Category Archives: Hackers

A New Year’s Resolution: Security is Broken…Let’s Fix It

As we near the end of 2018, another wave of massive cyber-attacks has exposed personally identifiable information belonging to hundreds of millions of people and will cost the impacted businesses

The post A New Year’s Resolution: Security is Broken…Let’s Fix It appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

DarkVishnya: Banks attacked through direct connection to local network

While novice attackers, imitating the protagonists of the U.S. drama Mr. Robot, leave USB flash drives lying around parking lots in the hope that an employee from the target company picks one up and plugs it in at the workplace, more experienced cybercriminals prefer not to rely on chance. In 2017-2018, Kaspersky Lab specialists were invited to research a series of cybertheft incidents. Each attack had a common springboard: an unknown device directly connected to the company’s local network. In some cases, it was the central office, in others a regional office, sometimes located in another country. At least eight banks in Eastern Europe were the targets of the attacks (collectively nicknamed DarkVishnya), which caused damage estimated in the tens of millions of dollars.

Each attack can be divided into several identical stages. At the first stage, a cybercriminal entered the organization’s building under the guise of a courier, job seeker, etc., and connected a device to the local network, for example, in one of the meeting rooms. Where possible, the device was hidden or blended into the surroundings, so as not to arouse suspicion.

High-tech tables with sockets are great for planting hidden devices

High-tech tables with sockets are great for planting hidden devices

The devices used in the DarkVishnya attacks varied in accordance with the cybercriminals’ abilities and personal preferences. In the cases we researched, it was one of three tools:

  • netbook or inexpensive laptop
  • Raspberry Pi computer
  • Bash Bunny, a special tool for carrying out USB attacks

Inside the local network, the device appeared as an unknown computer, an external flash drive, or even a keyboard. Combined with the fact that Bash Bunny is comparable in size to a USB flash drive, this seriously complicated the search for the entry point. Remote access to the planted device was via a built-in or USB-connected GPRS/3G/LTE modem.

At the second stage, the attackers remotely connected to the device and scanned the local network seeking to gain access to public shared folders, web servers, and any other open resources. The aim was to harvest information about the network, above all, servers and workstations used for making payments. At the same time, the attackers tried to brute-force or sniff login data for such machines. To overcome the firewall restrictions, they planted shellcodes with local TCP servers. If the firewall blocked access from one segment of the network to another, but allowed a reverse connection, the attackers used a different payload to build tunnels.

Having succeeded, the cybercriminals proceeded to stage three. Here they logged into the target system and used remote access software to retain access. Next, malicious services created using msfvenom were started on the compromised computer. Because the hackers used fileless attacks and PowerShell, they were able to avoid whitelisting technologies and domain policies. If they encountered a whitelisting that could not be bypassed, or PowerShell was blocked on the target computer, the cybercriminals used impacket, and winexesvc.exe or psexec.exe to run executable files remotely.

Verdicts

not-a-virus.RemoteAdmin.Win32.DameWare
MEM:Trojan.Win32.Cometer
MEM:Trojan.Win32.Metasploit
Trojan.Multi.GenAutorunReg
HEUR:Trojan.Multi.Powecod
HEUR:Trojan.Win32.Betabanker.gen
not-a-virus:RemoteAdmin.Win64.WinExe
Trojan.Win32.Powershell
PDM:Trojan.Win32.CmdServ
Trojan.Win32.Agent.smbe
HEUR:Trojan.Multi.Powesta.b
HEUR:Trojan.Multi.Runner.j
not-a-virus.RemoteAdmin.Win32.PsExec

Shellcode listeners

tcp://0.0.0.0:5190
tcp://0.0.0.0:7900

Shellcode connects

tcp://10.**.*.***:4444
tcp://10.**.*.**:4445
tcp://10.**.*.**:31337

Shellcode pipes

\\.\xport
\\.\s-pipe

Securelist: DarkVishnya: Banks attacked through direct connection to local network

While novice attackers, imitating the protagonists of the U.S. drama Mr. Robot, leave USB flash drives lying around parking lots in the hope that an employee from the target company picks one up and plugs it in at the workplace, more experienced cybercriminals prefer not to rely on chance. In 2017-2018, Kaspersky Lab specialists were invited to research a series of cybertheft incidents. Each attack had a common springboard: an unknown device directly connected to the company’s local network. In some cases, it was the central office, in others a regional office, sometimes located in another country. At least eight banks in Eastern Europe were the targets of the attacks (collectively nicknamed DarkVishnya), which caused damage estimated in the tens of millions of dollars.

Each attack can be divided into several identical stages. At the first stage, a cybercriminal entered the organization’s building under the guise of a courier, job seeker, etc., and connected a device to the local network, for example, in one of the meeting rooms. Where possible, the device was hidden or blended into the surroundings, so as not to arouse suspicion.

High-tech tables with sockets are great for planting hidden devices

High-tech tables with sockets are great for planting hidden devices

The devices used in the DarkVishnya attacks varied in accordance with the cybercriminals’ abilities and personal preferences. In the cases we researched, it was one of three tools:

  • netbook or inexpensive laptop
  • Raspberry Pi computer
  • Bash Bunny, a special tool for carrying out USB attacks

Inside the local network, the device appeared as an unknown computer, an external flash drive, or even a keyboard. Combined with the fact that Bash Bunny is comparable in size to a USB flash drive, this seriously complicated the search for the entry point. Remote access to the planted device was via a built-in or USB-connected GPRS/3G/LTE modem.

At the second stage, the attackers remotely connected to the device and scanned the local network seeking to gain access to public shared folders, web servers, and any other open resources. The aim was to harvest information about the network, above all, servers and workstations used for making payments. At the same time, the attackers tried to brute-force or sniff login data for such machines. To overcome the firewall restrictions, they planted shellcodes with local TCP servers. If the firewall blocked access from one segment of the network to another, but allowed a reverse connection, the attackers used a different payload to build tunnels.

Having succeeded, the cybercriminals proceeded to stage three. Here they logged into the target system and used remote access software to retain access. Next, malicious services created using msfvenom were started on the compromised computer. Because the hackers used fileless attacks and PowerShell, they were able to avoid whitelisting technologies and domain policies. If they encountered a whitelisting that could not be bypassed, or PowerShell was blocked on the target computer, the cybercriminals used impacket, and winexesvc.exe or psexec.exe to run executable files remotely.

