Category Archives: botnet

IoT malware sees major rise

Not even your washing machine is safe from new threats, Kaspersky warns. The number of malware targeting Internet of Things (IoT) devices is ‘snowballing’, Kaspersky Lab’s newest report claims.The company’s

The post IoT malware sees major rise appeared first on The Cyber Security Place.

Security data reveals worldwide malicious login attempts are on the rise

According to the Akamai 2018 State of the Internet / Security Credential Stuffing Attacks report, worldwide malicious login attempts are on the rise. Akamai detected approximately 3.2 billion malicious logins per month from January through April 2018, and over 8.3 billion malicious login attempts from bots in May and June 2018 – a monthly average increase of 30 percent. In total, from the beginning of November 2017 through the end of June 2018, researcher analysis … More

The post Security data reveals worldwide malicious login attempts are on the rise appeared first on Help Net Security.

US authorities Have Pardoned Authors of Mirai Ransomware in Return For Government “Cooperation”

The authors of the Mirai botnet have been pardoned and have avoided jail since they have helped the FBI in

US authorities Have Pardoned Authors of Mirai Ransomware in Return For Government “Cooperation” on Latest Hacking News.

Mirai botnet masterminds helping FBI to avoid jail time

Mirai botnet creators avoid prison time by assisting FBI as part of their sentencing

Remember the three young hackers who were sentenced in December last year for creating and spreading Mirai botnet that took over about 500,000 IoT devices and caused a DDoS attack?

The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) on Tuesday sentenced all the three men, Paras Jha, Josiah White, and Dalton Norman, all aged in their 20s, to just five years of probation—no prison time. The decision was announced after U.S. prosecutors said that the three men had provided “extensive” and “exceptional” assistance to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in several cybersecurity matters.

The trio will also have to serve 2500 hours of community service and need to pay US$127,000 (A$175,000) in restitution each. Additionally, the trio voluntarily surrendered significant amounts of cryptocurrency seized during the investigation into their activities, the DOJ said.

“By working with the FBI, the defendants assisted in thwarting potentially devastating cyber attacks and developed concrete strategies for mitigating new attack methods,” US attorneys said in a motion filed Sept. 11. “The information provided by the defendants has been used by members of the cybersecurity community to safeguard US systems and the Internet as a whole.”

For those unaware, Jha, White and Norman had created Mirai botnet originally to take down rival Minecraft servers with distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS). The trio used the botnet for their own criminal activities and leased it to others. But after noticing its strength, Mirai was released into the wild on a hacker forum, the DoJ said. Since then, other criminal actors have used Mirai variants in a variety of other attacks.

As a result, the Mirai botnet was used in a massive cyberattack in October 2016 against DNS service Dyn, an internet company that directs traffic on the web, which interrupted access to dozens of websites across the United States and Europe including ones run by Twitter, PayPal Holdings, and Spotify.

The three also admitted to having developed a second piece of malware that attacked IoT devices such as wireless cameras, routers, and digital video recorders and joined them into a botnet. That botnet compromised over 100,000 devices in the U.S., and was used by the trio primarily in advertising fraud, including “clickfraud,” a type of Internet-based scheme that makes it appear that a real user has “clicked” on an advertisement for the purpose of artificially generating revenue.

“Cybercrime is a worldwide epidemic that reaches many Alaskans,” said U.S. Attorney Bryan Schroder. “The perpetrators count on being technologically one step ahead of law enforcement officials. The plea agreement with the young offenders, in this case, was a unique opportunity for law enforcement officers, and will give FBI investigators the knowledge and tools they need to stay ahead of cybercriminals around the world.”

“The sentences announced today would not have been possible without the cooperation of our partners in international law enforcement and the private sector,” said Special Agent in Charge of FBI’s Anchorage Field Office, Jeffery Peterson.

“The FBI is committed to strengthening those relationships and finding innovative ways to counter cybercrime. Cybercriminals often develop their technical skills at a young age. This case demonstrates our commitment to hold criminals accountable while encouraging offenders to choose a different path to apply their skills.”

Jha, White, and Norman who were behind the Mirai botnet had pleaded guilty last December and were able to stay out of jail by co-operating with the FBI on cybercrime and security matters.

The court’s documents state that the trio has cooperated with the FBI for more than a year and that they will continue to work with the FBI on cybercrime and cybersecurity matters.

