructures, bring many new security challenges as well as benefits.  Service versioning, same service load balancing, high through puts and fine grained access controls have created some new emerging security patterns.  Both the side car and inflight/proxy approach for traffic introspection and security enforcement have appeared.  Microservices by their design, normally means very high transactions per second, as well as fine grained access control - with each service performing only a single task.  Stateless OAuth2 seems to fit the bill for many projects, but the consistency around high scale token introspection and scope design seems immature.

IoT Security - (Reports says C-)

Many digital disruption projects are embracing smart device (HTTP-able) infrastructures.  Pairing those devices to real people seems a winner for many industries, from retail, insurance to finance.  But and there's always a but, the main interest for many organisations is not the device, but the data the device is either collecting or generating.  Device protection is often lacking - default credentials, hard coded keys, un-upgradable firmware, inability to use HTTPS and the inability to store access tokens are all very common.  There are costs and usability issues with increased device security and no emerging patterns are consistent.  Several regulations and security best practice documents now exist, but adoption is still low.

User Consent Management - (Report says B-)

GDPR has probably had the biggest impact, from an awareness perspective, than any other piece of regulation relating to consent.  The consumer, from a pure economic buyer perspective at least, has never been so powerful.  One click away from a competitor.  From a data perspective however, it seems the capitalist corporate machine is holding all the cards.  Marketing analytics, usage tracking, location tracking, you name it, the service provider wants that data to either improve your service, or improve their ability to market new services.  Many organisations are not stupid.  They realise that by offering basic consent management functionality (contact preferences, ability to be removed, data exportation, activity viewing) they are not only ticking the compliance check box, but can actually create a competitive advantage by giving their user community the image of being at trusted partner to do business with.  But will the end user be ever truly in control of their data?

What's Coming

The above 4 topics are not going away any time soon.  Knowledge, standards maturity and technology advances, should all allow each of those areas to bounce a grade within the next 18-24 months.  But what other concerns are on the horizon?  

Well skills immediately spring out.  Cyber security in general is known to have a basic skills shortage.  Digital Identity seems to fall in to that general trend and some of these topics are niches within a niche.  Getting the right skill set to design micro services security or consent management systems will not be trivial.

What about new threats - they are emerging every day.  Bot protection - at both registration and login time - not only helps improve the security posture of an organisation, but also helps improve user analytics, remove opportunities for false advertising and provide a clearer picture to a service's real organic user community.  How will things like ML/AI help here - and does that provide another skills challenge or management black hole?

The final topic to mention is that of usability.  Security can be simple in many respects, but usability can make or break a service.  As underlying ecosystems become more complex, with a huge supply chain of API's, cross-boundary federations and devices, how can the end user be both protected, yet offered a seamless registration and login experience? Dedicated user experience teams exist today, but their skill set will need to be sharpened and focused on the security aspect of any new service. 




Infosec Pro

Automotive Technologies and Cyber Security

A guest article authored by Giles Kirkland
Giles is a car expert and dedicated automotive writer with a great passion for electric vehicles, autonomous cars and other innovative technologies. He loves researching the future of motorisation and sharing his ideas with auto enthusiasts across the globe. You can find him on Twitter, Facebook and at Oponeo.


Automotive Technologies and Cyber Security
Surveys show that about 50% of the UK feel that driverless vehicles will make their lives much easier and are eagerly anticipating the arrival of this exciting technology. Cities expect that when driverless car technology is fully implemented, the gridlock which now plagues their streets will be relieved to a large extent. Auto-makers predict that the new technology will encourage a surge in vehicle purchases, and technology companies are lining up with the major auto manufacturers to lend their experience and knowledge to the process, hoping to earn huge profits.



Delays to Driverless Technology
While some features of autonomous technology have already been developed and have been rolled out in various new vehicles, the full technology will probably not be mature for several decades yet. One of the chief holdups is in establishing the infrastructure necessary on the roads themselves and in cities, in order to safely enable driverless operation.

The full weight of modern technology is pushing development along at a breakneck pace. Unlike safety testing of the past, where some real-life scenarios were simulated to anticipate vehicle reactions, high-powered simulators have now been setup to increase the rapidity at which vehicle software can 'learn' what to do in those real-life situations. This has enabled learning at a rate exponentially greater than any vehicle of the past, which is not surprising, since vehicles of the past were not equipped with 'brains' like autonomous cars will be.

The Cyber Security aspect of Autonomous Vehicles
Despite the enormous gains that will come from autonomous vehicles, both socially and economically, there will inevitably be some problems which will arise, and industry experts agree that the biggest of these threats is cyber security. In 2015, there was a famous incident which dramatically illustrated the possibilities. In that year, white-collar hackers took control of a Jeep Cherokee remotely by hacking into its Uconnect Internet-enabled software, and completely cut off its connection with the Internet. This glaring shortcoming caused Chrysler to immediately recall more than one million vehicles, and provided the world with an alarming illustration of what could happen if someone with criminal intent breached the security system of a vehicle.

Cars of today have as many as 100 Electronic Control Units (ECU's), which support more than 100 million coding lines, and that presents a huge target to the criminal-minded person. Any hacker who successfully gains control of a peripheral ECU, for instance the vehicle's Bluetooth system, would theoretically be able to assume full control of other ECU's which are responsible for a whole host of safety systems. Connected cars of the future will of course have even more ECU's controlling the vehicle's operations, which will provide even more opportunities for cyber attack.


Defense against Cyber Attacks
As scary as the whole cyber situation sounds, with the frightening prospect of complete loss of control of a vehicle, there is reason for thinking that the threat can be managed effectively. There are numerous companies already involved in research and development on how to make cars immune from attacks, using a multi-tiered defense system involving several different security products, installed on different levels of the car's security system.

Individual systems and ECU's can be reinforced against attacks. Up one level from that, software protection is being developed to safeguard the vehicle's entire internal network. In the layer above that, there are already solutions in place to defend vehicles at the point where ECU's connect to external sources. This is perhaps the most critical area, since it represents the line between internal and external communications. The final layer of security comes from the cloud itself. Cyber threats can be identified and thwarted before they are ever sent to a car.

The Cyber Security Nightmare
If you ask an average person in the UK what the biggest problem associated with driverless cars is, they’d probably cite the safety issue. Industry experts however, feel that once the technology has been worked out, there will probably be less highway accidents and that driving safety will actually be improved. However, the nightmare of having to deal with the threat which always exists when anything is connected to the Internet, will always be one which is cause for concern.

The Challenges of DIY Botnet Detection – and How to Overcome Them

Network of platforms with bots on top botnet cybersecurity concept 3D illustration

Botnets have been around for over two decades, and with the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) they have spread further to devices no one imagined they would – printers, webcams, and even toasters and fridges.

Some botnets enlist infected devices to mine cryptocurrency or steal passwords from other devices. But others are, in fact, legions of bot-soldiers waiting for a command to attack a target server. Here at Imperva, we detect botnets and prevent them from harming our customers. Botnet detection isn’t an easy task. In this post I’ll attempt to describe the pitfalls in botnet detection.

Detecting a Botnet

So what’s a botnet? Simply put, it’s a cluster of bots – compromised computers and devices – that perform commands given by the botnet owner. Usually, the botnet owner will dedicate one compromised device as the Command and Control (CnC) server for communication with his bots. Thus, the best way to discover a botnet is by finding its CnC, but that’s usually not a simple task. Let me explain why.

How can we Detect a Botnet

The smoking gun that points to a botnet is its CNC. Obviously, here at Imperva we don’t protect CnCs or bots – we protect against attacks originating from them. We are successful enough that it’s very unlikely any bot or CnC will be able to operate behind our service. Practically speaking, our best option to detect botnets is to examine their attacks on sites we protect.

When looking at exploit attempts, there are a few possible indicators of a botnet. For example, if the same IPs attack the same sites at the same time using the same payloads and attack pattern, there’s a good chance they’re part of the same botnet. This is especially true if many IPs and sites are involved. One common example is a DDoS attempt by a botnet on a web service.

A botnet attempting to DDoS a few sites: as the owner of the sites, during the attack you’ll see a large group of IPs sending many requests to the login page and the shopping cart page.

Reasons for False Positives

Even though I might have made detecting botnets sound quite simple, it really isn’t. Some payloads are so widely used that it’s difficult to distinguish between a truly-concerted botnet attack and a random one-off attack. Attackers can change their IPs by using a VPN or a proxy, making it look like many attackers are involved. Some proxy services even allow a single user to utilize many different IPs.

Hacking Tools can be Deceiving

Hacking tools and vulnerability scanners are similar to botnets as well. These tools generate the same payloads and attack patterns, and many hackers use them, regardless of the color of their hat. While it is an unlikely scenario, if different players conduct a Penetration Test on the same site at the same time, it’ll look like a coordinated botnet attack.

How can we Differentiate?

There are many ways to identify clients, but in this case simply looking at the raw request will do the trick. Luckily for us, because vulnerability scanners are so popular, it is easy to find out if they’re to blame. Sometimes, the user agent header will reveal the name of the tool. In other cases, Googling the payload will lead you straight to the tool.

Bot(net) Or Not?

Grab ‘em by the Payload

To discover botnets, we decided to use two different approaches. The first approach uses a naive back-and-forth algorithm to find botnets.

Any website owner can analyze data from their weblogs and use this technique.

You might want to improve this algorithm, and you can do so in several ways. You can separate the request to parameters and then search for a popular parameter value. Try using Levenshtein Distance, or any other distance algorithms, to find similar payloads. For this research, we decided to simply separate requests into query strings and post bodies.

Any website owner can analyze data from their weblogs and use this technique.

You might want to improve this algorithm, and you can do so in several ways. You can separate the request to parameters and then search for a popular parameter value. Try using Levenshtein Distance, or any other distance algorithms, to find similar payloads. For this research, we decided to simply separate requests into query strings and post bodies.

The following charts plot the daily activity of IP addresses involved in an attack on our websites during a given timeframe. In red, you can see the percentage (left axis) of IPs that participated in an attack on any given day, which is calculated by taking the number of attacking IPs that day and dividing by the highest number of attacking IPs on ANY day during our time frame.

Similarly, the blue line represents the percentage (left axis) of attacked sites on any day, calculated by dividing the number of protected sites attacked that day by the highest number of protected sites attacked during this timeframe. The yellow bars represent the median (right axis) number of days all of the attacking IPs on that day have attacked overall during the studied timeframe. For instance, if 30 IPs attacked on one day and the median number shown is 10, that means 15 IPs have attacked more than 10 days, and 15 IPs have attacked fewer than 10 days.

Attack #1

A Backdoor Uploader. Nearly 1,000 IPs attempted to upload a backdoor to over 1,000 sites. The payload coming from the different IPs was exactly the same, but that’s not the best part. It appears that the payload is a variation of the infamous CKnife webshell. Combined with the low IP turnover rate (i.e. the same IPs are attacking half of the time, as shown by the high median yellow bars), chances are that this is a botnet.

Attack #2

Nearly 4,000 IPs used a payload meant to test for a SQL Injection vulnerability. A search for that payload revealed that the SQLI Dumper tool is behind the attack. Looking at other attacks performed by these IPs revealed attempts at Remote Code Execution (RCE), backdoor upload and other attacks that aren’t in the SQLI Dumper playbook. Also, while the number of attacking IPs grows – the median number of days attacked by the attacking IPs shrinks. Testing for correlation between them revealed a strong negative correlation (-0.84). Combining this data with the medium IP turnover rates (shown by the yellow bars) indicates that this attack is comprised of a few core bots and many temporary IPs. We tested this hypothesis and found that ~50 IPs were involved during the entire attack. This might mean that several different groups are using the same payload, and this is not a single botnet.