Verdicts

not-a-virus.RemoteAdmin.Win32.DameWare
MEM:Trojan.Win32.Cometer
MEM:Trojan.Win32.Metasploit
Trojan.Multi.GenAutorunReg
HEUR:Trojan.Multi.Powecod
HEUR:Trojan.Win32.Betabanker.gen
not-a-virus:RemoteAdmin.Win64.WinExe
Trojan.Win32.Powershell
PDM:Trojan.Win32.CmdServ
Trojan.Win32.Agent.smbe
HEUR:Trojan.Multi.Powesta.b
HEUR:Trojan.Multi.Runner.j
not-a-virus.RemoteAdmin.Win32.PsExec

Shellcode listeners

tcp://0.0.0.0:5190
tcp://0.0.0.0:7900

Shellcode connects

tcp://10.**.*.***:4444
tcp://10.**.*.**:4445
tcp://10.**.*.**:31337

Shellcode pipes

\\.\xport
\\.\s-pipe



Securelist

Thousands of House GOP campaign committee emails were stolen in hack

The Republican Party's House campaign committee said it was a victim of "cyber intrusion" during the 2018 midterm campaign. Party officials told Politico that "thousands of sensitive emails" were stolen in the National Republican Congressional Committee hack. The party has reported the incident to the FBI.

Source: Associated Press

PewDiePie Fan Hacks 50,000 Printers to Keep the Channel No.1

In a recent effort to earn more subscribers for Felix Kjellberg’s channel ‘Pewdiepie’, a self-proclaimed Pewdiepie fan hacked over 50,000

PewDiePie Fan Hacks 50,000 Printers to Keep the Channel No.1 on Latest Hacking News.

Marriott Hotels 4 Year Hack Impacts Half a Billion Guests!

A mammoth data breach was disclosed by hotel chain Marriott International today (30 Nov 18), with a massive 500 million customer records said to have been compromised by an "unauthorized party". 
Image result for marriott
The world's largest hotel group launched an internal investigation in response to a system security alert on 8th September 2018, and found an attacker had been accessing the hotel chain's "Starwood network" and customer personal data since 2014, copying and encrypting customer records. In addition to the Marriott brand, Starwood includes W Hotels, Sheraton, Le Méridien and Four Points by Sheraton. 

Image result for starwood
You are at risk if you have stayed at any of the above hotel brands in the last 4 years

The Marriott statement said for around 326 million of its guests, the personal information compromised included "some combination" of, name, address, phone number, email address, passport number, date of birth, gender and arrival & departure information. The hotelier also said encrypted payment card data was also copied, and it could not rule out the encryption keys to decrypt cardholder data had not been stolen.

The hotel giant said it would notify customers affected and offer some a fraud detecting service for a year for free, so I expect they will be making contact with myself soon. In the meantime, Marriott has launched a website for affected customers and a free helpline for concerned UK customers 0808 189 1065.

The UK ICO said it would be investigating the breach, and warned those who believe they are impacted to be extra vigilant and to follow the advice on the ICO website, and by the National Cyber Security Centre
. The hotel chain could face huge fines under the GDPR, and possibly a large scale class action lawsuit by their affected guests, which could cost them millions of pounds. 

What I really would like to know is why the hotel chain had retained such vast numbers of guest records post their stay. Why they held their customer's passport details and whether those encryption keys were stolen or not. And finally, why the unauthorised access went undetected for four years.

Tom Kellermann, Chief Cybersecurity Officer for Carbon Black, said "It appears there had been unauthorised access to the Starwood network since 2014, demonstrating that attackers will get into an enterprise and attempt to remain undetected. A recent Carbon Black threat report found that nearly 60% of attacks now involve lateral movement, which means attackers aren’t just going after one component of an organisation - they’re getting in, moving around and seeking more targets as they go."

The report also found that 50% of today’s attackers now use the victim primarily for island hopping. In these campaigns, attackers first target an organisation's affiliates, often smaller companies with immature security postures and this can often be the case during an M&A. This means that data at every point in the supply chain may be at risk, from customers, to partners and potential acquisitions.”

Jake Olcott, VP of Strategic Partnerships at BitSight, said "Following the breaking news today that Marriott’s Starwood bookings database has been comprised with half a billion people affected, it highlights the importance of organisations undertaking sufficient security posture checks to avoid such compromises. Marriott’s acquisition of Starwood in 2016 allowed it to utilise its Starwood customer database. Therefore, proactive due diligence during this acquisition period would have helped Marriott to identify the potential cybersecurity risks, and the impact of a potential breach".

“This is yet another example of why it is critical that companies perform cybersecurity analysts during the due diligence period, prior to an acquisition or investment. Traditionally, companies have approached cyber risk in acquisitions by issuing questionnaires to the target company; unfortunately, these methods are time consuming and reflect only a “snapshot in time” view.

“Understanding the cybersecurity posture of an investment is critical to assessing the value of the investment and considering reputational, financial, and legal harm that could befall the company. After an investment has been made, continuous monitoring is essential.”

IT Security Expert Blog: Marriott Hotels 4 Year Hack Impacts Half a Billion Guests!

A mammoth data breach was disclosed by hotel chain Marriott International today (30 Nov 18), with a massive 500 million customer records said to have been compromised by an "unauthorized party". 
Image result for marriott
The hotel giant said an internal investigation launched in response to a system security alert, found an attacker had been accessing the hotel chain's "Starwood network" since 2014, copying and encrypting customer records. In addition to the Marriott brand, Starwood includes W Hotels, Sheraton, Le Méridien and Four Points by Sheraton. 

The Marriott statement said for around 326 million of its guests, the personal information compromised included "some combination" of, name, address, phone number, email address, passport number, date of birth, gender and arrival & departure information. The hotelier also said encrypted payment card data was also copied, and it could not rule out the encryption keys to decrypt cardholder data had not been stolen.
Image result for starwood
Marriott said it would notify customers affected and offer some a fraud detecting service for a year for free, so I expect they will be making contact with myself soon. In the meantime, Marriott has launched a website for affected customers.

The UK ICO said it would be investigating the breach, and warned those who believe they are impacted, to be vigilant and to follow the advice by on the ICO website, and by the National Cyber Security Centre
. The hotel chain could help face huge fines under the GDPR, and possibly a large scale class action lawsuit by their affected guests, which could cost them millions of pounds. 

What I would like to know is why the hotel chain had retained such vast numbers of guest records post their stay, why they held their customer's passport details, whether those encryption keys were stolen. And why the unauthorised access went undetected for four years.

Tom Kellermann, Chief Cybersecurity Officer for Carbon Black, said "It appears there had been unauthorised access to the Starwood network since 2014, demonstrating that attackers will get into an enterprise and attempt to remain undetected. A recent Carbon Black threat report found that nearly 60% of attacks now involve lateral movement, which means attackers aren’t just going after one component of an organisation - they’re getting in, moving around and seeking more targets as they go."