The post Mirai botnet masterminds helping FBI to avoid jail time appeared first on TechWorm.

Hackers behind Mirai botnet to avoid jail for working with the FBI

By Waqas

Mirai has been known as one of the most powerful botnets comprised of millions of hacked Internet of Things (IoT) devices including routers, digital video recorders (DVRs) and security cameras. Mirai was also used by hackers to carry out one of the largest DDoS attacks on the servers of DynDNS which ultimately disrupted high profile websites like […]

This is a post from HackRead.com Read the original post: Hackers behind Mirai botnet to avoid jail for working with the FBI

New Malware Combines Ransomware, Coin Mining and Botnet Features in One

Windows and Linux users need to beware, as an all-in-one, destructive malware strain has been discovered in the wild that features multiple malware capabilities including ransomware, cryptocurrency miner, botnet, and self-propagating worm targeting Linux and Windows systems. Dubbed XBash, the new malware, believed to be tied to the Iron Group, a.k.a. Rocke—the Chinese speaking APT threat

Kaspersky: Attacks on Smart Devices Rise Threefold in 2018

Attacks against smart devices are surging, with both old and new threats targeting connected devices that remain largely unsecured, according to researchers at Kaspersky Lab. Kaspersky researchers observed three times as many malware samples against smart devices in the first half of 2018 than they did in all of 2017, according to new findings...

Read the whole entry... »

Related Stories

Apache Struts & SonicWall’s GMS exploits key targets of Mirai & Gafgyt IoT malware

By Waqas

Security researchers at Palo Alto Networks’ Unit 42 have discovered modified versions of the notorious Mirai and Gafgyt Internet of Things (IoT) malware. The malware have the capability of targeting flaws that affect Apache Struts and SonicWall Global Management System (GMS). Moreover, the Unit 42 researchers also discovered new versions of Mirai and Gafgyt (aka BASHLITE) […]

This is a post from HackRead.com Read the original post: Apache Struts & SonicWall’s GMS exploits key targets of Mirai & Gafgyt IoT malware

Kelihos botmaster pleads guilty in U.S. District Court in Connecticut

The creator of the infamous Kelihos Botnet, Peter Yuryevich Levashov (38) pleaded guilty this week to computer crime, fraud, conspiracy and identity theft charges.

Yuryevich Levashov (38), the botmaster of the dreaded Kelihos Botnet pleaded guilty this week to computer crime, fraud, conspiracy and identity theft charges.

In April 2017, the United States Department of Justice announced that Peter Yuryevich Levashov (36) (also known as Petr Levashov, Peter Severa, Petr Severa and Sergey Astakhov) was arrested in Barcelona for his involvement with the infamous Kelihos botnet. Levashov was extradited to the United States in February.

“Peter Yuryevich Levashov, aka “Petr Levashov,” “Peter Severa,” “Petr Severa” and “Sergey Astakhov,” 38, of St. Petersburg, Russia, pleaded guilty today in U.S. District Court in Hartford, Connecticut, to offenses stemming from his operation of the Kelihos botnet, which he used to facilitate malicious activities including harvesting login credentials, distributing bulk spam e-mails, and installing ransomware and other malicious software.” states the press release published by the DoJ.

Levashov on Wednesday pleaded guilty in U.S. District Court in Hartford, Connecticut, to one count of causing intentional damage to a protected computer, one count of conspiracy, one count of aggravated identity theft, and one count of wire fraud.

kelihos botnet

According to a study conducted by CheckPoint Security, a malware landscape was characterized by some interesting changed in this first part of 2017.

The Kelihos botnet climbed to the top position, while the Conficker worm dropped to fourth on the chart of malware.

Levashov has operated several botnets between since the late 1990s, for example, two other botnets tracked as Storm and Waledac borrow the code with Kelihos, both have been attributed to Levashov.

“For over two decades, Peter Levashov operated botnets which enabled him to harvest personal information from infected computers, disseminate spam, and distribute malware used to facilitate multiple scams,” said Assistant Attorney General Benczkowski.

“Mr. Levashov used the Kelihos botnet to distribute thousands of spam e-mails, harvest login credentials, and install malicious software on computers around the world,” said U.S. Attorney Durham.  “He also participated in online forums on which stolen identities, credit card information and cybercrime tools were traded and sold.  For years, Mr. Levashov lived quite comfortably while his criminal behavior disrupted the lives of thousands of computer users. “

The DoJ speculated Levashov sent spam urging recipients to buy shares as part of a “pump and dump” scam, among other naughtiness.

