Category Archives: Cryptography

At RSAC 2019, It’s Clear the World Needs More Public Interest Technologists

Cybersecurity experts are no longer the only ones involved in the dialogue around data privacy. At RSA Conference 2019, it’s clear how far security and privacy have evolved since RSAC was founded in 1991. The 28th annual RSAC has a theme of “better,” a concept that speaks to the influence of technology on culture and people.

“Today, technology makes de facto policy that’s far more influential than any law,” said Bruce Schneier, fellow and lecturer at the Harvard Kennedy School, in his RSAC 2019 session titled “How Public Interest Technologists are Changing the World.”

“Law is forever trying to catch up with technology. And it’s no longer sustainable for technology and policy to be in different worlds,” Schneier said. “Policymakers and civil society need the expertise of technologists badly, especially cybersecurity experts.”

Public policy and personal privacy don’t always coexist peacefully. This tension is clear among experts from cryptography, government and private industry backgrounds at RSAC 2019. In the past year, consumer awareness and privacy regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), has created an intensely public dialogue about data security for perhaps the first time in history.

The Cryptographer’s Panel, which opened the conference on Tuesday, delved into issues of policy, spurred in part by the fact that Adi Shamir — the “S” in RSA — was denied a visa to attend the conference. Bailey Whitfield Diffie, who founded public-key cryptography, directly addressed the tension between the legislature, personal privacy and autonomy. Other keynote speakers called for collaboration.

“We are not seeking to destroy encryption, but we are duty-bound to protect the people,” stated FBI Director Christopher Wray. “We need to come together to figure out a way to do this.”

Moving forward to create effective policy will require technical expertise and the advent of a new type of cybersecurity expert: the public interest technologist.

Why Policymakers Need Public Interest Technologists

“The problem is that almost no policymakers are discussing [policy] from a technologically informed perspective, and very few technologists truly understand the policy contours of the debate,” wrote Schneier in a blog post this week. “The result is … policy proposals — ­that occasionally become law­ — that are technological disasters.”

“We also need cybersecurity technologists who understand­ — and are involved in — ­policy. We need public-interest technologists,” Schneier wrote. This profession can be defined as a skilled individual who collaborates on tech policy or projects with a public benefit, or who works in a traditional technology career at an organization with a public focus.

The idea of the public interest technologist isn’t new. It has been formally defined by the Ford Foundation, and it’s the focus of a class taught by Schneier at the Harvard Kennedy School. However, it’s clear from the discussions at RSAC and the tension that exists between privacy, policy and technology in cybersecurity dialogue that public interest technologists are more critically needed than ever before.

Today, Schneier said, “approximately zero percent” of computer science graduates directly enter the field of public interest work. What can cybersecurity leaders and educators do to increase this number and the impact of their talent on the public interest?

Technology and Policy Have to Work Together

Schneier wants public interest technology to become a viable career path for computer science students and individuals currently working in the field of cybersecurity. To that end, he worked with the Ford Foundation and RSAC 2019 to set up an all-day mini-track at the conference on Thursday. Throughout the event, there was a focus on dedicated individuals who are already working to change the world.

Schneier isn’t the only expert pushing for more collaboration and public interest work. A Tuesday panel discussion focused on how female leaders in government are breaking down barriers, creating groundbreaking policy and helping the next generation of talent flourish. Public interest track speaker and former data journalist Matt Mitchell was inspired by the 2013 George Zimmerman trial to create the nonprofit organization CryptoHarlem and start a new career as a public interest cybersecurity expert, according to Dark Reading.

On Thursday, IBM Security General Manager Mary O’Brien issued a clear call for organizations to change their approach to cybersecurity, including focusing on diversity of thought in her keynote speech. “Cross-disciplinary teams provide the ideas and insights that help us get better,” O’Brien said. “We face complex challenges and diverse attackers. Security simply will not be better or best if we rely on technologists alone.”

It’s Time for Organizations to Take Action

When it comes to creating an incentive for talented individuals to enter public interest work, a significant piece of responsibility falls on private industry. Schneier challenged organizations to work to establish public interest technology as a viable career path and become more involved in creating informed policy. He pointed to the legal sector’s offering of pro bono work as a possible financial model for organizations in private industry.