The report also found that more than a third (36%) of today’s attackers now use the victim primarily for island hopping. In these campaigns, attackers first target an organisation's affiliates, often smaller companies with immature security postures and this can often be the case during an M&A. This means that data at every point in the supply chain may be at risk, from customers, to partners and potential acquisitions.”

Jake Olcott, VP of Strategic Partnerships at BitSight, said "Following the breaking news today that Marriott’s Starwood bookings database has been comprised with half a billion people affected, it highlights the importance of organisations undertaking sufficient security posture checks to avoid such compromises. Marriott’s acquisition of Starwood in 2016 allowed it to utilise its Starwood customer database. Therefore, proactive due diligence during this acquisition period would have helped Marriott to identify the potential cybersecurity risks, and the impact of a potential breach".

“This is yet another example of why it is critical that companies perform cybersecurity analysts during the due diligence period, prior to an acquisition or investment. Traditionally, companies have approached cyber risk in acquisitions by issuing questionnaires to the target company; unfortunately, these methods are time consuming and reflect only a “snapshot in time” view.

“Understanding the cybersecurity posture of an investment is critical to assessing the value of the investment and considering reputational, financial, and legal harm that could befall the company. After an investment has been made, continuous monitoring is essential.”


IT Security Expert Blog

Hackers targeted Dell customer information in attempted attack

Earlier this month, hackers attempted to breach Dell's network and obtain customer information, according to the company. While it says there's no conclusive evidence the hackers were successful in their November 9th attack, it's still possible they obtained some data.

Via: The Verge

Source: Dell (1), (2)

Iranians Indicted in SamSam Ransomware Scheme

The federal government charged two Iranian men for orchestrating a nearly three-year-long international hacking and extortion scheme that deployed ransomware which to date has caused more than $30 million in losses to its victims, which include hospitals, municipalities and public institutions. A federal grand jury in New Jersey has indicted...

Read the whole entry... »

Related Stories

Police arrest alleged Russian hacker behind huge Android ad scam

Police in Bulgaria have arrested an alleged Russian hacker who may be responsible for a huge Android ad scam that netted $10 million. The individual identified as Alexander Zhukov is a Saint Petersburg native who's been living in Varna, Bulgaria, since 2010 and was apprehended on November 6th after the US issued an international warrant for his arrest, according to ZDNet.

Source: Kommersant

Black Friday Security Alert As Hackers Spoof Popular Brands

Shoppers need to be extra careful during the holiday season, report warns. Hackers are taking full advantage of the upcoming holiday season to prey on people looking to buy gifts

The post Black Friday Security Alert As Hackers Spoof Popular Brands appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

Hey there! How much are you worth?

Have you ever stopped to think just how much your life is worth? I mean really think about it. For instance, let’s say you wanted to sell everything you have – your house, your car, your job, your private life, photos and home movies from your childhood, your accounts on various social media, your medical history and so on – how much would you ask for it all?

I thought about this myself and just the thought that someone else would be able to, for example, read the personal things I’ve written to friends, family and lovers on Facebook made me realize that those things are priceless. The same goes for someone getting access to my email and basically having the power to reset all my passwords for all the accounts I’ve registered using that email.

In the real non-digital world there are lots of insurance policies that cover things if they get damaged or stolen. If someone steals my car or I break my TV, I can replace them if they were insured. We don’t really have that option in the digital world, and our digital life contains some very personal and sentimental information. The big difference is that our digital lives can never be erased – what we’ve said or written, pictures we’ve sent, or orders we’ve made are basically stored forever in the hands of the service providers.

I decided to investigate the black market and see what kind of information is being sold there. We all know that you can buy drugs, weapons and stolen goods there, but you can also buy online identities. How much do you think your online identity is worth?

Hacked accounts

When investigating hacked accounts from popular services it’s almost impossible to compile valid data because there are so many black-market vendors selling this stuff. It is also difficult to verify the uniqueness of the data being sold. But one thing is certain – this is the most popular type of data being sold on the black market. When talking about data from popular services, I’m referring to things like stolen social media accounts, banking details, remote access to servers or desktops and even data from popular services like Uber, Netflix, Spotify and tons of gaming websites (Steam, PlayStation Network, etc.), dating apps, porn websites.

The most common way to steal this data is via phishing campaigns or by exploiting a web-related vulnerability such as an SQL injection vulnerability. The password dumps contain an email and password combination for the hacked services, but as we know most people reuse their passwords. So, even if a simple website has been hacked, the attackers might get access to accounts on other platforms by using the same email and password combination.

These kinds of attacks are not very sophisticated, but they are very effective. It also shows that cybercriminals are making money from hackers and hacktivists; the people selling these accounts are most likely not the people who hacked and distributed the password dump.

The price for these hacked accounts is very cheap, with most selling for about $1 per account, and if you buy in bulk, you’ll get them even cheaper.

Some vendors even give a lifetime warranty, so if one account stops working, you receive a new account for free. For example, below is a screenshot that shows a vendor selling Netflix accounts.

100 000 email and password combinations

250 000 email and password combinations

Passports and identity papers

When lurking around underground marketplaces I saw a lot of other information being traded, such as fake passports, driving licenses and ID cards/scans. This is where things get a bit more serious – most of the identity papers are not stolen, but they can be used to cause problems in the non-digital world.

People can use your identity with a fake ID card to acquire, for example, phone subscriptions, open bank accounts and so on.

Below is a screenshot of a person selling a registered Swedish passport, and the price is $4000. The same vendor was offering passports from almost all European countries.

Scammers’ toolbox

Most of the items being sold in the underground marketplaces are not new to me; they are all things the industry has been talking about for a very long time. What was interesting was the fact that stolen or fake invoices and other papers/scans such as utility bills were being sold.

People actually steal other people’s mail and collect invoices, for example, which are then used to scam other people. They will collect and organize these invoices by industry and country. The vendors then sell these scans as part of a scammer toolbox.

A scammer can use these scans to target victims in specific countries and even narrow their attacks down to gender, age and industry.

During the research I got to thinking about a friend’s (Inbar Raz) research on Tinder bots and, through my research, I managed to find links between stolen accounts and Tinder bots. These bots are used to earn even more money from stolen accounts. So, the accounts are not just sold on the black market, they are also used in other cybercriminal activities.

What’s interesting about the fake Tinder profiles is that they have the following characteristics in common that make them easy to identify:

  • Lots of matches all at once.
  • Most of the women look like super models.
  • No job title or education info.
  • Stolen Instagram pictures/images but with info stolen from Facebook accounts.
  • Scripted chat messages.

Most of the bots that I’ve researched are related to traffic redirection, clickbait, spam and things like that. So far, I haven’t seen any malware – most of the bots will try to involve you in other crime or to steal your data. Here’s an example of what it might look like.