The Russian hacker was accused to have used the Kelihos botnet for spam campaign that advertised various criminal schemes, including pump-and-dump stock fraud.

The activity conducted by the Kelihos, Storm and Waledac botnets was very profitable, prosecutors believe they allowed crooks to earn hundreds of millions of dollars

“For years, Mr. Levashov lived quite comfortably while his criminal behavior disrupted the lives of thousands of computer users,” said U.S. Attorney John H. Durham of the District of Connecticut. “Thanks to the collaborative work of the FBI and our partners in law enforcement, private industry and academia, a prolific cybercriminal has been neutralized, and has now admitted his guilt in a U.S. courtroom.”

The sentence has been scheduled for September 6, 2019, likely because the man is now helping law enforcement agencies on investigations on other cybercrime operations.

Pierluigi Paganini

(Security Affairs – Kelihos, malware)

The post Kelihos botmaster pleads guilty in U.S. District Court in Connecticut appeared first on Security Affairs.

Russian Cybercriminal Pleads Guilty to Operating Kelihos Botnet

By Uzair Amir

A Russian national namely Peter Yuryeich Levashov has pleaded guilty to operating the Kelihos botnet, which was used to launch a huge spamming and credential stealing campaign across the globe. Levashov, a 38-year old resident of St. Petersburg, Russia, was presented before a Connecticut US District Court and admitted to being involved in a large […]

This is a post from HackRead.com Read the original post: Russian Cybercriminal Pleads Guilty to Operating Kelihos Botnet

What Drives a Ransomware Criminal? CoinVault Developers Convicted in Dutch Court

How often do we get a chance to learn what goes on in the minds of cybercriminals? Two members of McAfee’s Advanced Threat Research team recently did, as they attended a court case against two cybercriminal brothers.

The brothers, Dennis and Melvin, faced a judge in Rotterdam, in the Netherlands. This case was one of the first in the world in which ransomware developers appeared in court and were convicted for creating and spreading ransomware.

They were responsible for creating the ransomware families CoinVault and BitCryptor. CoinVault, the better known of the two, made its appearance in late 2014. The technically skilled programmers had examined the source code of CryptoLocker, the notorious ransomware family that first struck in 2013. The brothers were not very impressed and agreed that they could do a better job. What might have started out as a fun technical challenge turned into a criminal business.

The CoinVault and BitCryptor campaigns were not as widespread as CTB-Locker, CryptoWall, or Locky ransomware campaigns. Nor did they profit as much from it, but this case is nevertheless uncommon. It is rare that the developers of ransomware are caught, let alone confess their crimes. This case gives us an opportunity to understand what drove them down a path to cybercrime.

The challenge

Why would someone write malicious code and infect thousands of people? The judge asked the brothers the same question. Their response was “Because it was a technical challenge.” “But didn’t you realize you were dealing with people?” the judge responded. Both brothers answered that they did not; they were dealing with computers and never met their victims face to face.

The judge and prosecutor did not accept their explanation. CoinVault had a built-in helpdesk function to directly communicate with their victims, thus registering their pleas. The brothers standard reaction was merciless: “Just pay the money; otherwise we won’t decrypt.” According to the prosecutor, they had plenty of opportunities to see the consequences of their actions but choose to ignore them for money.

At the trial they said they were sorry and tearfully regretted what they had done. But were these mere crocodile tears because they got caught? During CoinVault’s lifespan, several versions of the ransomware were released. Every new version was a reaction to blogs written by security researchers and takedowns performed by law enforcement. Instead of realizing that they were making a mistake and stopping, the brothers saw it as a challenge, a digital game of cat and mouse, and constantly improved their malicious code.

Their continuing to improve the ransomware shows a lack of empathy with their victims. Was there no one in their social surroundings who could straighten their moral compasses and talk sense into them?

The payment

A ransomware criminal must decide the amount of ransom to charge. Generally the more targeted a ransomware attack is, the higher the ransom demand will be. CoinVault’s infections were not targeted at one organization; they charged only US$250. The two brothers explained that they chose that price to be low enough for an average person to pay while still making a good profit. The prosecutor remarked ironically that they were “very noble [to keep] their ransom demand affordable.”