Attack #3

A tool that looks like a botnet, but it’s not. Let me explain why. Although nearly 2,000 IPs were involved, it’s easy to see that the median number of days they attacked is pretty low. This means that in most cases hackers used these IPs to attack for a few days, and then stopped using them completely. This pattern isn’t typical of botnets because botnet owners will usually reuse the IPs in their disposal. Googling the payload revealed that a popular hacking tool named AutoexploiterBot is behind this attack. Likely, multiple users used it to attack us which explains why it wasn’t the same attacking IPs.

The payload sent during the attack:

The base64 in the exploit than decodes to a mid-stage code, which decodes to a webshell with a visible link to the tool:

Bringing out the Big Guns

The second algorithm we used for botnet detection has a more sophisticated approach. We utilized our specialized Client Classification abilities to cluster clients that carried out many coordinated attacks.

Out of the hundreds of results we got, we focused on the most interesting ones:

Attack #4

Backdoor Uploader revisited. This is the same backdoor uploader we found using the first approach. This time we caught more of its core IPs as indicated by the low turnover rate (i.e. the high yellow median bars). It’s interesting we found this botnet using both approaches, even though they are inherently different.

Attack #5

Probably the most distinguishable of them all. This botnet has a handful of malicious Remote Code Execution (RCE) payloads. Each RCE embeds the same unique site address somewhere within the victim’s server. Furthermore, its IPs almost never change, as indicated by the very high yellow bars. To recap – we have the same few payloads, advertising the same site, coming from the same IPs. Thus strongly indicating this is a botnet.

Attack #6

A botnet blogpost isn’t complete without a Spambot. This one is aiming at the comment section of a web site, trying to add comments advertising a Chinese gambling site. What’s fascinating is that it allows us to glimpse multiple cycles of spam campaigns. In each cycle, a varying number of IPs attack for a short while and then stop. A possible explanation would be that this Spambot is for hire, and each cycle is a paid spam campaign.

***

Botnets can be a tricky thing to detect and mitigate, but even analyzing the simplest weblog entries can supply valuable insight, especially against continuous campaigns. All of the botnets we found can cause real damage to your site and customers. Some will take over your site and others will expose private information.

Once you find an IP that belongs to a botnet, you can block it and use it to discover more IPs that are part of the botnet. Some of the payloads we found in this research were a few years old, or new variants of old exploits. So digging into your log history might give you insight to protect your site the next time a botnet comes around.

The post The Challenges of DIY Botnet Detection – and How to Overcome Them appeared first on Blog.

Trade Recommendation: MIOTA

MIOTA (IOT/USD) is a market that’s trying to carve a bottom and start a new cycle. This view comes after December 7, 2018 when MIOTA dropped to lows of $0.2051. At that point, it was interesting to see whether there would be buyer interest at that level. After all, $0.20 was the area where MIOTA […]

The post Trade Recommendation: MIOTA appeared first on Hacked: Hacking Finance.

Nest Cam Accessed Using Leaked Passwords Left Family Horrified

The dangers of low security on the Internet of Things (IoT) devices once again surfaced last week. A family have

Nest Cam Accessed Using Leaked Passwords Left Family Horrified on Latest Hacking News.

Cyber Security Roundup for January 2019

The first month of 2019 was a relatively slow month for cyber security in comparison with the steady stream of cyber attacks and breaches throughout 2018.  On Saturday 26th January, car services and repair outfit Kwik Fit told customers its IT systems had been taken offline due to malware, which disputed its ability to book in car repairs. Kwik Fit didn't provide any details about the malware, but it is fair to speculate that the malware outbreak was likely caused by a general lack of security patching and anti-virus protection as opposed to anything sophisticated.

B&Q said it had taken action after a security researcher found and disclosed details of B&Q suspected store thieves online. According to Ctrlbox Information Security, the exposed records included 70,000 offender and incident logs, which included: the first and last names of individuals caught or suspected of stealing goods from stores descriptions of the people involved, their vehicles and other incident-related information the product codes of the goods involved the value of the associated loss.

Hundreds of German politicians, including Chancellor Angela Merkel, have had personal details stolen and published online at the start of January.  A 20 year suspect was later arrested in connection to this disclosure. Investigators said the suspect had acted alone and had taught himself the skills he needed using online resources, and had no training in computer science. Yet another example of the low entry level for individuals in becoming a successful and sinister hacker.

Hackers took control of 65,000 Smart TVs around the world, in yet another stunt to support YouTuber PewDiePie. A video message was displayed on the vulnerable TVs which read "Your Chromecast/Smart TV is exposed to the public internet and is exposing sensitive information about you!" It then encourages victims to visit a web address before finishing up with, "you should also subscribe to PewDiePie"
Hacked Smart TVs: The Dangers of Exposing Smart TVs to the Net

The PewDiePie hackers said they had discovered a further 100,000 vulnerable devices, while Google said its products were not to blame, but were said to have fixed them anyway. In the previous month two hackers carried out a similar stunt by forcing thousands of printers to print similar messages. There was an interesting video of the negative impact of that stunt on the hackers on the BBC News website - The PewDiePie Hackers: Could hacking printers ruin your life?

Security company ForeScout said it had found thousands of vulnerable devices using search engines Shodan and Cenys, many of which were located in hospitals and schools. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems were among those that the team could have taken control over after it developed its own proof-of-concept malware.

Reddit users found they were locked out of their accounts after an apparent credential stuffing attack forced a mass password invoke by Reddit in response. A Reddit admin said "large group of accounts were locked down" due to anomalous activity suggesting unauthorised access."

Kaspersky reported that 30 million cyber attacks were carried out in the last quarter of 2018, with cyber attacks via web browsers reported as the most common method for spreading malware.

A new warning was issued by Action Fraud about a convincing TV Licensing scam phishing email attack made the rounds. The email attempts to trick people with subject lines like "correct your licensing information" and "your TV licence expires today" to convince people to open them. TV Licensing warned it never asks for this sort of information over email.

January saw further political pressure and media coverage about the threat posed to the UK national security by Chinese telecoms giant Huawei, I'll cover all that in a separate blog post.


BLOG
NEWS
AWARENESS, EDUCATION AND THREAT INTELLIGENCE
REPORTS

LIFX IoT Smart Light Bulb Hacked in Under an Hour

In under an hour, security researcher, LimitedResults, was able to hack into the smart light bulb LIFX mini white and

LIFX IoT Smart Light Bulb Hacked in Under an Hour on Latest Hacking News.

Radware Blog: Attackers Are Leveraging Automation

Cybercriminals are weaponizing automation and machine learning to create increasingly evasive attack vectors, and the internet of things (IoT) has proven to be the catalyst driving this trend. IoT is the birthplace of many of the new types of automated bots and malware. At the forefront are botnets, which are increasingly sophisticated, lethal and highly automated digitized […]

The post Attackers Are Leveraging Automation appeared first on Radware Blog.



Radware Blog

IOTA Price Analysis: New Partnership with Denmark’s Largest Energy Company

IOTA set to partner up with Energinet, Denmark’s largest energy company. IOT/USD receives some bidding within a known area of demand, preventing a further free-fall. Recent Price Behavior Over the last two sessions at the time of writing, IOT/USD has managed to bounce and see some minor upside. This comes after heavy selling pressure to the […]

The post IOTA Price Analysis: New Partnership with Denmark’s Largest Energy Company appeared first on Hacked: Hacking Finance.

Smashing Security #113: FaceTime, Facebook, faceplant

Smashing Security #113: FaceTime, Facebook, faceplant

FaceTime bug allows callers to see and hear you *before* you answer the phone, Facebook’s Nick Clegg tries to convince us the social network is changing its ways, and IoT hacking is big in Japan.

All this and much more is discussed in the latest edition of the award-winning “Smashing Security” podcast by computer security veterans Graham Cluley and Carole Theriault, joined this week by John Hawes from AMTSO.

Pepper IoT: Smart devices aren’t so bright when it comes to security

Smart devices aren’t very intelligent when it comes to protecting user privacy and handling security, according to a report by Internet of Things platform and service provider Pepper IoT and cybersecurity

The post Pepper IoT: Smart devices aren’t so bright when it comes to security appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

2019 predictions – the year ahead for cybersecurity

2018 was a roller-coaster year for the tech industry – lots of big court cases and high-profile data privacy disagreements.2018 was a roller-coaster year for the tech industry – lots

The post 2019 predictions – the year ahead for cybersecurity appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

2019 and Beyond: The (Expanded) RSAC Advisory Board Weighs in on What’s Next: Pt. 2

Part two of RSA’s Conference Advisory Board look into the future tackles how approaches to cybersecurity must evolve to meet new emerging challenges.

Meet the New Imperva – Defending Your Business Growth Today and Tomorrow

Imperva-Blog-CubePattern-1300x865

Today’s Imperva is a champion in the fight to secure data and applications, wherever they reside. The threat landscape is dangerous and ever-changing, but our thousands of customers know they can count on Imperva to protect them. No wonder our solutions are recognized as leaders by analysts such as Gartner and Forrester Research.  

However, security is changing. It’s no longer just about protecting your company’s digital assets. It’s also about protecting your employees, partners, customers, and all of their applications, data, API’s, microservices, and even IoT devices. Millions of interactions occur every day that drive business value – and revenue.

Within this vast new universe, traditional lockdown security approaches just don’t cut it anymore. They’re too rigid, create their own security gaps, and stifle your business. What you need is a security posture that assumes an open exchange between data, applications and users. To do that successfully, you need greater visibility into all your digital systems, whether on-premises or in the cloud, so you can quickly pinpoint the threats that matter. You also need agility to adapt to fast-changing DevOps environments. And you need resilient systems that not only prevent data breaches and DDoS attacks but can also recover quickly, too.

In short, your business’s security needs are evolving. Which is why Imperva is also evolving, in order to remain the defender of your business growth, so you never have to choose between innovating for your customers and protecting what matters.

This year, we’ll be launching major expansions to our data and application security solutions. We’re also boosting the visibility delivered by them, distilling millions of data points so that you have actionable insights and the ability to automate the responses that protect your business.

To make it easier for you to focus on your business, we’re also simplifying how we bring our products to market, from the naming, to the packaging, to the pricing. Through a subscription model we call FlexProtect, enterprises can deploy Imperva solutions how and when you need them, in order to quickly gain the protection you need.

This year, Imperva will also be introducing useful new research and thought leadership to help your organization get smarter and respond to threats faster. Additionally, we are committed to making your experience with our brand and products even better. We are introducing an all-new look and feel, which you can check out today starting with our website, the new Imperva.com!

Doing business today has never been more potentially rewarding – or challenging. Security providers need to be up to the task. That’s why Imperva is evolving. We do more than simply guard your data and apps. We’ll help you anticipate real threats, minimize the business impact of any incidents, and build customer trust – all without overstretching limited resources. As your own business evolves, so does Imperva, so we can remain your defender and help you realize your growth ambitions, today and tomorrow.

Imperva

Protect the pulse of your business.

The post Meet the New Imperva – Defending Your Business Growth Today and Tomorrow appeared first on Blog.

Japanese Government to “Pen Test” Citizen’s IoT Devices Ahead of Olympics

The Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications revealed in a recent report that 2/3 of cyber attacks in 2016

Japanese Government to “Pen Test” Citizen’s IoT Devices Ahead of Olympics on Latest Hacking News.

Meet Aztarna, a tool to find vulnerable Internet connected robots

By Waqas

The company behind Aztarna is Alias Robotics, a cyber-security startup. Manufacturers and users of IoT robots should breathe a sigh of relief that the cyber-security startup Alias Robotics has developed a robot scanning tool that can track any robot connected to the internet and powered by any robotic technology such as ROS or SROS. Dubbed Aztarna […]

This is a post from HackRead.com Read the original post: Meet Aztarna, a tool to find vulnerable Internet connected robots

Hackers are targeting Cisco RV320/RV325, over 9K routers exposed online

Cisco released security updates to address security flaws in several products including Small Business RV320/RV325 routers and hackers are already targeting them.