The first step is that you’re matched with the bot. The bot doesn’t always contact you directly, but waits for you to interact with it before it replies. In some cases the introduction is scripted with some text about how it wants to show you nude photos or something similar and then it posts a link.

When you click on the link you go through several websites redirecting you in a chain. This chain does a lot of things, such as place cookies in your browser, enumerate your settings such as location, browser version and type and probably a lot more. This is done so that when you end up at the landing page they know which page to serve you. In my case, I came from a Swedish IP and the website I was offered was obviously in Swedish, which indicates that they are targeting victims globally.

These websites always have statements and quotes from other users. Most of the information used, including profile photos, name and age, is also taken from stolen accounts. The quote itself is obviously fake, but this approach looks very professional.

This particular website was asking for your email to sign up to a website which basically offered you a job. The actual campaign is called the ‘Profit Formula Scam’ and is a binary option auto-trading scam. It’s been covered in the media before, so I won’t go into any detail here.

Summary

People are generally very naive when it comes to their online identity, especially when it comes to services that don’t appear to affect their privacy in any way. I often hear people say that they don’t care if someone gets access to their account, for example, because they assume that the worst thing that can happen is that their account will be shared with someone they don’t know. But we need to understand that even if it all looks very innocent, we don’t know what the criminals do with the money they earn.

What if they are spending it on drugs or guns, which are then sold to teenagers? What if they finance platforms and servers to spread child porn? We need to understand that criminals often work together with other criminals, which means that maybe drugs are bought from the money they make from selling stolen Netflix accounts on the black market.

One of the most alarming things I noticed was how cheap everything was. Just think about the information someone could gather about you if they got access to your Facebook account – there is surely no way you would be okay with someone selling access to parts of your private life for one dollar.

But people use more than just Facebook. I would assume that most people aged between 15 and 35 have registered for over 20 different services and maybe use about 10 of them frequently. The services that you hardly ever use are a problem because you often forget that you even have an account there.

The most frequently used accounts probably include the likes of Facebook, Instagram, Skype, Snapchat, Tinder (or other dating services) email, and entertainment services such as Spotify, Netflix, HBO and YouTube. Besides this, you may have an account on a governmental or financial website such as your bank, insurance company, etc. We also need to remember that some of these services use Google or Facebook as authentication, which means you don’t use an email and password combination – you simply login with your Facebook or Google account.

SERVICE DESCRIPTION PRICE
Gaming Any type of gaming account, Steam, PSN, Xbox etc. $1 per account
Email Email and Password combination from various leaks. Most likely sold in bulk Various
Facebook Direct access to Facebook account $1 per account
Spotify Spotify premium account $2 per account
Netflix Netflix account $1-5 per account
Desktop Username and password for RDP services, including VNC $5-50 per account
Server Username and password for telnet/ssh $5-50 per account
Ecommerce Access to various ecommerce sites, including Airbnb and similar services $10 per account

When looking at the data it’s quite mind-blowing that you can basically sell someone’s complete digital life for less than $50 dollars. We’re not talking about getting access to bank accounts, but you do get access to services where a credit card might be included such as Spotify, Netflix, Facebook and others.

Besides just taking full control of someone’s digital life, access to these services is used by other criminals, for example, to spread malware or conduct phishing attacks.

The level of availability of these hacked or stolen accounts is very impressive; basically anyone with a computer can get access – you don’t have to be an advanced cybercriminal to know where to find them.

US government accuses Chinese hackers of stealing jet engine IP

The Justice Department has charged ten Chinese nationals -- two of which are intelligence officers -- of hacking into and stealing intellectual property from a pair of unnamed US and French companies between January 2015 to at least May of 2015. The hackers were after a type of turbofan (portmanteau of turbine and fan), a large commercial airline engine, to either circumvent its own development costs or avoid having to buy it. According to the complaint by the Department of Justice, a Chinese aerospace manufacturer was simultaneously working on making a comparable engine. The hack afflicted unnamed aerospace companies located in Arizona, Massachusetts and Oregon.

Via: ZD Net

Source: US Department of Justice

Hackers attacking your memories: science fiction or future threat?

Authors: Kaspersky Lab and the Oxford University Functional Neurosurgery Group

There is an episode in the dystopian near-future series Black Mirror about an implanted chip that allows users to record and replay everything they see and hear. A recent YouGov survey found that 29% of viewers would be willing to use the technology if it existed.

If the Black Mirror scenario sounds a bit too much like science fiction, it’s worth noting that we are already well on the way to understanding how memories are created in the brain and how this process can be restored. Earlier this year proof of concept experiments showed that we can boost people’s ability to create short-term memories.

The seeds of the future are already here

The hardware and software to underpin this exists too: deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that involves implanting a medical device called a neurostimulator or implantable pulse generator (IPG) in the human body to send electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. It is not a huge leap for these devices to become ‘memory prostheses’ since memories are also created by neurological activity in the brain.

To better understand the potential future threat landscape facing memory implants, researchers from Kaspersky Lab and the University of Oxford Functional Neurosurgery Group have undertaken a practical and theoretical threat review of existing neurostimulators and their supporting infrastructure.

The attached report is the outcome of that research. It should be noted that because much of the work involving neurostimulators is currently handled in medical research laboratories, it’s not easy to practically test the technology and associated software for vulnerabilities. However, much can be learned from handling the devices and seeing them used in situ, and this research involved both.

Among other things, the researchers found existing and potential risk scenarios, each of which could be exploited by attackers. These include:

  • Exposed connected infrastructure – the researchers found one serious vulnerability and several worrying misconfigurations in an online management platform popular with surgical teams.
  • Insecure or unencrypted data transfer between the implant, the programming software, and any associated networks could enable malicious tampering of a patient’s implant or even whole groups of implants (and patients) connected to the same infrastructure. Manipulation could result in changed settings causing pain, paralysis or the theft of private and confidential data.
  • Design constraints as patient safety takes precedence over security. For example a medical implant needs to be controlled by physicians in emergency situations, including when a patient is rushed to a hospital far from their home. This precludes use of any password that isn’t widely known among clinicians. It also means that by default such implants need to be fitted with a software ‘backdoor’.
  • Insecure behavior by medical staff – programmers with patient-critical software were being accessed with default passwords, were used to browse the internet or had additional apps downloaded onto them.

Future risk predictions

Within five years, scientists expect to be able to electronically record the brain signals that build memories and then enhance or even rewrite them before putting them back into the brain. A decade from now, the first commercial memory boosting implants could appear on the market – and, within 20 years or so, the technology could be advanced enough to allow for extensive control over memories.

The healthcare benefits of all this will be significant, and this goal is helping to fund and drive research and development. However, as with other advanced bio-connected technologies, once the technology exists it will also be vulnerable to commercialization, exploitation and abuse.