The infection

The two brothers did not directly infect their victims with ransomware; they took a multistep approach. Their distribution method was via newsgroup channels. They hooked a small piece of malicious code to known software or license-key generators before posting the software packages on the newsgroups. Once victims installed the package or ran the key generator, they would become part of a botnet through the software the brothers named Comhost, which can record keystrokes, search for credentials, and steal Bitcoin wallets. Comhost can also upload and execute binaries received from the control server they named Sonar. (We believe Sonar is modified a version of the popular Solar botnet software.)

The Sonar botnet panel.

Once they had accumulated enough bots, they simply pushed CoinVault to all their victims and locked thousands of computers at once. This method made it hard for victims to figure out how they were attacked, because weeks could pass between the initial infection and the encryption. By spreading their ransomware via newsgroups with pirated software, they discouraged victims from going to the police out of fear of prosecution and copyright-violation fines.

The CoinVault lock screen.

The arrest

In April 2015, The National High Tech Crime Unit of the Dutch Police seized the control servers for CoinVault. After the police investigated, the two brothers, aged 18 and 22 at the time, were arrested in Amersfoort, Netherlands, on September 14, 2015. Systems were infected not only in the Netherlands, but also in the United States, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. Their mistakes? Using flawless Dutch in the ransom notes and one time they did not use a Tor connection to log in into their control server, instead using their home connection.

Flawless Dutch in the ransomware code.

Although they used an obfuscator tool (Confuser) for their code, in some of the samples the full name of one of the authors was present, because they did not clean up the debugging path.

Example:

 c:\Users\**********\Desktop\Coinvault\coinvault-cleaned\obj\Debug\coinvault.pdb

From grabbing keys to No More Ransom

During the investigation the Dutch police obtained all the decryption keys for CoinVault and partnered with the private sector to build a decryption tool for CoinVault ransomware, successfully mitigating a large portion of the damage caused by CoinVault. This effort idea gave birth to No More Ransom, an online portal supported by the public and private sector with the largest repository on the planet of free ransomware decryption tools. No More Ransom now has decryptors for 85 ransomware versions. This global initiative has prevented millions of dollars from falling into the hands of cybercriminals. McAfee is proud to be one of the founding members of No More Ransom.

Nomoreransom.org

The next steps

Extorting people with ransomware is wrong, and perpetrators must be held accountable. It is sad to see two talented young people choose a pathway to cybercrime and waste their skills—skills sorely needed in the cybersecurity sector. We hope they will have learned a lesson as they endure the consequences of their actions. The sentencing will take place in about two weeks. Perhaps after they serve their time, they will find someone willing to give them a second chance.

The post What Drives a Ransomware Criminal? CoinVault Developers Convicted in Dutch Court appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

VPNFilter Malware Adds Capabilities to Exploit Endpoints

VPNFilter, a botnet-controlled malware that infects networking devices, was first documented by researchers from Cisco Talos. McAfee Labs also published a blog on May 23 with some initial information.

In our last post we discussed the three stages of infection and the devices affected by the malware, and how it can maintain a persistent presence on an infected device even after a reboot. The malware can also monitor traffic routed through the infected device. (Read the first post for more details.)

In this post we will report new information released by Cisco Talos. The findings reveal that that malware now targets additional devices, including products from Huawei, Asus, D-Link, Ubiquiti Networks, MikroTik, Upvel, ZTE Linksys, Netgear, and TP-Link.

In our previous post, we discussed two modules, a traffic sniffer and Tor, used in Stage 3 of the infection. Now researchers have analysed a third module in the third stage that intercepts network traffic by using a man-in-the-middle attack and injects malicious code while content passes through the router. Using this new module, an attacker can launch an exploit, and perform data exfiltration or a JavaScript injection onto the victim’s device.

The malware added another module that deletes its traces on the infected device. It then clears the flash memory and deletes operating system files, rendering the device inoperable.

The new Stage-3 module’s packet sniffer looks for basic authentication in the traffic content, and also monitors connections for industrial control systems traffic related to the Modbus protocol, which is typically used in SCADA systems. 

Coverage and Mitigation

The aforementioned IOCs are covered as follows:

  • Detection names for files: Linux/VPNFilter
  • V3 DAT with coverage version: 3367
  • V2 DAT with coverage version: 8916

All samples are classified in the GTI cloud as malware, as well as all relevant URLs.

