Category Archives: iot devices

Edge Computing: What Is It And Its Relation To IoT?

When the Internet protocol was conceived by the team of Vint Cerf in the ‘70s, they have decided that the Arpanet (the first name of the Internet) will never exceed 4 billion nodes (devices). Four billion is a big number in the early days of computing, the ‘70s was totally a different era, where there was no smartphones, no laptops, no desktop PCs. Computers are as huge as a football field, and used punch cards for storing data, as hard drives (which were invented by IBM in 1956) were very expensive.

Fast forward today, home appliances that used to be immaterial and has no business to be connected to the Internet, are actually connected to the Internet. It is estimated that by 2025, 75 billion of these devices we now know as IoT (Internet-of-Things) will go online. 75 billion in an order of magnitude more than what IPv4 can ever handle, even with the extensive use of NAT (Network Address Translation).

The proliferation of IoT devices in homes and the enterprise gives rise to a whole new meaning of “big data”. Data collection is ripe, not only from the vulnerable massive server farms but also from ordinary household appliances that run 24/7 collecting information. IoT’s existence coincided with the growth of cloud computing, and even the IoT vendors themselves are usually also involved with a cloud-computing service business if not the devices they sell itself interacts with a cloud-solution.

If you think you’re finally familiar with technology, new technologies will appear and the latest technology has been used in no time. One of the latest innovations in cloud computing. Dropbox, Google Drive, Amazon Web Services, etc. are all operated in the cloud. When you use the cloud, you store information on a shared server rather than storing information on your computer. With the adoption of this technology by many companies and individuals, cloud services have become commonplace today. This “marriage” gives way to a new term: “edge computing”. Corporate and individual spending for acquiring edge computing-compatible devices are estimated to reach $11.2 billion by 2024.

In edge computing, data generated by IoT devices is processed near the devices rather than being sent to distant places such as data centers and clouds. As this computing approaches the “edge” of the network, companies can analyze critical data in near real-time, enabling faster and more efficient data transfer with IoT devices. This technology prioritizes data locally, which reduces backhaul traffic that is concentrated in the repository. This is important in that it reduces the reliance on WiFi and data networks. Most devices and machines can be used in an edge computing environment by enabling Internet connection. Computer systems such as Amazon Web Services will be available under the edge computing implementation. Familiar equipment such as interphones, toasters, toilets, and private cars can be edge devices.

“Edge Computing and 5G, supported by continued advancements in machine learning and AI-derived algorithms, will continue to be the key drivers of Big Data analytics and complex real-time analysis at the Edge of networks,” explained Elson Sutanto, researcher at Juniper Research.

For those who have heard of edge-computing just now, here are some of its advantages:

  1. Cost savings: One of the major concerns about IoT is the upfront cost of network bandwidth, data storage and computing power. Because edge computing can perform large amounts of data calculations locally, companies can choose which services to run locally and which to send to the cloud. This will reduce the final cost of the entire IoT solution.
  2. Traditional Devices and Edge Devices: Edge devices act as an intermediary between traditional and new machines. As a result, you can connect traditional industrial machines to new machines and IoT solutions, and have the immediate advantage of being able to gain insights from conventional machines and new machines.
  3. Security: Edge technology allows you to eliminate device-cloud traffic. You can also filter confidential information locally and choose which information to send to the cloud. This allows the user to build the right-in-place security framework that is essential for corporate security and auditing.
  4. Stable operation with limited connectivity: If the Internet connection associated with oil fields, farm feed pumps, solar power plants and wind power plants is unstable, things get confusing. The ability to store and process data on the edge prevents data loss and operational failure in a limited internet connection environment.
  5. Response time: Edge computing does not have to go back and forth in the cloud, reducing latency and making responses faster. This can prevent operation breakdowns and unexpected accidents.