New threats resulting from this could include the mass manipulation of groups through implanted or erased memories of political events or conflicts; while ‘repurposed’ cyberthreats could target new opportunities for cyber-espionage or the theft, deletion of or ‘locking’ of memories (for example, in return for a ransom).

Conclusion

Current vulnerabilities matter because the technology that exists today is the foundation for what will exist in the future. Although no attacks targeting neurostimulators have been observed in the wild – a fact that is not altogether surprising since the numbers currently in use worldwide are low, and many are implemented in controlled research settings, several points of weakness exist that will not be hard to exploit.

Many of the potential vulnerabilities could be reduced or even eliminated by appropriate security education for clinical care teams and patients. But healthcare professionals, the security industry, the developers and manufacturers of devices and associated professional bodies all have a role to play in ensuring emerging devices are secure. We believe that collaborating to understand and address emerging risks and vulnerabilities, and doing so now while this technology is still relatively new, will pay off in the future.

 “The Memory Market: Preparing for a future where cyberthreats target your past” full report (PDF)

Facebook says recent data breach wasn’t ‘related to the midterms’

Even though the number of users affected by Facebook's most recent hack was lowered to 29 million, from 50 million, it's still safe to say the attack was worse than originally thought. That's because we now know that the breach, which Facebook revealed a couple of weeks ago, exposed very detailed information of 14 million of those users, including their username, birthdate, gender, location, relationship status, religion, hometown, self-reported current city, education, work, the devices they used to access Facebook and the last 10 places they checked into (or were tagged in) on the site. The attackers, whose identities Facebook won't reveal because of an ongoing FBI investigation, were also able to view which people/Pages were followed by these 14 million users, as well as their 15 most recent searches on Facebook.

The World’s Most Popular Coding Language Happens to be Most Hackers’ Weapon of Choice

Python will soon be the world’s most prevalent coding language.

That’s quite a statement, but if you look at its simplicity, flexibility and the relative ease with which folks pick it up, it’s not hard to see why The Economist recently touted it as the soon-to-be most used language, globally. Naturally, our threat research team had to poke around and see how popular Python is among bad actors.

And the best place to do that, well, Github, of course. Roughly estimating, more than 20% of GitHub repositories that implement an attack tool / exploit PoC are written in Python. In virtually every security-related topic in GitHub, the majority of the repositories are written in Python, including tools such as w3af , Sqlmap, and even the infamous AutoSploit tool.

At Imperva, we use an advanced intelligent Client Classification mechanism that distinguishes and classifies various web clients. When we take a look at our data, specifically security incidents, the majority of the clients (>25%) we identify — excluding vulnerability scanners — are based on Python.

Unlike other clients, in Python, we see a host of different attack vectors and the usage of known exploits. Hackers, like developers, enjoy Python’s advantages which makes it a popular hacking tool.

Figure 1: Security incidents by client, excluding vulnerability scanners. More than 25% of the clients were Python-based tools used by malicious actors, making it the most common vector for launching exploit attempts.

When examining the use of Python in attacks against sites we protect, the result was unsurprising – a large chunk, up to 77%, of the sites were attacked by a Python-based tool, and in over a third of the cases a Python-based tool was responsible for the majority of daily attacks. These levels, over time, show that Python-based tools are used for both breadth and depth scanning.  

Figure 2: Daily percentage of sites suffering Python-based attacks

Python Modules

The two most popular Python modules used for web attacks are Urllib and Python Requests. The chart below shows attack distribution.  Use of the new module, Async IO, is just kicking off, which makes perfect sense when you consider the vast possibilities the library offers in the field of layer 7 DDoS; especially when using a “Spray N’ Pray” technique:

Python and Known Exploits

The advantages of Python as a coding language make it a popular tool for implementing known exploits. We collected information on the top 10 vulnerabilities recently used by a Python-based tool, and we don’t expect it to stop.

The two most popular attacks in the last 2 months used CVE-2017-9841 – a PHP based Remote Code Execution (RCE) vulnerability in the PHPUnit framework, and CVE-2015-8562 which is a RCE against the Joomla! Framework. It isn’t surprising that the most common attacks had RCE potential, considering how valuable it is to malicious actors.

Another example, which isn’t in the top 10, is CVE-2018-1000207, which had hundreds of attacks each day for several days during the last week of August 2018. Deeper analysis shows that the attack was carried out on multiple protected customers, by a group of IPs from China.

CVEs over time


You can see that the number of CVEs which are being used by attackers, according to our data, has increased in the last few years:

In addition, Python is used to target specific applications and frameworks – below you can find the top 10, according to our data:

When we looked at all the frameworks targeted by Python, the attacks that stand out are those aimed at Struts, WordPress, Joomla and Drupal, which is not surprising as these are currently some of the most popular frameworks out there.

Attack vectors

The most popular HTTP parameter value we’ve seen used in attacks, responsible for around 30% of all different param values used, belongs to a backdoor upload attempt through a PHP Unserialize vulnerability in Joomla! using the JDatabaseDriverMysqli object. The backdoor uploaded payload is hosted on ICG-AuthExploiterBot.

We’ve also seen a recurring payload that turned out to be a Coinbitminer infection attempt, more details on that are in the appendix — note, the appendix is only meant as an example. Since Python is so widely used by hackers, there is a host of different attack vectors to take into consideration. Python requires minimal coding skills, making it easy to write a script and exploit a vulnerability.

Our recommendation

Unless you can differentiate between requests from Python-based tools and any other tool, our recommendations stay the same – make sure to keep security in mind when developing, keep your system up to date with patches, and refrain from any practice that is considered insecure.

Appendix – Example of an Attack

Here’s an interesting, recurring payload we’ve observed (with a small variance at the end):


After base64 decoding it, we get a binary payload:

In the above payload, there is a mention of a GitHub repository for a deserialization exploitation tool and a wget command download in a jpg file, which strongly suggests there is malicious activity. After downloading the file from http://45.227.252.250/jre.jpg we can see that it’s actually a script containing the following:

The two last lines in the script try to get http://45.227.252.250/static/font.jpg%7Cshwhich is identified as Trojan. Coinbitminer by Symantec Endpoint Protection.

This finding relates to a tweet from the end of August 2018, talking about a new Apache Struts vulnerability CVE-2018-11776 used to infect with the same Coinbitminer.
While you’re here, also read: Imperva Python SDK – We’re All Consenting SecOps Here

The post The World’s Most Popular Coding Language Happens to be Most Hackers’ Weapon of Choice appeared first on Blog.