The tech giant addressed two serious issues in Cisco’s Small Business RV320 and RV325 routers. The first one could be exploited by a remote and unauthenticated attacker with admin privileges. to obtain sensitive information (CVE-2019-1653), while the second one can be exploited for command injection (CVE-2019-1652).

Now, news of the day is that hackers are targeting Cisco RV320/RV325 routers using new exploits.

After the disclosure of proof-of-exploit code for security flaws in
Cisco RV320 and RV325 routers, hackers started scanning the Internet for vulnerable devices in an attempt to take compromise them.

Cisco this week announced updates for router models RV320 and RV325 that fix a command injection (CVE-2019-1652) and an information disclosure (CVE-2019-1653) vulnerability; both of them are in the routers’ web management interface.

Chaining the two flaws it is possible to take over the Cisco RV320 and RV325 routers, the hackers exploit the bugs to obtain hashed passwords for a privileged account and run arbitrary commands as root.

Both vulnerabilities were reported by experts at RedTeam Pentesting firm, the proof-of-code exploit for the flaws was published by the experts after Cisco released the security update to address the flaws.

The experts published a proof-of-concept (PoC) exploit code for the command injection issue, the info disclosure flaw, and the data leak vulnerability.

Other PoC exploits were published by the security researcher David Davidson, who successfully tested them on Cisco RV320 routers.

Searching on Shodan for vulnerable Cisco RV320 and RV325 routers it is possible to find tens of thousands of devices online.

The popular expert Troy Mursch, chief research officer at Bad Packets, searched for vulnerable systems using the BinaryEdge search engine and found 9,657 devices exposed online (6,247 Cisco RV320 routers and 3,410, are Cisco RV325 routers).

Mursch created an interactive map that shows the geographic distribution of vulnerable routers, the vast majority of them are located in the US.

Cisco Cisco RV320/RV325 routers

“Due to the sensitive nature of these vulnerabilities, the IP addresses of the affected Cisco RV320/RV325 routers will not be published publicly.” reads a blog post published by Mursch on Badpackets.

“However, the list is freely available for authorized CERT teams to review. We’ve shared our findings directly with Cisco PSIRT and US-CERT for further investigation and remediation,”

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – Cisco RV320/RV325 routers, IoT)

[adrotate banner=”5″] [adrotate banner=”13″]

The post Hackers are targeting Cisco RV320/RV325, over 9K routers exposed online appeared first on Security Affairs.

Report: IoT Still Wildly Insecure as New ‘Credential Compromise’ Threat Emerges

The new year isn't bringing good news about Internet of Things security, as a new report sheds light on a flaw that allows bad actors to take unauthorized control of applications used by the IoT devices.

The post Report: IoT Still Wildly Insecure as New ‘Credential Compromise’ Threat Emerges appeared first on The Security Ledger.

Related Stories

2019 State of Malware report: Trojans and cryptominers dominate threat landscape

Each quarter, the Malwarebytes Labs team gathers to share intel, statistics, and analysis of the tactics and techniques made popular by cybercriminals over the previous three months. At the end of the year, we synthesize this data into one all-encompassing report—the State of Malware report—that aims to follow the most important threats, distribution methods, and other trends that shaped the threat landscape.

Our 2019 State of Malware report is here, and it’s a doozy.

In our research, which covers January to November 2018 and compares it against the previous period in 2017, we found that two major malware categories dominated the scene, with cryptominers positively drenching users at the back end of 2017 and into the first half of 2018, and information-stealers in the form of Trojans taking over for the second half of the year.

But that’s not all we discovered.

The 2019 State of Malware report follows the top 10 global threats for consumers and businesses, as well as top threats by region and by corporate industry verticals. In addition, we followed noteworthy distribution techniques for the year, as well as popular scams. Some of our findings include:

  • In 2018, we saw a shift in ransomware attack techniques from malvertising and exploits that deliver ransomware as a payload to targeted, manual attacks. The shotgun approach was replaced with brute force, as witnessed in the most successful SamSam campaigns of the year.
  • Malware authors pivoted in the second half of 2018 to target organizations over consumers, recognizing that the bigger payoff was in making victims out of businesses instead of individuals. Overall business detections of malware rose significantly over the last year—79 percent to be exact—and primarily due to the increase in backdoors, miners, spyware, and information stealers.

  • The fallout from the ShadowBrokers’ leak of NSA exploits in 2017 continued, as cybercriminals used SMB vulnerabilities EternalBlue and EternalRomance to spread dangerous and sophisticated Trojans, such as Emotet and TrickBot. In fact, information stealers were the top consumer and business threat in 2018, as well as the top regional threat for North America, Latin America, and Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA).

Finally, our Labs team stared into its crystal ball and predicted top trends for 2019. Of particular note are the following:

  • Attacks designed to avoid detection, like soundloggers, will slip into the wild.

  • Artificial Intelligence will be used in the creation of malicious executables.

  • Movements such as Bring Your Own Security (BYOS) to work will grow as trust declines.

  • IoT botnets will come to a device near you.

To learn more about top threats and trends in 2018 and our predictions for 2019, download our report from the link below.

2019 State of Malware Report

The post 2019 State of Malware report: Trojans and cryptominers dominate threat landscape appeared first on Malwarebytes Labs.

More regulation, more solutions needed: IoT device breaches continue to put user data at risk

Almost half of companies still can’t detect IoT device breaches, according to a Gemalto study. But, use of blockchain technology might provide a solution.’With IoT devices continuing to immerse themselves

The post More regulation, more solutions needed: IoT device breaches continue to put user data at risk appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

Security in an IoT World: Your Big Data Problem is Getting Bigger

It’s that time of year for prediction articles and the number has become almost overwhelming. This year, one of the trending topics I’ve noticed is the growth in Internet of

The post Security in an IoT World: Your Big Data Problem is Getting Bigger appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

Smashing Security #111: When rivals hack, and ‘extreme’ baby monitors

Smashing Security #111: When rivals hack, and 'extreme' baby monitors

Why a business spat resulted in Liberia falling off the internet, how the US Government shutdown is impacting website security, and the perplexing world of extreme IoT devices.

All this and much more is discussed in the latest edition of the award-winning “Smashing Security” podcast by computer security veterans Graham Cluley and Carole Theriault, joined this week by special guest Zoë Rose.

Malware can fully compromise building control systems

By Waqas

Enterprise security vendor ForeScout’s operational technology research unit has developed a PoC (Proof-of-Concept) malware that exposed the vulnerabilities in building automation systems (BAS) by compromising them due to the presence of two very critical bugs in the BAS’s PLC (programmable logic controller). ForeScout researchers claim that the first of the two bugs use a hard-coded secret when the […]

This is a post from HackRead.com Read the original post: Malware can fully compromise building control systems

What is the Internet of Things

We are constantly connected in the world we live in today. Picture a typical “connected” day as it is today. We ask “Alexa” the weather forecast in the morning and Google Home to start a timer as we get breakfast started. Then, we head for our morning jog, our every step tracked on a Fitbit. The Internet of Things is everywhere and has become a part of our daily routine.

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

We have all heard this term, and to many, it feels a bit ambiguous. IoT or Internet of Things refers to any device that is connected to the internet and is collecting or sharing data. The machine-to-machine (M2M) data that is generated from IoT has an array of uses but it’s most commonly seen as a way to determine the health and status of things.

It includes everything from coffee makers, cellphones, washing machines, wearable devices and headphones. For example, a coffee maker can tell you when coffee is ready, wearable devices determine your health and a washing machine can let your phone know when clothes are complete.

It also applies to components of machines like the jet engine of an airplane. Most likely if a device has an on and off switch to the internet, it can be a part of the IoT. By combining one’s connected devices with automated systems, it’s possible to gather information about the user and learn from a process.

Examples of Internet of Things Devices:

  • Wearable devices
  • Connected cars
  • Intelligent personal assistant
  • Smart farming
  • Light bulb connected via an app
  • Smart thermostat
  • Connected toy

The History of IoT

The idea of adding intelligence to standard objects has been discussed since the 1980s. In films, “smart devices” were seen as the way of the future. In Back to the Future II, the McFly family uses glasses that serve as a precursor to the Google Glass. The 1990 film Total Recall uses a self-driving car to take Arnold Schwarzenegger around. Smart House, a Disney film from the ‘90s has a completely computerized home.

Humans were curious about Internet of Things, but did not quite have the technology. One early example of IoT is a Coke machine in the early 1980s that allowed programmers to check if Coke was available in the machine before visiting it. In 1990, John Romkey showed that a toaster could be turned on and off by the internet.

The term Internet of Things was first coined by Kevin Ashton during a presentation he made to Proctor and Gamble in 1999. He pushed the importance of radio frequency identification to the company and titled his presentation “Internet of Things.” He emphasized that the internet was one of the hottest trends of the late ‘90s into his talk.

That’s when connected devices began to take off. In 1995, less than 1% of the world’s population had internet access. As of December 2017, more than 54% of the population has internet access. There are 8.5 billion smart devices connected to the internet, with that number increasing substantially each day.

How the Internet of Things Works

In the Internet of Things, each device has a different purpose. Many are used for collecting data. For example, a wearable device that tracks your daily steps and heart rate helps you monitor your health.

There are three “layers” when it comes to operating IoT devices: the dashboard, cloud and then your devices.

The device sends its signal to the cloud, where other devices are also sending their information to. The cloud is where all the machines interact with each other. From there, this information gets sent to your dashboard, which is where you control your device.

The Internet of Things Ecosystem

The IoT ecosystem refers to all of the components that enable businesses, consumers and the government to connect to their IoT devices. It has been named “the next Industrial Revolution” as it has already begun changing the way people live, work and travel. Business Insider has been tracking the growth of the IoT for more than two years and created an exhaustive report on the IoT ecosystem. We added some of the key results below.

  • There will be 34 billion devices connected to the internet by 2020.
  • IoT can lower operating costs, increase productivity and expand to new markets for businesses.
  • Nearly $6 trillion will be spent on IoT solutions within the next five years.

Industries Affected by Internet of Things

While IoT is expected to help every day consumers stay connected and track their lives, there are several industries that will also benefit from IoT.

These include but are not limited to:

  • Agriculture
  • Infrastructure
  • Manufacturing
  • Defense
  • Retail
  • Banks
  • Oil and mining
  • Insurance
  • Connected homes/smart buildings
  • Utilities
  • Smart cities
  • Healthcare

Major IoT Companies

Hundreds of companies have created devices that link to the Internet of Things and the number will continue to increase in the years to come. Below, we list some of the companies that stand out in the IoT revolution.

  • DHL
  • Amazon
  • Magneto IT Solutions
  • Microsoft
  • HQSoftware
  • Google
  • IBM
  • GE
  • Verizon
  • Fitbit
  • Jasper
  • Cisco
  • Honeywell

The Future of IoT

This new world of connected devices allows our environment, including our home and work life, to become smarter and more measurable. Smart speakers make it easy to play music, get quick facts or set a timer. Home security systems make it easy to monitor your home while you’re away. Smart cars can help us dial numbers and text hands-free, potentially saving thousands of lives. So what’s next for IoT?

A report from Samsung states that the need to secure every connected device by 2020 is critical. Brian Solis from Altimeter Group who worked on future IoT research, states that companies will indulge in digital Darwinism where we learn to rapidly evolve. IoT is also beginning to integrate its data into artificial intelligence systems which take that IoT data and use it to make predictions. For example, Google uses an AI to run its data center cooling system.

Another way IoT is changing the future? Smart city projects are becoming a key feature of IoT. Using data collection sensors over a town or city, planners can get an accurate idea of what’s happening in real time. This could prevent heavy traffic, detect water leakages and locate items in a large warehouse or harbor.