Related Blogs:

Fundamentals Of Computing Security

Factors to Consider When Securing IoT Devices

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New Hacking Technique Using Bluetooth Exposed

Bluetooth makes it easy to transfer files, photos, and documents to devices, such as mobile phones, PDAs, and laptops in a short distance. This wireless communication protocol was developed in 1998. Bluetooth technology has revolutionized wireless communication between devices with its simple and ubiquitous features. Unfortunately, Bluetooth technology has increased security issues in individuals. Hackers continue to use Bluetooth vulnerabilities for various known activities, such as: theft of personal data, installation of malware and others. This is a newly discovered major security breach that not only affects mobile phones, but even cars and systems.

BlueBorne

BlueBorne is a security hole in some Bluetooth implementations. It was reviewed on April 2017 by security researchers in Armis. Vulnerabilities exist on mobile, desktop, and IoT operating systems, including Android, iOS, Windows, and Linux. This can allow hackers to take control of the device and attack the center’s users to steal information.

The researchers explained the scope of the attack vectors as follows: “For the attack, the target device does not need to be coupled to a drive device or configured invisible mode.” So far, Armis Labs has identified eight days-zero vulnerabilities indicating the existence and potential of attack vectors. Armis believes that there are more vulnerabilities to be expected on various platforms using Bluetooth, and this vulnerability is fully functional and can be exploited successfully.

BlueBorne has become a dangerous threat because of the kind of complex medium. Unlike most Internet-based attacks, BlueBorne attacks spread through the air. This means that hackers can silently connect to smartphones and computers and take control of devices without user intervention.

Btlejacking

Btlejacking, this Bluetooth attack vector, was released in August 2018 at the DefCon conference in Las Vegas by Damien Cauquil, Head of Research and Development at Digital Security. With this new technology, hackers can disrupt and recover Bluetooth devices with low power consumption. This is based on an interference vulnerability identified as CVE-2018-7252, which affects versions 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, and 5 of the BLE devices. In order to exploit the weak points, the attacker must be within 5 meters of distance.

Hundreds of millions of Bluetooth devices are potentially vulnerable to attack vectors, allowing hackers to discover BLE connections, block BLE devices, and control vulnerable Bluetooth devices. Attacks on Bluetooth enabled devices can be done with a micro-integrated BIT computer that costs only $ 15 and a few lines of open source code.

Bleedingbit

Security researchers at security firm Armis have discovered two new “BleedingBit” bugs on Bluetooth chips that affect companies around the world. The first bug, followed by CVE-2018-16986, was a remote code execution bug that involved four chip models embedded in seven Cisco access points and five Meraki access points. By exploiting the vulnerabilities, remote attackers can send dangerous BLE transmission messages, called “ad packages,” stored on vulnerable memory chips. When BLE is enabled, these malicious messages may be called to trigger a critical memory overflow. It can also allow hackers to corrupt memory, access the operating system, create a backdoor, and remotely execute malicious code.

The second chip vulnerability was identified as CVE-2018-7080 and affected multiple Aruba access points, including the full 300 series, and allowed attackers to access completely new and different firmware versions and install them.

BleedingBit is cited as a wake-up call to enterprise security for two reasons.

“First, the fact that an attacker can enter the network without any indication or warning raises serious security concerns. Second, these vulnerabilities can destroy network segmentation — the primary security strategy that most enterprises use to protect themselves from unknown or dangerous unmanaged and IoT devices. And here, the access point is the unmanaged device,” said Yevgeny Dibrov, Armis CEO in a blog post.

CarsBlues

Privacy4Cars researchers have discovered a new major vulnerability, CarsBlues, in the information and entertainment systems of different types of vehicles. This attacks can be done in minutes with cheap, available hardware and software. This allows hackers to remove personal identification information (PII) from users who have synchronized their mobile phone with their car via Bluetooth. It is estimated that tens of millions of vehicles worldwide are victims of hacker attacks.

Also, Read:

Intel Discovers And Publishes New Bluetooth Vulnerability

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