Cyber Security Roundup for August 2018

The largest data breach disclosed this month was by T-Mobile, the telecoms giant said there had been "unauthorised access" to potentially 2 million of their 77 million customer accounts. According to the media, a hacker took advantage of a vulnerability in a T-Mobile API (application programming interface). It was a vulnerable API used by Air Canada mobile App which was also exploited, resulting in the compromise of 20,000 Air Canada customer accounts. Air Canada promptly forced a password change to all of its 77 million customer accounts as a result, however, the airline faced criticism from security experts for advising a weak password strength. Namely, a password length of 8, made up of just characters and digits. Both of these hacks underline the importance of regularly penetration testing Apps and their supporting infrastructure, including their APIs.

Hackers stole up to 34,000 Butlin guest records, reportedly breaching the UK holiday camp firm through a phishing email. Dixons Carphone upped the estimated number of customer records breached in a hack last year from 1.2 million to 10 million, which includes 5.9 million payment cards. There was no explanation offered by Dixons to why it had taken so long to get a grip on the scale of the data breach, which was reported as occurring in July 2017.

Huawei continues to face scrutiny over the security of their products after the UK National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) issued a warning about using the Chinese tech manufacturing giant's devices in a security report. Huawei recently took over from Apple as the world's second largest provider of smartphones. A 16 year old Australian 'Apple fanboy' found himself in court after hacking into Apple's network.

On the international scene, Microsoft announced it had thwarted Russian data-stealing attacks against US anti-Trump conservative groups, by taking down six domains which hosted mimicked websites, which were likely to be used in future phishing campaigns. The Bank of Spain's website was taken out by a DDoS attack, and a Chinese Hotel Group's 140Gb customer database was found for sale on the dark web. The PGA golf championship was hit by a ransomware, and the FBI arrested three key members of the notorious FIN7 hacking group, the group is said to be responsible for stealing millions of credit card and customer details from businesses across the world.

On the personal front, the EC-Council confirmed my Computer Hacking Forensic Investigation (CHFI) certification had been renewed until 2021. I dropped into B-Sides Manchester this month, the highlight was a demonstration of a vulnerability found by Secarma researches, namely a PHP flaw which places CMS sites at risk of remote code execution

There was plenty of critical security patches released by the usual suspects, such as Microsoft, Cisco, and Adobe, the latter firm released several out-of-band patches during August. A critical update was released for Apache Struts (popular web server) and a reminder that Fax machines and all-in-one devices network devices could be used as a way into corporate networks by hackers.

Finally, there were a couple of interesting cybercrime articles posted on the BBC's news website this month,  Cyber-Attack! Would your firm handle it better than this? and Unpicking the Cyber-Crime Economy

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Latest on the Currys PC World Data Breach Impacting 10 Million Customers

Following further investigations, Currys PC World today confirmed 10 million of their customer personal details may have been stolen by hackers, a revised number from the 1.2 million customers and 5.9 million payment cards it advised back in June.

In June 2018, the company said there was "an attempt to compromise" 5.8 million credit and debit cards but only 105,000 cards without chip-and-pin protection had been leaked after hackers attempted access to company's payment processing systems.

The hack was said to have occurred nearly a year before it was disclosed, so it either went undetected, which is common where there is inadequate security monitoring in place, or the business knew about the breach but choose not to disclose it to their impacted customers.

The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) fined the Dixons Carphone £400,000 for a data in 2015 breach, however, Currys PC World stated the incidents were not connected.

The business stressed it has now improved its security measures including enhanced controls, monitoring, and testing to safeguard customer information, and "trebling their investment in cybersecurity". Unfortunately, no details have been disclosed explaining how the hackers were able to access such large quantities of personal data. The company "security improvement" statement suggests their IT security was rather underfunded and not at a sufficient standard to adequately secure their business operations and customer data.

The ICO (statement) and the NCSC (statement) both have released statements in June about the breach. So we'll see what the ICO makes of it, but I think the business is likely to be fined again, although not the potentially massive GDPR penalties, as this data breach occurred before the GDPR came into force in May.

Customer statement by Currys PC World to their customers today

On June 13, we began to contact a number of our customers as a precaution after we found that some of our security systems had been accessed in the past using sophisticated malware.

We promptly launched an investigation. Since then we have been putting further security measures in place to safeguard customer information, increased our investment in cyber security and added additional controls. In all of this we have been working intensively with leading cyber security experts.

Our investigation, which is now nearing completion, has identified that approximately 10 million records containing personal data may have been accessed in 2017. This unauthorised access to data may include personal information such as name, address, phone number, date of birth and email address.

While there is now evidence that some of this data may have left our systems, these records do not contain payment card or bank account details and we have no confirmed instances of customers falling victim to fraud as a result. We are continuing to keep the relevant authorities updated.

As a precaution, we are letting our customers know to apologise and advise them of protective steps to take to minimise the risk of fraud. These include:

If you receive an unsolicited email, letter, text or phone call asking for personal information, never reveal any full passwords, login details or account numbers until you are certain of the identity of the person making the request. Please do not click on any links you do not recognise.


If you think you have been a victim of fraud you should report it to Action Fraud, the UK’s national fraud and internet crime reporting centre, on 0300 123 2040*.

We also recommend that people are vigilant against any suspicious activity on their bank accounts and contact their financial provider if they have concerns.
You can find more information here


We take the security of your data extremely seriously and have previously announced that we have taken action to close off this access and have no evidence it is continuing. Nevertheless, we felt it was important to let customers know as soon as possible.

We continue to make improvements and investments to our security systems and we’ve been working round the clock to put this right. We’re extremely sorry about what has happened – we’ve fallen short here. We want to reassure you that we are fully committed to protecting your data so that you can be confident that it is safe with us.

Cyber Security Roundup for May 2018

I'm sure the release of the GDPR on 25th May hasn't escaped anyone's attention. After years of warnings about the EU parliament's intended tough stance on enforcing the human right to privacy in the digital realm, a real 'game changer' of a global privacy regulation has finally landed, which impacts any organisation which touches EU citizen personal data. 

The GDPR's potential hefty financial penalties for breaching its requirements is firmly on the radar of directors at large enterprises and small businesses alike, hence the massive barrage of emails we have all have received in recent weeks, on changes to company privacy statements and requesting consent, many of which I noted as not being GDPR compliant as obtaining "explicit consent" from the data subject. So there is a long way to go for many organisations before they become truly GDPR compliant state based on what I've seen so far in my mailbox.

Cybercriminals have been quick to take advantage of the GDPR privacy emails deluge, using the subject matter in their phishing attacks to cheat access to accounts and con victims.
On a positive GDPR note, also on 25th May, IBM developerWorks released a three-part guidance series written by myself, aimed at helping Application Developers to develop GDPR compliant applications.