Many cities have begun implementing smart city projects. Barcelona has implemented sensor technology in the irrigation system to detect water quality for plants. Stockholm uses energy-efficient buildings, traffic monitoring and the development of e-services (vs. paper).  

Staying Secure

IoT is revolutionizing the workplace and how we live on a day-to-day basis. Smart cities are popping up around the world and smart homes give us the capability to ask a question and receive an answer anywhere at any time. While it’s fantastic to stay connected 24/7, it’s important to keep in mind the potential risks and security concerns.

As more connected devices continue to make their way into our daily routines, we are also more vulnerable to hacking. Because the technology is relatively new it’s important to keep in mind that connected devices are not foolproof. Below, we list the top ways to stay secure using Internet of Things devices including using a VPN to encrypt data and remembering to update software regularly.

Sources:

Business Insider | Think Mobiles | Cloudwares | ZDNet | Forbes | Wired | Business Insider | Internet of Things Agenda | IoT For All |

The post What is the Internet of Things appeared first on Panda Security Mediacenter.

Los fallos de seguridad dejan a las bañeras de hidromasaje en aguas turbulentas

Durante décadas las bañeras de hidromasaje eran un simple accesorio de lujo para terrazas y jardines para personas que querían un momento de relax. Recientemente, los fabricantes comenzaron a añadir excitantes funciones de Internet de las Cosas (IoT), que los departamentos de marketing promocionaban como imprescindibles. Estas nuevas bañeras de hidromasaje parecen idénticas a sus […]

How to Protect Three Common IoT Devices in 2019

It’s no secret – IoT devices are creeping into every facet of our daily lives. In fact, Gartner estimates there will be 20.4 Billion IoT devices by the year 2020. More devices mean greater connectivity and ease of use for their owners, but connectivity also means more opportunities for hacks. With CES 2019 kicking off this week, we turn our focus toward the year ahead, and take a look at some of the IoT devices that are particularly high-profile targets for cybercriminals: gaming systems, voice tech, routers, and smart cars.

Routers

Routers are very susceptible to attacks as they often come with factory-set passwords that many owners are unaware of or don’t know how to change, making these devices easy targets for hackers. That’s bad news, since a router is the central hub in a connected home. If a router is compromised and all of the devices share the same Wi-Fi network, then they could potentially all be exposed to an attack. How? When an IoT device talks to its connected router, the device could expose many of its internal mechanisms to the internet. If the device does not require re-authentication, hackers can easily scan for devices that have poorly implemented protocols. Then with that information, cybercriminals can exploit manufacturer missteps to execute their attacks. To help protect your router (and thus all your other devices), a best practice is to consider one with a layer of protection built-in, and be sure to use a long and complex password for your Wi-Fi network.

Gaming Systems

Over ten years ago, researchers found that many video gaming consoles were being distributed with major security issues involved with the Universal Plug and Play protocol (UPnP), a feature that allows IoT devices on a network to see each other and interact with one another. However, not much has been done to solve the problem. Through exploiting the UPnP weaknesses in gaming systems to reroute traffic over and over again, cybercriminals have been able to create “multi-purpose proxy botnets,” which they can use for a variety of purposes.  This is just the jumping-off point for malicious behavior by bad actors. With this sort of access into a gaming system, they can execute DDoS attacks, malware distribution, spamming, phishing, account takeovers, click fraud, and credit card theft. Our recent gaming survey found that 64% of respondents either have or know someone who has been directly affected by a cyberattack, which is an astonishing uptick in attacks on gamers. Considering this shift, follow our tips in the section above for routers and Wi-Fi, never use the same password twice, and be weary of what you click on.

Voice Tech

In 2018, 47.3 million adults had access to smart speakers or voice assistants, making them one of the most popular connected devices for the home. Voice-first devices can be vulnerable largely due to what we enable them to be connected with for convenience; delivery, shopping, and transportation services that leverage our credit cards. While it’s important to note that voice-first devices are most often compromised within the home by people who have regular access to your devices (such as kids) when voice recognition is not properly configured, any digital device can be vulnerable to outside attacks too if proper security is not set up. For example, these always-on, always-listening devices could be infiltrated by cybercriminals through a technique called “voice squatting.” By creating “malicious skills,” hackers have been able to trick voice assistants into continuing to listen after a user finishes speaking. In this scenario an unsuspecting person might think they’re connecting to their bank through their voice device, when unbeknownst to them, they’re giving away their personal information.  Because voice-controlled devices are frequently distributed without proper security protocol in place, they are the perfect vehicle in terms of executing a cyberattack on an unsuspecting consumer. To protect your voice assistants, make sure your Wi-Fi password is strong, and be on the lookout for suspicious activity on linked accounts.

While you can’t predict the future of IoT attacks, here are some additional tips and best practices on how to stay ahead of hackers trying to ruin your year:

  • Keep your security software up-to-date. Software and firmware patches are always being released by companies and are made to combat newly discovered vulnerabilities, so be sure to update every time you’re prompted to.
  • Pay attention to the news. With more and more information coming out around vulnerabilities and flaws, companies are more frequently sending out updates for smart cars and other IoT devices. While these should come to you automatically, be sure to pay attention to what is going on in the space of IoT security.
  • Change your device’s factory security settings. This is the single most important step to take to protect all devices. When it comes to products, many manufacturers aren’t thinking “security first.” A device may be vulnerable as soon as opening the box. By changing the factory settings you’re instantly upgrading your device’s security.
  • Use best practices for linked accounts.  For gaming systems and voice-first devices in particular, if you connect a service that leverages a credit card, protect that linked service account with strong passwords and two-factor authentication (2FA) where possible. In addition, pay attention to notification emails, especially those regarding new orders for goods or services. If you notice suspicious activity, act accordingly.
  • Setup a separate IoT network. Consider setting up a second network for your IoT devices that don’t share access to your other devices and data. Check your router manufacturer’s website to learn how. You might also consider adding in another network for guests and unsecured devices from others. Lastly, consider getting a router with built-in security features to make it easier to protect all the devices in your home from one place.
  • Use a firewall. A firewall is a tool that monitors traffic between an Internet connection and devices to detect unusual or suspicious behavior. Even if a device is infected, a firewall can keep a potential attacker from accessing all the other devices on the same network. When looking for a comprehensive security solution, see if a Firewall is included to ensure that your devices are protected.
  • Up your gaming security. Just announced at CES 2019, we’re bringing a sense of security to the virtual world of video games. Get in on the action with McAfee Gamer Security, Beta, it’s free!

Interested in learning more about IoT and mobile security trends and information? Follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, and ‘Like” us on Facebook.

The post How to Protect Three Common IoT Devices in 2019 appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

Cyber Security Conferences to Attend in 2019

A list of Cyber and Information Security conferences to consider attending in 2019. Conference are not only great places to learn about the evolving cyber threat landscape and proven security good practices, but to network with industry leading security professionals and likeminded enthusiasts, to share ideas, expand your own knowledge, and even to make good friends.

JANUARY 2019

SANS Cyber Threat Intelligence Summit
Monday 21st & Tuesday 22nd January 2019
Renaissance Arlington Capital View Hotel, VA, USA
https://www.sans.org/event/cyber-threat-intelligence-summit-2018


AppSec California 2019 (OWASP)
Tuesday 22nd & Wednesday 23rd January 2019
Annenberg Community Beach House, Santa Monica, USA
https://2019.appseccalifornia.org/


PCI London
Thursday 24th January 2019
Park Plaza Victoria Hotel, London, UK
https://akjassociates.com/event/pcilondon

The Future of Cyber Security Manchester
Thursday 24th January 2019
Bridgewater Hall, Manchester, UK
https://cybermanchester.events/

BSides Leeds
Friday 25th January 2019
Cloth Hall Court, Leeds, UK
FEBRUARY 2019
Cyber Security for Industrial Control Systems

Thursday 7th & Friday 8th February 2019
Savoy Place, London, UK
https://events.theiet.org/cyber-ics/index.cfm

NOORD InfoSec Dialogue UK
Tuesday 26th & Wednesday 27th February 2019
The Bull-Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, UK

MARCH 2019
RSA Conference
Monday 4th to Friday 8th March 2019
At Moscone Center, San Francisco, USA
https://www.rsaconference.com/events/us19

17th Annual e-Crime & Cybersecurity Congress
Tuesday 5th & Wednesday 6th March 2019
Park Plaza Victoria

Security & Counter Terror Expo
Tuesday 5th & Wednesday 6th March 2019
Olympia, London, UK
https://www.counterterrorexpo.com/


ISF UK Spring Conference
Wednesday 6th & Thursday 7th March 2019
Regent Park, London, UK
https://www.securityforum.org/events/chapter-meetings/uk-spring-conference-london/


BSidesSF
Sunday 3rd and Monday 4th March 2019
City View at Metreon, San Francisco, USA
https://bsidessf.org/

Cloud and Cyber Security Expo
Tuesday 12th to Wednesday 13 March 2019
At ExCel, London, UK
https://www.cloudsecurityexpo.com/

APRIL 2019

(ISC)2 Secure Summit EMEA
Monday 15th & Tuesday 16th April 2019
World Forum, The Hague, Netherlands
https://web.cvent.com/event/df893e22-97be-4b33-8d9e-63dadf28e58c/summary

Cyber Security Manchester
Wednesday 3rd & Thursday 4th April 2019
Manchester Central, Manchester, UK
https://cybermanchester.events/

BSides Scotland 2019
Tuesday 23rd April 2019
Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, UK
https://www.contextis.com/en/events/bsides-scotland-2019


CyberUK 2019
Wednesday 24th & Thursday 25th April 2019
Scottish Event Campus, Glasgow, UK
https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/information/cyberuk-2019

Cyber Security & Cloud Expo Global 2019
Thursday 25th and Friday 29th April 2019
Olympia, London, UK
https://www.cybersecuritycloudexpo.com/global/


JUNE 2019
Infosecurity Europe 2019
Tuesday 4th to Thursday 6th June 2019
Where Olympia, London, UK
https://www.infosecurityeurope.com/

BSides London

Thursday 6th June 2019
ILEC Conference Centre, London, UK
https://www.securitybsides.org.uk/

Blockchain International Show
Thursday 6th and Friday 7th June 2019
ExCel Exhibition & Conference Centre, London, UK
https://bisshow.com/

Hack in Paris 2019
Sunday 16th to Friday 20th June 2019
Maison de la Chimie, Paris, France
https://hackinparis.com/

UK CISO Executive Summit
Wednesday 19th June 2019
Hilton Park Lane, London, UK
https://www.evanta.com/ciso/summits/uk#overview

Cyber Security & Cloud Expo Europe 2019
Thursday 19th and Friday 20th June 2019
RIA, Amsterdam, Netherlands
https://cybersecuritycloudexpo.com/europe/

Gartner Security and Risk Management Summit
Monday 17th to Thursday 20th June 2019
National Harbor, MD, USA
https://www.gartner.com/en/conferences/na/security-risk-management-us

European Maritime Cyber Risk Management Summit
Tuesday 25th June 2019
Norton Rose Fulbright, London, UK


AUGUST 2019
Black Hat USA
Saturday 3rd to Thursday 8th August 2019
Mandalay Bay, Las Vegas, NV, USA
https://www.blackhat.com/upcoming.html

DEF CON 27

Thursday 8th to Sunday 11th August 2019
Paris, Ballys & Planet Hollywood, Las Vegas, NV, USA
https://www.defcon.org/


SEPTEMBER 2019
44Con
Wednesday 11th to Friday 13th September 2019
ILEC Conference Centre, London, UK
https://44con.com/

2019 PCI SSC North America Community Meeting
Tuesday 17th to Thursday 19th September 2019
Vancouver, BC, Canada
https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/about_us/events

OCTOBER 2019

Hacker Halted
Thursday 10th & Friday 11th October 2019
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
https://www.hackerhalted.com/

BruCON
Thursday 10th & Friday 11th October 2019
Aula, Gent, Belgium
https://www.brucon.org/2019/

EuroCACS/CSX (ISACA) 2019

Wednesday 16th to Friday 19th October 2019
Palexpo Convention Centre, Geneva, Switzerland
https://conferences.isaca.org/euro-cacs-csx-2019

6th Annual Industrial Control Cyber Security Europe Conference
Tuesday 29th and Wednesday 30th October 2019
Copthorne Tara, Kensington, London, UK
https://www.cybersenate.com/new-events/2018/11/13/6th-annual-industrial-control-cyber-security-europe-conference

2019 PCI SSC Europe Community Meeting

Tuesday 22nd to Thursday 24th October 2019
Dublin, Ireland
https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/about_us/events

ISF 30th Annual World Congress
Saturday 26th to Tuesday 29th October 2019
Convention Centre Dublin, Dublin, Ireland



NOVEMBER 2019
Cyber Security & Could Expo North America 2019
Wednesday 13th and Thursday 14th November 2019
Santa Clara Convention Centre, Silicon Valley, USA
https://www.cybersecuritycloudexpo.com/northamerica/

DevSecCon London 
Thursday 14th & Friday 15th November 2019
CodeNode, London, UK


Cyber Security Summit 2019
Wednesday 20th November 2019
QEII Centre, London, UK
https://cybersecuritysummit.co.uk/

2019 PCI SSC Asia-Pacific Community Meeting 

Wednesday 20th and Thursday 21st November 2019
Melbourne, Australia
https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/about_us/events

DeepSec
Thursday 20th to Saturday 30th November 2019
The Imperial Riding School Vienna, Austria
https://deepsec.net/

Post in the comments about any cyber & information security themed conferences or events you recommend.