“In a major law firm, you are expected to do some percentage of pro bono work,” said Schneier. “I’d love to have the same thing happen in technology. We are really trying to jump start this movement … [however, many] security vendors have not taken this seriously yet.”

There are already some examples of private organizations that are creating new models of collaboration to create public change, including the Columbia-IBM Center for Blockchain and Data Transparency, a recent initiative to create teams of academics, scientists, business leaders and government officials to work through issues of “policy, trust, sharing and consumption” by using blockchain technology.

It’s possible to achieve the idea of “better” for everyone when organizations become actively involved in public interest work. There is an opportunity to become a better company, strengthen public policy and attract more diverse talent at the same time.

“We need a cultural change,” said Schneier.

In a world where technology and culture are one and the same, public interest technologists are critical to a better future.

The post At RSAC 2019, It’s Clear the World Needs More Public Interest Technologists appeared first on Security Intelligence.

DeepSound – Audio Steganography Tool

DeepSound – Audio Steganography Tool

DeepSound is an audio steganography tool and audio converter that hides secret data into audio files, the application also enables you to extract secret files directly from audio files or audio CD tracks.

This audio steganography tool can be used as copyright marking software for wave, flac, wma, ape, and audio CD.

DeepSound also support encrypting secret files using AES-256(Advanced Encryption Standard) to improve data protection. The application additionally contains an easy to use Audio Converter Module that can encode several audio formats (FLAC, MP3, WMA, WAV, APE) to others (FLAC, MP3, WAV, APE).

Read the rest of DeepSound – Audio Steganography Tool now! Only available at Darknet.

Imperva Makes Major Expansion in Application Security

When Imperva announced in 2018 it would acquire the application security solution provider Prevoty, a company I co-founded with Julien Bellanger, I knew it would be a win-win for our industry. Prevoty’s flagship product, Autonomous Application Protection, is the most mature, market-tested runtime application self-protection (RASP) solution (as proof, Prevoty was just named a Silver Winner in the Cybersecurity Excellence Awards). Together, Imperva and Prevoty are creating a consolidated, comprehensive platform for application and data security.

More importantly, this acquisition is a big win for our customers. The combination of Imperva and Autonomous Application Protection extends customers’ visibility into how applications behave and how users interact with sensitive information. With this expanded view across their business assets, customers will have deeper insights to understand and mitigate security risk at the edge, application, and database.

In parallel with product integrations, our teams of security innovators are coming together. I am delighted to join the Imperva team as CTO and to lead a highly accomplished group to radically transform the way our industry thinks about application and data security. In the coming horizon, we will boost data visibility throughout the stack, translate billions of data points into actionable insights, and intelligently automate responses that protect businesses. In fact, we just released two new features that deliver on those goals: Network Activity Protection and Weak Cryptography Protection. Learn more about these at Imperva.com and also in my interview with eWeek.

Network Activity Protection provides organizations with the ability to monitor and prevent unauthorized outbound network communications originating from within their applications, APIs, and microservices — a blind spot for organizations that are undergoing a digital transformation. Organizations now have a clear view into the various endpoints with which their applications communicate.

The new Weak Cryptography Protection feature offers the ability to monitor and protect against the use of specific weak hashing algorithms (including SHA-1, MD5) and cryptographic ciphers (including AES, 3DES/DES, RC4). Applications that leverage Autonomous Application Protection can now monitor and force compliant cryptographic practices.  

Imperva is leading the world’s fight to keep data and applications safe from cyber criminals. Organizations that deploy Imperva will not have to choose between innovation and protecting their customers. The future of application and data security will be smarter,simpler, and we are leading the way there.

Imperva will be at the RSA Conference March 4-8 in San Francisco. Stop by Booth 527 in the South Expo and learn about the New Imperva from me (I’ll be there Tuesday-Thursday) and other executives! We’ve revamped our suite of security solutions under a new license called FlexProtect that makes it simpler for organizations to deploy our security products and services to deliver the agility they need as they digitally transform their businesses.