Developing GDPR Compliant Applications Guidance

Overshadowed by the GDPR coming in force, was the release of new NHS Data Security and Protection Toolkit, aimed at the NHS and their service providers, and the European NIS Directive (for telecom providers) went under the radar, but they are significant to those working in those industries.

Always make sure your Broadband Router\Hub does not permit remote administrative access (over the internet) and is always kept up-to-date with the latest security patches, otherwise, it will be at serious risk of being hacked and remotely controlled by cyber-criminals. As evidenced with month, after a DNS flaw in over 800,000 Draytek Routers has allowed hackers to take them over, malware called VPNFilter has infected 500,000 routers, and serious vulnerabilities has been reported in TP-Link EAP controllers.

IBM made headlines after banning its workers from using USB sticks, which I think is a good and reasonable policy. As quite frankly any modern enterprise, whether large or small, with a decent IT infrastructure and cloud services, staff shouldn't need to use USB devices to move data either internally or externally with third parties, so I see this as a rather smart business and security move to ban all USB devices, as it forces staff to use the more secure and more efficient technology made available.

As my @securityexpert twitter account crossed the 10,000 follower threshold Twitter advised 300 million users to reset their passwords after internal error. Apparently, the passwords for the Twitter accounts were accidentally stored in a database in their "plain text" value instead of using a hashed value for the password, as per best practice. I always strongly recommend Twitter users to take advantage and use the multi-factor authentication system Twitter provides, which reduces the risk of account hacking.

Breaches of note in May included a T-Mobile website bug which exposed personal customer data, Coca-Cola said an insider breached 8,000 accounts, and BMW cars were found to have over a dozen security vulnerabilities.

As always a busy month of new security patch releases, with Microsoft, Adobe, PHP, PGP, Google, Git, and Dell all releasing critical security updates to fix significant security flaws. Click the links for the full details.

Analysis of DDoS Attacks at Cloudflare, has revealed that while organisations in the UK have certainly upped their spending on DDoS mitigation, cyber-criminals are now responding by switching to Layer 7 based DDoS attacks
Some interesting articles about the Welsh Cyber Security Revolution and a review of the NHS a year on from the WannaCry outbreak

Reports of interest this month include the Thales Data Threat Report, which found UK businesses to be the most breached in Europe. The LastPass Psychology of Passwords Report which found 59% of people surveyed used the same passwords across multiple accounts, despite 91% of them knowing that using the same password for multiple accounts is a security risk. The 2017 Cylance Report stated the number of cyber-attacks on industries such as healthcare, manufacturing, professional services, and education rose by about 13.4% between 2016 and 2017.

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On the Anniversary of the Islamic Revolution, 30 Iranian News sites hacked to show death of Ayatollah Khamenei

February 11th marked the 39th aniversary of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, the day when the Shah was overthrown and the government replaced by the Ayatollah Khomeini, called "The Supreme Leader" of Iran.  February 10th marked something quite different -- the day when hackers gained administrative control of more than 30 Iranian news websites and used stolen credentials to login to their Content Management Systems (CMS) and share a fake news article -- the death of Ayatollah Khamenei.

The Iranian Ministry of Communications and Information Technology shared the results of their investigation via the Iranian CERT (certcc.ir) which has announced the details of the hack in this PDF report.  All of the websites in question, which most famously included ArmanDaily.ir, were hosted on the same platform, a Microsoft IIS webserver running ASP.net.

Most of the thirty hacked websites were insignificant as far as global traffic is concerned.  But several are quite popular.  We evaluated each site listed by CERTCC.ir by looking up its Alexa ranking.  Alexa tracks the popularity of all websites on the Internet.  Three of the sites are among the 100,000 most popular websites on the Internet.


NewsSiteAlexa Ranking
SharghDaily.ir33,153
NoavaranOnline.ir43,737
GhanoonDaily.ir79,955
Armandaily.ir104,175
BankVarzesh.com146,103
EtemadNewspaper.ir148,450
BaharDaily.ir410,358
KaroonDaily.ir691,550
TafahomNews.com1,380,579
VareshDaily.ir1,435,862
NimnegahShiraz.ir2,395,969
TWeekly.ir2,993,755
NishKhat.ir3,134,287
neyrizanfars.ir3,475,281
Asreneyriz.ir7,820,850
Ecobition.ir8,819,111
saraFrazanNews.ir9,489,254
DavatOnline.ir9,612,775

These rankings would put the online leadership for the top news sites listed as similar to a mid-sized American newspaper.  For example, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram ranks 31,375, while the Springfield, Illinois State Journal-Register is 84,882.  (For more examples, the Boston Globe is 4,656, while the New York Times is #111.)

Hacked Sites not listed by Alexa among the top ten million sites on the Internet included: Aminehamee.ir, armanmeli.ir, Baharesalamat.ir, bighanooonline.ir, hadafeconomic.ir, kaenta.ir, naghshdaily.ir, niloofareabi.ir, sayehnews.com, setarezobh.ir, shahresabzeneyriz.ir.

CERTCC.ir's report notes that the primary explanation of the attack is that all of the attacked news sites have "the default user name and password of the backup company" and a "high-level" gmail.com email account with the same username and password had permissions to all sites.

Although the official Islamic Republic News Agency says the source of the attack was "the United Kingdom and the United States", that accusation is not entirely clear after reviewing the report from the CERT.  The IP address 93.155.130.14 is listed by the Iranian CERT as being a UK based company using AS47453.  Several sources, including Iranian site fa.alalam.ir, point out that this is actually a Bulgarian IP address.  AS47453 belongs to "itservice.gb-net" with support details listed in Pleven, Bulgaria.

93.155.130.14 - mislabeled in the original CERTCC.ir report
This error of IP address does seem to have been human error, rather than deception, and the CERT has released an updated version of the Iranian news site hacking report which can be found here, showing the corrected information.

The Corrected version of the report ... (created Feb 12 0408AM)

The CERT report is rather uncomplimentary of the hackers, mentioning that there seem to be several clumsy failed reports to dump a list of userids and passwords from the Content Management System database via SQL Injection attacks, as well as several other automated attacks.  In the end, however, the measure of a hacker is in many ways SUCCESS, and it does seem that the objective, shaming the Ayatollah by declaring his death on the eve of the Islamic Revolution holiday, was achieved.