The #1 Gift Parents Can Give Their Kids This Christmas

quality time with kidsYou won’t see this gift making the morning shows as being among the top hot gifts of 2018. It won’t make your child’s wish list, and you definitely won’t have to fight through mall crowds to try to find it.

Even so, it is one of the most meaningful gifts you can give your child this year. It’s the gift of your time.

If we are honest, as parents, we know we need to be giving more of this gift every day. We know in our parenting “knower” that if we were to calculate the time we spend on our phones, it would add up to days — precious days — that we could be spending with our kids.

So this holiday season, consider putting aside your phone and leaning into your family connections. Try leaving your phone in a drawer or in another room. And, if you pick it up to snap a few pictures, return it to it’s hiding place and reconnect to the moment.

This truism from researchers is worth repeating: Too much screen time can chip away at our relationships. And for kids? We’ve learned too much tech can lead to poor grades, anxiety, obesity, and worse — feelings of hopelessness and depression.

Putting the oodles of knowledge we now have into action and transforming the family dynamic is also one of the most priceless gifts you can give yourself this year.

Here are a few ideas to inspire you forward:

  1. Take time seriously. What if we took quality time with family as seriously as we do other things? What if we booked time with our family and refused to cancel it? It’s likely our dearest relationships would soon reflect the shift. Get intentional by carving out time. Things that are important end up on the calendar so plan time together by booking it on the family calendar. Schedule time to play, make a meal together, do a family project, or hang out and talk.quality time with kids
  2. Green time over screen time. Sure it’s fun to have family movie marathons over the break but make sure you get your green time in. Because screen time can physically deplete our senses, green time — time spent outdoors — can be a great way to increase quality time with your family and get a hefty dose of Vitamin D.
  3. Aim for balance. The secret sauce of making any kind of change is balance. If there’s too much attention toward technology this holiday (yours or theirs), try a tech-exchange by trading a half-day of tech use for a half-day hike or bike ride, an hour of video games for an hour of family time. Balance wins every time, especially when quality time is the goal.
  4. Balance new gadget use. Be it a first smartphone, a new video game, or any other new tech gadget, let your kids have fun but don’t allow them to isolate and pull away from family. Balance screen time with face-to-face time with family and friends to get the most out of the holidays. Better yet: Join them in their world — grab a controller and play a few video games or challenge them to a few Fortnite battles.
  5. Be okay with the mess. When you are a parent, you know better than most how quickly the days, months, and years can slip by until — poof! — the kids are grown and gone. The next time you want to spend a full Saturday on chores, think about stepping over the mess and getting out of the house for some fun with your kids.

Here’s hoping you and your family have a magical holiday season brimming with quality time, laughter, and beautiful memories — together.

The post The #1 Gift Parents Can Give Their Kids This Christmas appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

How Safe and Secure are Wearables?

The ‘wearable technology’ market has been exponentially growing in recent years and is expected to exceed 830 million devices by 2020. One of the key drivers pushing this rapid expansion are fitness trackers, namely wristband tech and smartwatch apps which monitors our daily activity and health. But as we integrate wearables devices seamlessly into our everyday lives, what are the privacy and security risks they pose? How should wearable manufacturers and app developers be protecting consumers?

245 million wearables will be sold in 2019

Insurance company Vitality offers customers a heavily discounted Apple Watch to customers in return for their fitness routines and health data, the more activity you do each month, the greater your reward through a monthly discount. While this exchange of information for rewards provides a great incentive for consumers to improve their health, the personal data consumers are sharing in return has a tangible value for the insurance company. However, providing an insurance company with a daily data breakdown of one's health is an unacceptable tradeoff for some, regarding such a practice as an invasion of their privacy. 

As of May 2018, all EU citizen's privacy rights are legally protected by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). GDPR compliance is required by all companies which process EU citizen data, including those based outside of the European Union. The privacy regulation requires wearable device and app providers to obtain each EU citizen's explicit consent before collecting their personal information, they must also clearly explain what types of personal information they intend to collect, how they intend to use the data, and inform consumers about any other organisation they intend to share their data with. If they don’t, wearable tech firms and app providers should brace themselves for heavy fines by European Information Commissioners.

For further details about the GDPR requirements and for Wearables Software Development Security Advice, read my IBM developerWorks 3 part guidance "A developer's guide to the GDPR" and my Combating IoT Cyber Threats

Wearable personal data is also of value to hackers and criminals, for instance, your fitness routine provides a clear picture of the best times to burglarise your home. With personal consumer data potentially at stake, fitness wearable manufacturers should incorporate both default privacy and security standards into the infrastructure of the device, to help ensure personal information remains safeguarded from known and future cyber threats.  ULa global safety science company, has developed testing for cybersecurity threats and offers security verification processes to assist manufacturers in assessing security risks and helping mitigate them before the product even goes to market. If the industry takes these steps, wearable consumers will feel safe and secure as they reap the intended benefits of this new innovation, while the wearables industry will be well positioned to meet the promise of its growth projections.

IoT Lockdown: Ways to Secure Your Family’s Digital Home and Lifestyle

Internet Of ThingsIf you took an inventory of your digital possessions chances are, most of your life — everything from phones to toys, to wearables, to appliances — has wholly transitioned from analog to digital (rotary to wireless). What you may not realize is that with this dramatic transition, comes a fair amount of risk.

Privacy for Progress

With this massive tech migration, an invisible exchange has happened: Privacy for progress. Here we are intentionally and happily immersed in the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is defined as everyday objects with computing devices embedded in them that can send and receive data over the internet.

That’s right. Your favorite fitness tracking app may be collecting and giving away personal data. That smart toy, baby device, or video game may be monitoring your child’s behavior and gathering information to influence future purchases. And, that smart coffee maker may be transmitting more than just good morning vibes.

Gartner report estimated there were 8.4 billion connected “things” in 2017 and as many as 20 billion by 2020. The ability of some IoT devices is staggering and, frankly, a bit frightening. Data collection ability from smart devices and services on the market is far greater than most of us realize. Rooms, devices, and apps come equipped with sensors and controls that can gather and inform third parties about consumers.

Internet Of Things

Lockdown IoT devices:

  • Research product security. With so many cool products on the market, it’s easy to be impulsive and skip your research but don’t. Read reviews on a product’s security (or lack of). Going with a name brand that has a proven security track record and has worked out security gaps may be the better choice.
  • Create new passwords. Most every IoT device will come with a factory default password. Hackers know these passwords and will use them to break into your devices and gain access to your data. Take the time to go into the product settings (general and advanced) and create a unique, strong password.
  • Keep product software up-to-date. Manufacturers often release software updates to protect customers against vulnerabilities and new threats. Set your device to auto-update, if possible, so you always have the latest, safest upgrade.
  • Get an extra layer of security. Managing and protecting multiple devices in our already busy lives is not an easy task. To make sure you are protected consider investing in software that will give you antivirus, identity and privacy protection for your PCs, Macs, smartphones, and tablets—all in one subscription.
  • Stay informed. Think about it, crooks make it a point to stay current on IoT news, so shouldn’t we? Stay a step ahead by staying informed. Keep an eye out for any news that may affect your IoT security (or specific products) by setting up a Google alert.Internet Of Things

A connected life is a good life, no doubt. The only drawback is that criminals fully understand our growing dependence and affection for IoT devices and spend most of their time looking for vulnerabilities. Once they crack our network from one angle, they can and reach other data-rich devices and possibly access private and financial data.

As Yoda says, “with much power comes much responsibility.” Discuss with your family the risks that come with smart devices and how to work together to lock down your always-evolving, hyper-connected way of life.

Do you enjoy podcasts and wish you could find one that helps you keep up with digital trends and the latest gadgets? Then give McAfee’s podcast Hackable a try.

The post IoT Lockdown: Ways to Secure Your Family’s Digital Home and Lifestyle appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

How to Protect Your Connected Devices from Common Cyberattacks

When it comes to internet security, we all suffer from a condition known as optimism bias. It’s the simple idea that we, individually, won’t be affected negatively by an externality compared to others. The same mental distortion happens in the digital world. We read a lot about cybercrime and assume the consequences of those attacks won’t reach or affect us. The problem is, that’s optimism bias at work — and it is what fuels a cybercriminal’s success.

No one expects to lose control over their digital lives, but it does happen, and it can happen to you. And securing your information after a cyberattack is becoming less tenable. In fact, the total number of malware samples has grown almost 34%, more than 774 million, over the past four quarters according to the latest McAfee Labs Threats Report, hitting all-time highs in the second quarter of 2018. Fortunately, there are proactive steps you can take to secure yourself from the most active cyberattack methods.

Phishing Attacks

Cybercriminals use phishing attacks try to and trick you into clicking on a malicious link or download a malicious file. And they have pretty good odds of succeeding if they’re persistent. That’s because phishing attacks try to come across as trustworthy, appearing from a source a victim knows or trusts, like authoritative organization. It’s a common and powerful technique.

A few simple steps can protect you. Examine an email’s sending address if you suspect anything. If you don’t know the sender, or the email’s content doesn’t seem familiar, remain wary and avoid interacting with the message. If you’re unsure, simply reach out to the apparent sender through a different channel, like a phone call or a different email account, that you found through your own research.

Unpatched Software

Unpatched, un-updated, and old software is one the most exploited attack avenues by far. That’s because new software vulnerabilities or bugs are found all of the time, and cybercriminals can use them to compromise a device. The longer software goes without an update, the long cybercriminals have to find these vulnerabilities and exploit them.

The best way to stay a step ahead of active cybercriminals is to update your device’s software as often as possible. Updates often contain security patches blocking newly discovered attack avenues. Getting into a good update habit, too, is becoming increasingly critical as more and more devices connect to the internet. Speaking of which…

The Internet of Things

The Internet of Things, or IoT, is officially here — and we’re not just talking about internet-connected refrigerators or television sets. IoT devices encompass toys and cars to watches and even clothing. All this available computing means cybercriminals have more opportunities than ever before to find and exploit vulnerabilities in everyday objects.