Start your day or enjoy an afternoon pick-me-up by grabbing a coffee in our booth Tuesday through Thursday 10-2 pm, while:

  • See a demo of our latest products in the areas of cloud app and data security and data risk analytics
  • Learn more about how our suite of security solutions works in AWS environments

Imperva will also be at the AWS booth (1227 in the South Expo hall). There, you can:

  • Hear how one of our cloud customers, an U.S.-based non-profit with nearly 40 million members, uses AAP to detect and mitigate potential application attacks, Tuesday, March 5th from 3:30 – 4:00 pm in the AWS booth
  • See a demo of how our solutions work in cloud environments, Tuesday, March 5th 3:30-5 pm and Wednesday, March 6th, 11:30-2 pm

Finally – we will be participating in the webinar “Cyber Security Battles: How to Prepare and Win” at RSA. It will be first broadcast at 9:30 am on March 6th and feature George McGregor, vice-president of product marketing at Imperva, in a Q&A discussion with executives from several other vendors as they discuss the possibility of a cyber battle between AI systems, which experts predict might be on the horizon in the next three to five years. Register and watch for free!

The post Imperva Makes Major Expansion in Application Security appeared first on Blog.

What do La Croix, octonions, and Second Life have in common?

This year for CSAW CTF, Trail of Bits contributed two cryptography problems. In the first problem, you could combine two bugs to break DSA much like the Playstation 3 firmware hackers. The other challenge–-weirder and mathier–-was split into two parts: one for the qualifiers, one in finals. This challenge, “Holywater,” was some of the most fun I’ve ever had making a CTF problem.

The qualifier challenge was a pretty textbook CTF cryptography challenge. Contestants began with a script and a text file of past outputs (preserved on Github), and had to recover a secret passphrase. Spoilers follow below the (extremely relevant) image, if you’d like to try it yourself.

Before diving into my own solution, I first want to commend Galhacktic Trendsetters for their excellent writeup (if any of you Trendsetters are reading this, get in touch, I’d love to mail you some swag). They covered the mathematical foundations of the attack with eloquence, a topic which I won’t get into in quite as much depth here. It’s also an excellent walkthrough of the thought process that lets a team start with nothing but a python file and a few hex strings and develop a working attack in less than 48 hours.

The challenge’s python file didn’t make that easy. It was called “lattice.py,” which might immediately suggest it has something to do with lattice cryptography. The method names included, among other things “isogeny,” “gaussian,” and “wobble.” Even the above writeup acknowledges some confusion about the terms’ meanings.

In reality, more or less every name in that file is a red herring. It implements HK17 key exchange, a proposed new post-quantum key exchange mechanism that was proven totally unworkable by Li, Liu, Pan, and Xie. The mathematical construction underlying HK17 is not lattices or isogenies, but octonions! Octonions are eight-dimensional hypercomplex numbers used in theoretical physics with a number of counterintuitive properties.

Perhaps the easiest way to understand octonions is by constructing them from scratch. Most readers will already be familiar with complex numbers, a two-dimensional superset of real numbers that is algebraically closed, a property that makes many kinds of math much easier. We construct the complex numbers using the Cayley-Dickson construction. Effectively, we double the number of dimensions and define multiplication much as we would in a direct sum (though not in exactly the same way).

We can repeat this process on complex numbers to yield a four-dimensional set of numbers known as the quaternions. Readers with graphics programming experience may be familiar, as quaternions allow for efficient computation of rotations in three-dimensional space, and are thus used by many graphics libraries. One more application of the Cayley-Dickson process takes us to eight dimensions; the octonions we use for our cryptosystem.

However, the Cayley-Dickson process cannot preserve every property of a number system we might want. Complex numbers, unlike their real counterparts, are not orderable (they can’t just be laid out end to end on a line). Quaternions are also unorderable, but unlike reals or complex numbers, have noncommutative multiplication! If a and b are quaternions, a * b and b * a can yield different numbers. This gradual loss of invariants continues with octonions, which aren’t even associative; if d, e, and f are octonions, (d * e) * f may well not equal d * (e * f).

“The real numbers are the dependable breadwinner of the family, the complete ordered field we all rely on. The complex numbers are a slightly flashier but still respectable younger brother: not ordered, but algebraically complete. The quaternions, being noncommutative, are the eccentric cousin who is shunned at important family gatherings. But the octonions are the crazy old uncle nobody lets out of the attic: they are nonassociative.” – John Baez

This is fairly gnarly, by the standards of numbers we choose to use, and explains to a degree why octonions aren’t used frequently (keep the attic door shut!). However, it also appears to allow for exactly the kind of hard problem we want when building a key exchange system! By working with polynomials over the octonions, the HK17 authors create a Diffie-Hellman style key exchange system they claim is quantum-hard.