While a source IP address cannot serve exclusively to provide attack attribution, Newsweek reports that on the day the attack began (Thursday, February 8, 2018), that Ayatollah Ali Khamenei gave a speech to commanders of the Iranian Air Force in which he claimed that the United States had created the Islamic State militant group and that the USA is responsible for all the death and destruction ISIS has caused.  That could certainly serve as a motive for certain actors, although the holiday itself, called by American politicians "Death to America Day" included as usual occasional American, Israeli, and British flags burning, as well as several instances of Donald Trump efigees being burned, overall the protests seemed more timid than in the past.

from: http://www.newsweek.com/iran-says-us-even-worse-isis-bombing-supreme-leader-allies-syria-802257 





Cyber Security Roundup for January 2018

2018 started with a big security alert bang after Google Security Researchers disclosed serious security vulnerabilities in just about every computer processor in use on the planet. Named 'Meltdown' and 'Spectre’, when exploited by a hacker or malware, these vulnerabilities disclose confidential data. As a result, a whole raft of critical security updates was hastily released for computer and smartphone operating systems, web browsers, and processor drivers. While processor manufacturers have been rather lethargic in reacting and producing patches for the problem, software vendors such as Microsoft, Google and Apple have reacted quickly, releasing security updates to protect their customers from the vulnerable processors, kudos to them.

The UK Information Commission's Office (ICO) heavily criticised the Carphone Warehouse for security inadequacies and fined the company £400K following their 2015 data breach, when the personal data, including bank details, of millions of Carphone Warehouse customers, was stolen by hackers, in what the company at the time described as a "sophisticated cyber attack", where have we heard that excuse before? Certainly the ICO wasn't buying that after it investigated, reporting a large number Carphone Warehouse's security failures, which included the use of software that was six years out of day,  lack of “rigorous controls” over who had login details to systems; no antivirus protection running on the servers holding data, the same root password being used on every individual server, which was known to “some 30-40 members of staff”; and the needless storage of full credit card details. The Carphone Warephone should thank their lucky stars the breach didn't occur after the General Data Protection Regulation comes into force, as with such a damning list of security failures, the company may well have been fined considerably more by ICO, when it is granted vastly greater financial sanctions and powers when the GDPR kicks in May.

The National Cyber Security Centre warned the UK national infrastructure faces serious nation-state attacks, stating it is a matter of a "when" not an "if". There also claims that the cyberattacks against the Ukraine in recent years was down to Russia testing and tuning it's nation-state cyberattacking capabilities. 

At the Davos summit, the Maersk chairman revealed his company spent a massive £200m to £240m on recovering from the recent NotPeyta ransomware outbreak, after the malware 'totally destroyed' the Maersk network. That's a huge price to pay for not regularly patching your systems.

It's no surprise that cybercriminals continue to target cryptocurrencies given the high financial rewards on offer. The most notable attack was a £290k cyber-heist from BlackWallet, where the hackers redirected 700k BlackWallet users to a fake replica BlackWallet website after compromising BlackWallet's DNS server. The replica website ran a script that transferred user cryptocurrency into the hacker's wallet, the hacker then moved currency into a different wallet platform.

In the United States, 
the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) fined toy firm VTech US$ 650,000 (£482,000) for violating a US children's privacy laws. The FTC alleged the toy company violated (COPPA) Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule by collecting personal information from hundreds of thousands of children without providing direct notice.

It was reported that a POS malware infection at Forever21 and lapses in encryption was responsible for the theft of debit and credit card details from Forever21 stores late last year. Payment card data continues to be a high valued target for cyber crooks with sophisticated attack capabilities, who are willing to invest considerable resources to achieve their aims.

Several interesting cybersecurity reports were released in January,  the Online Trust Alliance Cyber Incident & Breach Trends Report: 2017 concluded that cyber incidents have doubled in 2017 and 93% were preventable. Carbon Black's 2017 Threat Report stated non-malware-based cyber-attacks were behind the majority of cyber-incidents reported in 2017, despite the proliferation of malware available to both the professional and amateur hackers. Carbon Black also reported that ransomware attacks are inflicting significantly higher costs and the number of attacks skyrocketed during the course of the year, no surprise there.  

Malwarebytes 2017 State of Malware Report said ransomware attacks on consumers and businesses slowed down towards the end of 2017 and were being replaced by spyware campaigns, which rose by over 800% year-on-year. Spyware campaigns not only allow hackers to steal precious enterprise and user data but also allows them to identify ideal attack points to launch powerful malware attacks. The Cisco 2018 Privacy Maturity Benchmark Study claimed 74% of privacy-immature organisations were hit by losses of more than £350,000, and companies that are privacy-mature have fewer data breaches and smaller losses from cyber-attacks.

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Cyber Security Roundup for November 2017

One of the most notable data breaches disclosed this month was by Uber, given the company attempted to cover up the breach by paying off hackers. Over a year ago the transport tech firm was said to have paid £75,000 to two hackers to delete 57 million Uber account records which they had stolen. Uber revealed around 2.7 million of the stolen records were British riders and drivers. As a UK Uber rider, this could mean me, I haven't received any notification of the data breach from Uber as yet. The stolen information included names, email addresses, and phone numbers. Uber can expect enforcement action from regulators on both sides of the pond, the UK Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) said it had "huge concerns" about the breach and was investigating.

Jewson, Cash Converters, and Imgur all reported losing data due to hacks this month, while Equifax has reported suffering significant negative financial losses following their high profile hack of personal customer data. Equifax reported their net income had dropped by £20 million due to the hack, and their breach bill was coming in at a whopping £67 million.

November was a very busy month for security patches releases, with Microsoft, Apple, Adobe, Oracle, Cisco and Intel releasing a raft of patches to fix critical vulnerabilities. Apple even had to quickly release an emergency patch at end of November to fix a root access flaw reported in macOS High Sierra version 10.13.1. So just keep patching everything IT to ensure you and your business stays ahead of enterprising cybercriminals, the Equifax breach is a prime example of what can go wrong if system patching is neglected.

November also saw Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) finally released an updated version to its Top Ten application vulnerabilities list, which is a ‘must know’ secure coding best practice for all software developers and security testers, especially considering that Akamai reported web application attacks had increased by 69% in the third quarter of 2017. Look out for an updated OWASP Top Ten IBM DeveloperWorks Guidance from me in December to reflect the updated list.

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I lost money because my petrol pump was hacked by attendants!


The neighborhood petrol pump which I occasional use, was in the news for allegedly tampering with the meter readings. Some of the staffers had hacked the circuitry to modify the pulser readings which converted the flow volume to the digital readout. As a consequence, 5% of the bill value was inflated. Hacking is typically associated with software and remote Internet connections, but all sort of meter readings can be tampered with to skim small sums of money or develop glitches that result in inflated bills.
The only way to tackle such misuse is by surprise calibration checks and stringent penalties. In the case of the above petrol pump, the ingenious system also had a switch to toggle back to normal values during a calibration inspection.

The police believes that this particular fraud may be widespread, which simply demonstrates the ease with which the perpetrator of the modified pulser is able to sell his invention without being caught.