But, again, there are reliable, proactive defenses. First, make sure that, if your smart device or service requires an account, you use a complex and unique password. This means using numbers, symbols and upper and lower case letters. A password manager can help you create strong and unique passwords. Second, typically, if there’s software, there’s an update. Make sure you’re aware of any and all updates to your IoT devices and apply them as soon as you can. If you have an IoT device where updating is difficult, such as a thermostat, you’ll need a more holistic approach. Look for security services, like McAfee Secure Home Platform, designed for a home connected through a protected router that’s enhanced with advanced security analytics.

Finally, and this is a good rule in general, use a comprehensive security solution to protect your technology landscape. It’s a lot bigger than you think and growing every day with each new user account, IoT device or computer you use.

To learn more about securing your personal devices from cyberattacks, be sure to follow us at @McAfee and @McAfee_Home.

The post How to Protect Your Connected Devices from Common Cyberattacks appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

Cyber Security Roundup for June 2018

Dixons Carphone said hackers attempted to compromise 5.9 million payment cards and accessed 1.2 million personal data records. The company, which was heavily criticised for poor security and fined £400,000 by the ICO in January after been hacked in 2015, said in a statement the hackers had attempted to gain access to one of the processing systems of Currys PC World and Dixons Travel stores. The statement confirmed 1.2 million personal records had been accessed by the attackers. No details were disclosed explaining how hackers were able to access such large quantities of personal data, just a typical cover statement of "the investigation is still ongoing".  It is likely this incident occurred before the GDPR law kicked in at the end of May, so the company could be spared the new more significant financial penalties and sanctions the GDPR gives the ICO, but it is certainly worth watching the ICO response to a repeat offender which had already received a record ICO fine this year. The ICO (statement) and the NCSC (statement) both have released statements about this breach.

Ticketmaster reported the data theft of up to 40,000 UK customers, which was caused by security weakness in a customer support app, hosted by Inbenta Technologies, an external third-party supplier to Ticketmaster. Ticketmaster informed affected customers to reset their passwords and has offered (to impacted customers) a free 12-month identity monitoring service with a leading provider. No details were released on how the hackers exploited the app to steal the data, likely to be a malware-based attack. However, there are questions on whether Ticketmaster disclosed and responded to the data breach quick enough, after digital banking company Monzo, claimed the Ticketmaster website showed up as a CPP (Common Point of Purchase) in an above-average number of recent fraud reports. The company noticed 70% of fraudulent transactions with stolen payment cards had used the Ticketmaster site between December 2017 and April 2018. The UK's National Cyber Security Centre said it was monitoring the situation.

TSB customers were targetted by fraudsters after major issues with their online banking systems was reported. The TSB technical issues were caused by a botched system upgrade rather than hackers. TSB bosses admitted 1,300 UK customers had lost money to cyber crooks during its IT meltdown, all were said to be fully reimbursed by the bank.
The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) issued Yahoo a £250,000 fine after an investigation into the company's 2014 breach, which is a pre-GDPR fine. Hackers were able to exfiltrate 191 server backup files from the internal Yahoo network. These backups held the personal details of 8.2 million Yahoo users, including names, email addresses, telephone numbers, dates of birth, hashed password and other security data. The breach only came to light as the company was being acquired by Verizon.

Facebook woes continue, this time a bug changed the default sharing setting of 14 million Facebook users to "public" between 18th and 22nd May.  Users who may have been affected were said to have been notified on the site’s newsfeed.

Chinese Hackers were reported as stealing secret US Navy missile plans. It was reported that Chinese Ministry of State Security hackers broke into the systems of a contractor working at the US Naval Undersea Warfare Center, lifting a massive 614GB of secret information, which included the plans for a supersonic anti-ship missile launched from a submarine. The hacks occurred in January and February this year according to a report in the Washington Post.

Elon Musk (Telsa CEO) claimed an insider sabotaged code and stole confidential company information.  According to CNBC, in an email to staff, Elon wrote I was dismayed to learn this weekend about a Tesla employee who had conducted quite extensive and damaging sabotage to our operations. This included making direct code changes to the Tesla Manufacturing Operating System under false usernames and exporting large amounts of highly sensitive Tesla data to unknown third parties". Telsa has filed a lawsuit accusing a disgruntled former employee of hacking into the systems and passing confidential data to third parties. In the lawsuit, it said the stolen information included photographs and video of the firm's manufacturing systems, and the business had suffered "significant and continuing damages" as a result of the misconduct.

Elsewhere in the world, FastBooking had 124,000 customer account stolen after hackers took advantage of a web application vulnerability to install malware and exfiltrate data. Atlanta Police Dashcam footage was hit by Ransomware.  And US company HealthEquity had 23,000 customer data stolen after a staff member fell for a phishing email.

IoT Security
The Wi-Fi Alliance announced WPA3, the next generation of wireless security, which is more IoT device friendly, user-friendly, and more secure than WPA2, which recently had a security weakness reported (see Krack vulnerability). BSI announced they are developing a new standard for IoT devices and Apps called ISO 23485. A Swann Home Security camera system sent a private video to the wrong user, this was said to have been caused by a factory error.  For Guidance on IoT Security see my guidance, Combating IoT Cyber Threats.

As always, a busy month for security patching, Microsoft released 50 patches, 11 of which were rated as Critical. Adobe released their monthly fix for Flash Player and a critical patch for a zero-day bug being actively exploited. Cisco released patches to address 34 vulnerabilities, 5 critical, and a critical patch for their Access Control System. Mozilla issued a critical patch for the Firefox web browser.

NEWS

Rooting a Logitech Harmony Hub: Improving Security in Today’s IoT World

Introduction

FireEye’s Mandiant Red Team recently discovered vulnerabilities present on the Logitech Harmony Hub Internet of Things (IoT) device that could potentially be exploited, resulting in root access to the device via SSH. The Harmony Hub is a home control system designed to connect to and control a variety of devices in the user’s home. Exploitation of these vulnerabilities from the local network could allow an attacker to control the devices linked to the Hub as well as use the Hub as an execution space to attack other devices on the local network. As the Harmony Hub device list includes support for devices such as smart locks, smart thermostats as well as other smart home devices, these vulnerabilities present a very high risk to the users.

FireEye disclosed these vulnerabilities to Logitech in January 2018. Logitech was receptive and has coordinated with FireEye to release this blog post in conjunction with a firmware update (4.15.96) to address these findings.

The Red Team discovered the following vulnerabilities:

  • Improper certificate validation
  • Insecure update process
  • Developer debugging symbols left in the production firmware image
  • Blank root user password

The Red Team used a combination of the vulnerabilities to gain administrative access to the Harmony Hub. This blog post outlines the discovery and analysis process, and demonstrates the necessity of rigorous security testing of consumer devices – particularly as the public places an increasing amount of trust in devices that are not just connected to home networks, but also give access to many details about the daily lives of their users.

Device Analysis

Device Preparation

Publicly available research indicated the presence of a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) interface on some of the test points on the Harmony Hub. We soldered jumper wires to the test pads, which allowed us to connect to the Harmony Hub using a TTL to USB serial cable. Initial analysis of the boot process showed that the Harmony Hub booted via U-Boot 1.1.4 and ran a Linux kernel (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Initial boot log output from UART interface

After this point in the boot process, the console stopped returning output because the kernel was not configured with any console interfaces. We reconfigured the kernel boot parameters in U-Boot to inspect the full boot process, but no useful information was recovered. Furthermore, because the UART interface was configured to only transmit, no further interaction could be performed with the Harmony Hub on this interface. Therefore, we shifted our focus to gaining a better understanding of the Linux operating system and associated software running on the Harmony Hub.

Firmware Recovery and Extraction

The Harmony Hub is designed to pair with a companion Android or iOS application over Bluetooth for its initial configuration. We created a wireless network with hostapd and installed a Burp Suite Pro CA certificate on a test Android device to intercept traffic sent by the Harmony mobile application to the Internet and to the Harmony Hub. Once initial pairing is complete, the Harmony application searches for Harmony Hubs on the local network and communicates with the Harmony Hub over an HTTP-based API.

Once connected, the Harmony application sends two different requests to Harmony Hub’s API, which cause the Harmony Hub to check for updates (Figure 2).


Figure 2: A query to force the Harmony Hub to check for updates

The Harmony Hub sends its current firmware version to a Logitech server to determine if an update is available (Figure 3). If an update is available, the Logitech server sends a response containing a URL for the new firmware version (Figure 4). Despite using a self-signed certificate to intercept the HTTPS traffic sent by the Harmony Hub, we were able to observe this process – demonstrating that the Harmony Hub ignores invalid SSL certificates.


Figure 3: The Harmony Hub checks for updates to its firmware


Figure 4: The server sends a response with a URL for the updated firmware

We retrieved this firmware and examined the file. After extracting a few layers of archives, the firmware can be found in the harmony-image.squashfs file. This filesystem image is a SquashFS filesystem compressed with lzma, a common format for embedded devices. However, vendors often use old versions of squashfstools that are incompatible with more recent squashfstools builds. We used the unsqashfs_all.sh script included in firmware-mod-kit to automate the process of finding the correct version of unsquashfs to extract the filesystem image (Figure 5).


Figure 5: Using firmware-mod-kit to extract the filesystem

With the filesystem contents extracted, we investigated some of the configuration details of the Harmony Hub’s operating system. Inspection revealed that various debug details were available in the production image, such as kernel modules that were not stripped (Figure 6).


Figure 6: Unstripped Linux kernel objects on the filesystem

Investigation of /etc/passwd showed that the root user had no password configured (Figure 7). Therefore, if we can enable the dropbear SSH server, we can gain root access to the Harmony Hub through SSH without a password.


Figure 7: /etc/passwd shows no password is configured for the root user

We observed that an instance of a dropbear SSH server will be enabled during initialization if the file /etc/tdeenable is present in the filesystem (Figure 8).


Figure 8: A dropbear SSH server is enabled by /etc/init.d/rcS script if /etc/tdeenable is present

Hijacking Update Process

During the initialization process, the Harmony Hub queries the GetJson2Uris endpoint on the Logitech API to obtain a list of URLs to use for various processes (Figure 9), such as the URL to use when checking for updated firmware or a URL to obtain information about updates’ additional software packages.


Figure 9: The request to obtain a list of URL endpoints for various processes

We intercepted and modified the JSON object in the response from the server to point the GetUpdates member to our own IP address, as shown in Figure 10.


Figure 10: The modified JSON object member

Similar to the firmware update process, the Harmony Hub sends a POST request to the endpoint specified by GetUpdates containing the current versions of its internal software packages. The request shown in Figure 11 contains a sample request for the HEOS package.


Figure 11: The JSON request object containing the current version of the “HEOS” package

If the sysBuild parameter in the POST request body does not match the current version known by the server, the server responds with an initial response containing information about the new package version. For an undetermined reason, the Harmony Hub ignores this initial response and sends a second request. The second response contains multiple URLs pointing to the updated package, as shown in Figure 12.


Figure 12: The JSON response containing URLs for the software update

We downloaded and inspected the .pkg files listed in the response object, which are actually just ZIP archives. The archives contain a simple file hierarchy, as shown in Figure 13.


Figure 13: The .pkg archive file hierarchy

The manifest.json file contains information used to instruct the Harmony Hub’s update process on how to handle the archive’s contents (Figure 14).


Figure 14: The contents of the manifest.json file

The Harmony Hub’s update process executes the script provided by the installer parameter of the manifest if it is present within the archive. We modified this script, as shown in Figure 15, to create the /etc/tdeenable file, which causes the boot process to enable the SSH interface as previously described.


Figure 15: The modified update.sh file

We created a new malicious archive with the appropriate .pkg extension, which was hosted on a local web server. The next time the Harmony Hub checked for updates against the URL supplied in the modified GetJson2URIs response, we sent a modified response to point to this update. The Harmony Hub retrieved our malicious update package, and after rebooting the Harmony Hub, the SSH interface was enabled. This allowed us to access the device with the username root and a blank password, as shown in Figure 16.