However, in real life this system can be reliably broken by college students over the course of a weekend (nine teams solved it). Octonions’ odd multiplication rules end up making factoring far easier! With a few octonion identities and a high schooler’s knowledge of linear algebra, the cryptosystem reduces to four variables in four linear equations, and can be solved in O(1) by a python script that runs almost instantaneously.

An astute reader may pause here, with complete knowledge of the problem, and wonder “why was this challenge called Holywater?” The answer has nothing to do with octonion key exchange, and everything to do with my plans for the second half of the problem. The HK17 draft defined systems not just on octonions, but on unit quaternions (quaternions of magnitude one) as well! And, since quaternions are used by so many more programmers (as mentioned above, for graphics) that opens some interesting doors.

Specifically, it means we can now define our system in Linden Scripting Language, the official scripting language of Second Life. I’ve always been a bit of a programming language snob. For a while, I thought PHP was the absolute bottom of the barrel. Nothing could possibly be worse than that fractal of bad design, created largely by accident. Later in life I began working on blockchain security, and learned about the language Solidity. Suffice to say, my mind has since changed. Neither language, however, compares to the absolute tire fire that is Linden Scripting Language. Seriously, just read how you parse JSON.

LSL has a built-in quaternion type, and, while the “Differences Between Math’s Quaternions and LSL’s [Quaternions]” might seem foreboding, they are completely workable for our purposes. And, writing the whole challenge in LSL meant the competitors could have even more fun reverse engineering. However, I needed help to develop the Second Life scripts, design objects for them to be attached to, lease space in Second Life, and generally do the non-mathy parts of the whole project.

This is where the name comes in. The final part was called “Holywater 2: La Croix” specifically to entice Dan “Pamplemousse” Hlavenka, a friend of mine who loves both LSL and La Croix more than any other person I know of. He was willing to help with every part of the Second Life portion, but only if we made the challenge La Croix themed in every way we could, to spread the gospel to the next generation.
Competitors were greeted by the below acrostic, which, when the blanks are filled in, describes both a location in Second Life and half-dozen La Croix flavors.

yeah i SMOKE WEED
                                P    P
                                E  M A
                               PA  AOM
                               UC BNRP
maps.Secondlife.com/secondlife/_______/23/233/1
     M                         E PRONE
     O                          PRR GM
     K                          EIY EO
     E                          AC   U
                                RO   S
     W                           T   S
     E                               E
     E
     D

Once teams arrive, they find themselves inside a giant can of La Croix, underwater (and with particle effects for carbonation). The location in Second Life was renamed “Mud City” after LaCrosse Wisconsin, home of the beverage. They are then presented with two glowing orbs, reading “Click here for everything you need” and “Click here to die instantly.”

These labels are accurate. That did not stop many people from repeatedly clicking the “die instantly” orb however, perhaps in an attempt at some sort of reincarnation-based cryptanalysis. The “everything you need” orb in contrast, gives the player an IBM Selectric typeball. Since unit quaternions describe rotations, we elected to encode the message by physically rotating one such typeball (as in normal Selectric operation), agreeing on rotations via HK17 key exchange in Second Life’s chat box. Users could see a script attached to the type ball that outlined the whole process, though again, some attempted other strategies (see below).

Nonetheless, the math was much the same, if harder to apply. This time only two teams (MIT and CMU) found the final flag (another clever La Croix reference), with the first blood winning a case of La Croix for each team member as a bonus on top of the (unusually high) 600 points (typically, challenges are 100 points if extremely easy, 500 points if extremely hard). By reversing the script and scraping the chat, the same process that worked for quals can work here. All that’s left is rotating your typeball and watching which letter is on the bottom.

Dan’s lease on the land in Second Life is now up, so the challenge is unfortunately closed to the public. Dan’s La Croix contributions ended up far more popular than I expected though, so perhaps this challenge won’t be the last to feature the beverage. This challenge is perhaps less applicable than the qualifier, but its lesson remains valid: if you’re securing a remote-control typewriter sending La Croix secrets in Second Life, don’t use HK17.

P.S.: While the last minute removal of csaw.tv meant this never saw the light of competition, you can enjoy this La Croix themed playlist Dan and I made for a special csaw.tv only accessible from Second Life.