Figure 16: The SSH interface was enabled after a reboot

Conclusion

As technology becomes further embedded into our daily lives, the trust we place in various devices unknowingly increases exponentially. Due to the fact that the Harmony Hub, like many IoT devcies, uses a common processor architecture, malicious tools could easily be added to a compromised Harmony Hub, increasing the overall impact of a targeted attack. However, Logitech worked with our team to quickly address the vulnerabilities with their current firmware, 4.15.96. Developers of the devices we place our trust should be vigilant when removing potential attack vectors that could expose end users to security risks. We also want to share Logitech’s statement on the research and work by the Red Team:

"At Logitech, we take our customers’ security and privacy very seriously. In late January 2018, security research firm FireEye pointed out vulnerabilities that could impact Logitech Harmony Hub-based products*.

If a malicious hacker had already gained access to a Hub-users network, these vulnerabilities could be exploited. We appreciate the work that professional security research firms like FireEye provide when identifying these types of vulnerabilities on IoT devices.

As soon as FireEye shared their research findings with us, we reviewed internally and immediately started to develop firmware to address it. As of April 10, we have released firmware that addresses all of the vulnerabilities that were identified. For any customers who haven’t yet updated to firmware version 4.15.96, we recommend you check the MyHarmony software and sync your Hub-based remote and receive it. Complete directions on updating your firmware can be found here.

*Hub-based products include: Harmony Elite, Harmony Home Hub, Harmony Ultimate Hub, harmony Hub, Harmony Home Control, Harmony Pro, Harmony Smart Control, Harmony Companion, Harmony Smart Keyboard, Harmony Ultimate and Ultimate Home."

The Rise and Rise of the Cyber Economy – PandaLabs Q1 2017 Report

q1 headline image - blog

Developments in Cyber-crime, Cyberwarfare and AI mark the first quarter of 2017, as indicated by PandaLabs Q1 Report. The Report by Panda Security’s malware resource facility identifies prominent tactics, attack methods and shifts in the industry.

The Cyber-crime industry continues to grow on the back of profitable attacks. The development of Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) and organisations like Vdos, an organisation specialising in DDos attacks, indicate the professionalism of the cyber-crime industry. In Q1 we continue to see new and adapted attack methods such as RDPatcher, malware detected by PandaLabs in its attempt to access the victim’s endpoint and prepare it for rental on the Dark Web.

Politically motivated cyber-attacks

Fueling the continued development of the cyber-crime industry are politically motivated cyber-attacks. In recent months, Cyberwarfare has become a popular tactic in enforcing political agendas. In Q4 of 2016, we saw some of the first high profile instances of cyberwarfare, with accusations of Russia’s interference in the 2016 US elections. The gravity the development is clear as countries like Germany have now begun to develop cyber-command centres to monitor online activity – this quarter France and the Netherlands reconsidered electronic voting procedures to avoid situations like the 2016 US elections.

Targeted IoT device attacks

Targeted attacks on IoT devices continue to threaten our safety in line with the ever-increasing number of IoT devices. In February, at the European Broadcasting Union Media Cyber Security Seminar, security consultant Rafael Scheel demonstrated more ways these devices can breach unsecured networks by creating an exploit that would allow an attacker to take control of a Smart TV using only a DDT signal.

A perfect device for eavesdropping

Recent developments in Robotics and AI have led to that belief that the fourth industrial revolution is not far off. Robotics and AI technology could do more than just take over jobs – introducing virtual assistants like Google Home and Amazon Echo, can become a dangerous in road for hackers. Introduced in February 2017, Google Home can tune into your home IoT devices while waiting to be called on – making it the perfect device for eavesdropping. Police recently requested access to an Amazon Echo device as it may have held evidence that could be useful to their case.

Over the course of 2016 Ransomware attacks earned criminals billions of Rand. Fueled by its profitability, Ransomware attacks continue to increase, with new variants created daily. In Q1 PandaLabs discovered Ransomware variant WYSEWYE -that allows the attacker to select and take control of specific folders on the victim’s endpoint, ultimately demanding a ransom to give back control to the victim.

See the full report by PandaLabs here.

The post The Rise and Rise of the Cyber Economy – PandaLabs Q1 2017 Report appeared first on CyberSafety.co.za.

Cyber Security Predictions for 2017

Pandalabs-summer16

Analysis

2016 kicked off with more than 20 million new samples of malware detected and neutralised by PandaLabs – an average of 227,000 per day. This figure is slightly higher than that of 2015, which saw around 225,000 per day.

Throughout 2016, we’ve seen how the number of new malware has been slightly lower than in 2015 — about 200,000 new samples of malware per day on average — however attacks have become more effective.

Cybercriminals are becoming more confident in their abilities, and, although figures have been lower than expected, there is still cause for concern. Hackers appear to be concentrating their efforts into the most profitable attacks, utilising sophisticated techniques that allow them to make quick and easy money in an efficient manner.

Black Hats have turned their focus essentially to productivity, proliferating attacks on businesses that handle massive quantities of data and sensitive information. Once they’ve gained access to these businesses, they are able to infect a large number of computers possible with ransomware, putting themselves in a position to demand millions in ransom or put the data up for sale on the black market.

If there is one thing that hasn’t changed over the course of this year, it’s the popularity of trojans, with ransomware at the forefront, continuing to top the statistical charts for years.


Ranking the top attacks of 2016

art-blog


Ransomware

We know that ransomware is a substantial business for cybercriminals, but it is incredibly tricky to measure the number of attacks reliably. What can be noted is the evolution of Ransomware attacks, in some cases having become particularly aggressive, as is the case of Petya. Instead of encrypting documents, Petya goes straight for the computer’s Master Boot Record (MBR) and makes it unserviceable until a ransom is paid.

Abuse of system tool PowerShell has risen this year, installed by default in Windows 10 and frequently used in attacks to avoid detection by security solutions installed on victims computers.

In Q2 of 2016, one of the strangest cases of Ransomware involved a company in Slovenia. The company’s head of security received an email out of Russia informing him that their network had been compromised and that they were poised to launch ransomware on all of their computers. If the company didn’t pay around €9000 in Bitcoins within 3 days. To prove that they did in fact have access to the organisations network, the hackers sent a file with a list of every device connected to the company’s internal network.

Ransomware as a Service (RaaS) presented as the latest development in the Ransomware industry. In Q3 we witnessed to a higher level of specialisation in the ransomware trade. The best example of this featured the creators of the ransomware Petya and Mischa, specialised in the development aspect of malware and its corresponding payment platforms, leaving distribution in the hands of third parties. Once the creators have done their part they leave it up to the distributors to be in charge of infecting their victims. Much like in the legal world, the distributors’ profit is derived from a percentage of the money acquired. The higher the sales, the higher the percentage that they receive.


Malicious email

Attacks don’t only come in the form of malvertising or compromised websites. A large number of them still arrive through email in the form of false invoices or other notifications. An attack of this sort was carried out in at least two European countries, in which cybercriminals posed as their respective local electricity supply companies. The message contained no attachment, showing only the billing information in text and including a link that when clicked would take you to the invoice details. The hook was an exorbitantly high payment that would entice an emotional response so that the recipient would click through to consult the supposed bill without thinking. Upon clicking the link, the user was directed to a website that resembled the company’s real website, where a bill could be downloaded. If the client downloaded and opened the file, they became infected with ransomware.


Business Email Compromise Phishing

Hackers will investigate how the company operates from the inside and get information from their victims off of social networks to give credibility to their con. The attackers then pose as the CEO or financial director of a company and request a transfer from an employee. This kind of attack is rapidly gaining in popularity.

A notable case this year affected Mattel, the well-known toy manufacturer of Barbies and Hot Wheels. A high ranking executive received a message from the recently appointed CEO soliciting a transfer of $3 million to a bank account in China. After making the transfer, he then confirmed with the CEO that it was done, who in turn was baffled, having not given such an order. They got in touch with the American authorities and with the bank, but it was too late and the money had already been transferred.

In this case they were fortunate. It was a bank holiday in China and there was enough time to alert the Chinese authorities. The account was frozen, and Mattel was able to recover their money.

smartphones-blog


Mobile Devices

SNAP is one the most popular vulnerabilities that we’ve seen this year – affecting LG G3 mobile phones. The problem stemmed from an error in LG’s notifications app, called Smart Notice, which gives permission for the running of any JavaScript. The researchers at BugSec discovered the vulnerability and notified LG, which rapidly published an update that resolved the problem.

Gugi, an Android trojan, managed to break through Android 6’s security barriers to steal bank credentials from apps installed on the phone. To accomplish this, Gugi superimposed a screen on top of the screen of the legitimate app asking for information that would then be sent directly to the criminals without their victims’ knowledge.

In August, Apple published an urgent update of version 9.3.5 of iOS. This version resolves three zero-day vulnerabilities employed by a software spy known as Pegasus, developed by the NGO Group, an Israeli organization with products similar to those offered by Hacking Team.


Internet of Things

Connected cars are at risk from cyber-attack – investigators at the University of Birmingham showed how they had succeeded in compromising the power door lock system of every vehicle sold by the Volkswagen Group in the last twenty years. Researchers Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek, who last year demonstrated how to hack a Jeep Cherokee, took it one step further this year to show how they could manipulate at will the throttle, the brake, and even the steering wheel while the car was in gear.

Smart homes are just as vulnerable to attack – researchers Andrew Tierney and Ken Munro showed a proof of concept that they built to hijack a thermostat. After taking control of the thermostat (inserting an SD card in it), he raised the temperature to 99 degrees Fahrenheit and required a PIN to deactivate it. The thermostat connected to an IRC channel, giving the MAC address of as an identifier of every compromised device. It demanded a bitcoin in exchange for the PIN, which changed every 30 seconds.

cybersecurity3


Cyberwarfare

2016 saw the United States go on the offensive and concede that it is launching cyber-attacks against Daesh targets. Robert Work, United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, made this clear in statements to CNN.

In February, South Korean officials discovered an attack originating from North Korea. The attack allegedly began over a year ago, its primary target being 140,000 computers belonging to organisations and government agencies, as well as defense contractors. According to police statements, more than 42,000 documents were stolen, of which 95% were related to defense, such as, for example, documents containing plans and specs for the F15 fighter jet.

At the height of the United States presidential election, one of the most significant incidents that took place was the discovery of an attack on the DNC (Democratic National Committee) in which a stockpile of data was plundered, and was then leaked to the public.

On the subject of the elections, the FBI issued an alert after detecting two attacks on electoral websites, and at least one of the attackers — identified as foreigners — was able to make off with voter registration data.

In August, a group calling itself “The Shadow Brokers” announced that it had hacked the NSA and published some of the “cyber weapons” that it had stolen, promising to sell the rest to the highest bidder.


Cybercrime

In June, a criminal dubbed “The Dark Overlord” put patient information from three US institutions up for sale on the black market. He had stolen information from over 650,000 patients and asked for around $700,000 for its return. Shortly thereafter, he put the personal information of 9.3 million clients of a medical insurance agency up for sale for 750 bitcoins.

In the last few months, Dropbox became another victim of cybercrime. It was recently revealed that the well-known file sharing service suffered an attack in 2012. The outcome: the theft of data from 68 million users.

One of the biggest attacks to date affected Yahoo – despite having taken place in 2014 the attack only become known recently. A total of 500 million accounts were compromised, becoming the greatest theft in history.

In August 2016 we saw one of the greatest bitcoin thefts in history. Bitfinex, a company that deals in the commerce and exchange of cryptocurrency, was compromised and had an equivalent of 60 million dollars in bitcoins stolen from it, money which belonged to clients that had deposited their bitcoins in this “bank”. There is still no evidence pointing to the culprits, and the company has offered no information as to how it happened, as law enforcement agencies are still investigating the case.


DDoS Attacks

In September, Brian Krebs, the famed journalist specialising in security, blew the cover off of vDOS, a “business” that offered DDoS attack services. Shortly thereafter, the people responsible, who in two years had lead 150,000 attacks and made a profit of $618,000, were arrested.

In retaliation hackers took down Krebs’s website through a crippling DDoS attack. In the end, Google, through its Project Shield, was able to protect it and the page came back online.

In the last quarter of the year, a wave of large-scale cyberattacks against the American internet provider DynDNS disrupted the service of some major global corporations’ websites. The brutal attack affected major organisations and international communications tools, such as Netflix, Twitter, Amazon, and The New York Times. Service was interrupted for almost 11 hours, affecting more than a billion clients worldwide.

pandasecurity-punkeyPOS-principal1


POS’s and Credit Cards

The popular American fast food chain Wendy’s saw the Points of Sale terminals at more than 1,000 of its establishments infected with malware that stole credit card information from its clients. PandaLabs discovered an attack carried out with malware known as PunkeyPOS, which was used to infect more than 200 US restaurants.

Another such attack was discovered in 2016 by PandaLabs. Once again, the victims were US restaurants, a total of 300 establishments whose POS’s had been infected with the malware PosCardStealer.


Financial Institutions

This year, the Central Bank of Bangladesh suffered an attack in which 1 billion US dollars in bank transfers were made. Fortunately, a large portion of those transfers were blocked, although the thieves had already succeeded in making off with 81 million dollars.

Shortly after that we witnessed two similar cases: one against a bank in Vietnam, another against a bank in Ecuador.

blog


Social Networks

The security of 117 million LinkedIn users was at risk after a list of email address and their respective passwords were published.

On Twitter, 32 million usernames and passwords were put up for sale for around $6000. The social network denied that the account information had been aquired from their servers. In fact, the passwords were in plain text and the majority of them belonged to Russian users, hinting at the possibility that they were attained by means of phishing or Trojans.

This year it came to light that MySpace was attacked. The intrusion happened in 2013, although up until May of this year it remained unknown. Usernames, passwords, and email addresses were taken, reaching up to 360 million affected accounts. A user may not have used MySpace in years, but if they are in the habit of reusing passwords, and aren’t using two-factor authentication they could be at risk.

Activating two-factor authentication, creating complex passwords and not reusing them for different websites is recommended to avoid these risks.

What cyber nightmares does 2017 have in store for us?


Ransomware

Having taken center stage in 2016, Ransomware will most likely do so again in 2017. In some ways, this kind of attack is cannibalising other more traditional ones that are based on information theft. Ransomware is a simpler and more direct way to make a profit, eliminating intermediaries and unnecessary risks.

Taking every idea into consideration


Companies

Attacks on companies will be more numerous and sophisticated. Companies are already the prime target of cybercriminals. Their information is more valuable than that of private users.

Cybercriminals are always on the lookout for weaknesses in corporate networks through which they can gain access. Once inside, they use lateral movements to access resources that contain the information they are looking for. They can also launch large-scale ransomware attacks (infecting with ransomware all available devices), in order to demand astronomical sums of money to recover the data of affected companies.


Internet of Things

Internet of Things (IoT) is fast becoming the next cybersecurity nightmare. Any kind of device connected to a network can be used as an entryway into corporate and home networks. The majority of these devices have not been designed with security strength in mind. Typically they do not receive automatic security updates, use weak passwords, reuse the same credentials in thousands of devices, and other security flaws – all of this together makes them extremely vulnerable to outside attacks.


DDoS

The final months of 2016 witnessed the most powerful DDoS attacks in history. It began in September with an attack on Brian Krebs after his having reported on the activities of an Israeli company that offered this kind of service. On the heels of that attack came another on the French company OVH (reaching 1Tbps of traffic) and another on the American company Dyn that left several major tech giants without Internet service.

These attacks were carried out by bot networks that relied on thousands of affected IoT devices (IP cameras, routers). We can be certain that 2017 will see an increase in this kind of attack, which is typically used to blackmail companies or to harm their business.


Mobile Phones

The target is clear here as well — Android devices got the worst of it. Which makes sense, given that Android has the greatest market share. Focusing on one single OS makes it easier for cybercriminals to fix a target with maximal dissemination and profitability.

To complicate matters, updates do not only depend on the rollout of what Android can do, but also depends on each hardware manufacturer’s decision of when and how to incorporate them – if at all. Given the amount of security issues that crop up every month, this situation only puts users at greater risk.


Cyberwarfare

We are living in uncertain times with regards to international relations – threats of commercial warfare, espionage, tariffs with the potential to polarise the positions of the great powers. This can no doubt have vast and serious consequences in the field of cyber-security.

Governments will want access to more information, at a time when encryption is becoming more popular) and intelligence agencies will become more interested in obtaining information that could benefit industry in their countries.

A global situation of this kind could hamper data sharing initiatives — data that large companies are already sharing in order to better protect themselves against cyber-crime, setting standards and international engagement protocols.

The post Cyber Security Predictions for 2017 appeared first on CyberSafety.co.za.

Toolsmith In-depth Analysis: motionEyeOS for Security Makers



It's rather hard to believe, unimaginable even, but here we are. This is the 120th consecutive edition of toolsmith; every month for the last ten years, I've been proud to bring you insights and analysis on free and open source security tools. I hope you've enjoyed the journey as much as I have, I've learned a ton and certainly hope you have too. If you want a journey through the past, October 2006 through August 2015 are available on my web site here, in PDF form, and many year's worth have been published here on the blog as well.
I labored a bit on what to write about for this 10th Anniversary Edition and settled on something I have yet to cover, a physical security topic. To that end I opted for a very slick, maker project, using a Raspberry Pi 2, a USB web cam, and motionEyeOS. Per Calin Crisan, the project developer, motionEyeOS is a Linux distribution that turns a single-board computer into a video surveillance system. The OS is based on BuildRoot and uses motion as a backend and motionEye for the frontend.
  • Buildroot "is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation."
  • Motion (wait for it) is a program that monitors the video signal from cameras and is able to detect if a significant part of the picture has changed; in other words, it can detect motion.
  • motionEye is also Calin's project and is web frontend for the motion daemon.

Installation was insanely easy, I followed Calin's installation guidelines and used Win32DiskImager to write the image to the SD card. Here's how straightforward it was in summary.
1) Download the latest motionEyeOS image. I used build 20160828 for Raspberry Pi 2.
2) Write the image to SD card, insert the SD into your Pi.
3) Plug a supported web camera in to your Pi, power up the Pi. Give it a couple minutes after first boot per the guidelines: do not disconnect or reboot your board during these first two minutes. The initialization steps:
  • prepare the data partition on the SD card
  • configure SSH remote access
  • auto-configure any detected camera devices
4) Determine the IP addressed assigned to the Pi, DHCP is default. You can do this with a monitor plugged in the the Pi's HDMI port, via your router's connected devices list, or with a network scan.
For detailed installation instructions, refer to PiMyLifeUp's Build a Raspberry Pi Security Camera Network. It refers to a dated, differently named (motionPie) version of motionEyeOS, but provides great detail if you need it. There are a number of YouTube videos too, just search motionEyeOS.

Configuration is also ridiculously simple. Point your browser to the IP address for the Pi, http://192.168.248.20 for me on my wired network, and http://192.168.248.64 once I configured motionEyeOS to use my WiFi dongle.
The first time you login, the password is blank so change that first. In the upper left corner of the UI you'll see a round icon with three lines, that's the setting menu. Click it, change your admin and user (viewer) passwords STAT. Then immediately enable Advanced Settings.
Figure 1: Preferences

You'll definitely want to add a camera, and keep in mind, you can manage multiple cameras with on motionEyeOS devices, and even multiple motionEyeOS systems with one master controller. Check out Usage Scenarios for more.
Figure 2: Add a camera

Once your camera is enabled, you'll see its feed in the UI. Note that there are unique URLs for snapshots, streaming and embedding.

Figure 3: Active camera and URLs
When motion detection has enabled the camera, the video frame in the UI will be wrapped in orange-red. You can also hover over the video frame for additional controls such as full screen and immediate access to stored video.

There are an absolute plethora of settings options, the most important of which, after camera configuration, is storage. You can write to local storage or a network share, this quickly matters if you choose and always-on scenario versus motion enabled.
Figure 4: Configure file storage
You can configure text overlay, video streaming, still images, schedules, and more.
Figure 5: Options, options, options
The most important variable of all us how you want to be notified. 
There are configuration options that allow you to run commands so you script up a preferred process or use one already devised.
Figure 6: Run a command for notification

Best of all, you can make uses of a variety of notification services including email, as well as Pushover, and IFTTT via Web Hooks.
Figure 7: Web Hook notifications
There is an outstanding article on using Pushover and IFTTT on Pi Supply's Maker Zone. It makes it easy to leverage such services even if you haven't done so before.
The net result, after easy installation, and a little bit of configuration is your on motion-enabled CCTV system that costs very little compared to its commercial counterparts.
Figure 8: Your author entering his office under the watchful eye of Camera1
Purists will find image quality a bit lacking perhaps, but with the right camera you can use Fast Network Camera. Do be aware of the drawbacks though (lost functionality).

In closing, I love this project. Kudos to Calin Crisan for this project. Makers and absolute beginners alike can easily create a great motion enabled video/still camera setup, or a network of managed cameras with always on video. The hardware is inexpensive and readily available. If you've not explored Raspberry Pi this is a great way to get started. If you're looking for a totally viable security video monitoring implementation, motionEyeOS and your favorite IoT hardware (the project supports other boards too) are a perfect combo. Remember too that there are Raspberry Pi board-specific camera modules available.

Ping me via email or Twitter if you have questions (russ at holisticinfosec dot org or @holisticinfosec).
Cheers…until next time.

For an Internet of Things, We Are Going to Need Better Things

There's a lot of hype around at the moment about "The Internet of Things" (IoT), which, I suppose, is all about attaching, uh, things to the Internet. By "things", it seems we are supposed to be thinking household goods, vehicles; basically anything with electrical current running through it is a candidate for the "internet of things".

While setting up a cheapo DVD player last week, I couldn't help thinking of Chief Brody in the film "Jaws"... "You're going to need a bigger boat", he says, on seeing the enormous shark. We're going to need a bigger mindset on security if we are to survive the onslaught of "things". The firmware in the kind of devices we are already routinely connecting up is drivel. I mean some of it is absolute garbage. I know there are exceptions, but most of it is badly built, and almost none of it is ever updated.

Each of these devices is likely perfectly capable as a host in a botnet - for DDoS, for sending SPAM, SPIM and SPIT (OK, we are yet to see much in the way of unsolicited Internet Telephony... but with the IoT, devices built to make calls/send texts are likely to get hijacked), so each of these devices has a value to the Internet's vast supply of wrongdoers.

Researchers at Eurcom recently completed a study showing up vulnerabilities in the 30 thousand or so firmware images they scraped from vendor websites. Apparently one image even contained a linux kernel whose age had just hit double figures. Ouch. The "Nest" next-gen thermostat hasn't been without issues either, a high profile target, at least we can expect firmware updates from them!

Synology's NAS storage devices are among the early victims of malware attacking non-traditional computing devices, and may be an indication of IoT issues to come. Users of these storage devices have found themselves victim of a crypto-ransomware attack: their files are encrypted, and the encryption keys offered for sale back to them! Other early warnings come in the form of attacks on SCADA industrial control systems. These are all places that traditionally, little or no emphasis has been placed on security.

What can we do to help ourselves here? My advice is be careful before you buy anything you're going to add to your network. Look to see if the vendor has a firmware download, and if there's a recent-ish update. If they're the fire'n'forget types, you're probably not going to want to deploy it.

Footnote: Gartner appears to believe the Internet of Things to have reached "peak hype". Reminds me of an old saying about those dwelling in vitreous abodes launching masonry...