Further Recommendations from the Talos Threat Research Team

  • Reboot SOHO routers and NAS devices to remove the potentially destructive, nonpersistent Stage 2 and Stage 3 malware
  • Work with the manufacturer to ensure that your device is up to date with the latest patches. Apply the updated patches immediately.
  • ISPs should aggressively work with their customers to ensure their devices are patched to the most recent firmware 

Updated Indicators of Compromise and Sample Hashes 

URLs and IP addresses

  • photobucket[.]com/user/millerfred/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/jeniferaniston1/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/lisabraun87/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/eva_green1/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/suwe8/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/bob7301/library
  • toknowall[.]com
  • photobucket[.]com/user/amandaseyfried1/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/nikkireed11/library
  • 4seiwn2ur4f65zo4[.]onion/bin256/update.php
  • zm3lznxn27wtzkwa[.]onion/bin16/update.php
  • photobucket[.]com/user/kmila302/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/monicabelci4/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/katyperry45/library
  • photobucket[.]com/user/saragray1/library
  • zuh3vcyskd4gipkm[.]onion/bin32/update.php
  • 6b57dcnonk2edf5a[.]onion/bin32/update.php
  • tljmmy4vmkqbdof4[.]onion/bin32/update.php
  • 46.151.209[.]33
  • 217.79.179[.]14
  • 91.214.203[.]144
  • 94.242.222[.]68
  • 82.118.242[.]124
  • 95.211.198[.]231
  • 195.154.180[.]60
  • 5.149.250[.]54
  • 94.185.80[.]82
  • 91.121.109[.]209
  • 217.12.202[.]40
  • 62.210.180[.]229
  • 91.200.13[.]76

File Hashes

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  • 840BA484395E15782F436A7B2E1EEC2D4BF5847DFD5D4787AE64F3A5F668ED4F
  • 8505ECE4360FAF3F454E5B47239F28C48D61C719B521E4E728BC12D951ECF315
  • 879BE2FA5A50B7239B398D1809E2758C727E584784BA456D8B113FC98B6315A2
  • 8A20DC9538D639623878A3D3D18D88DA8B635EA52E5E2D0C2CCE4A8C5A703DB1
  • 8DE0F244D507B25370394BA158BD4C03A7F24C6627E42D9418FB992A06EB29D8
  • 8F3E1E3F0890AD40D7FA66939561E20C0E5FD2A02B1DEA54F3899AFF9C015439
  • 90EFCAEAC13EF87620BCAAF2260A12895675C74D0820000B3CD152057125D802
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  • 98112BD4710E6FFE389A2BEB13FF1162017F62A1255C492F29238626E99509F3
  • 99944AD90C7B35FB6721E2E249B76B3E8412E7F35F6F95D7FD3A5969EAA99F3D
  • 9B039787372C6043CCE552675E3964BF01DE784D1332DDC33E4419609A6889F1
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  • A15B871FCB31C032B0E0661A2D3DD39664FA2D7982FF0DBC0796F3E9893AED9A
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  • A41DA0945CA5B5F56D5A868D64763B3A085B7017E3568E6D49834F11952CB927
  • A6E3831B07AB88F45DF9FFAC0C34C4452C76541C2ACD215DE8D0109A32968ACE
  • AB789A5A10B4C4CD7A0EB92BBFCF2CC50CB53066838A02CFB56A76417DE379C5
  • ACF32F21EC3955D6116973B3F1A85F19F237880A80CDF584E29F08BD12666999
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  • AFACB38EA3A3CAFE0F8DBD26DEE7DE3D0B24CDECAE280A9B884FBAD5ED195DE7
  • B0EDF66D4F07E5F58B082F5B8479D48FBAB3DBE70EBA0D7E8254C8D3A5E852EF
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  • BAD8A5269E38A2335BE0A03857E65FF91620A4D1E5211205D2503EF70017B69C
  • BC51836048158373E2B2F3CDB98DC3028290E8180A4E460129FEF0D96133EA2E
  • BE3DDD71A54EC947BA873E3E10F140F807E1AE362FD087D402EFF67F6F955467
  • BFD028F78B546EDA12C0D5D13F70AB27DFF32B04DF3291FD46814F486BA13693
  • C084C20C94DBBFFED76D911629796744EFF9F96D24529B0AF1E78CDA54CDBF02
  • C0CFB87A8FAED76A41F39A4B0A35AC6847FFC6AE2235AF998EE1B575E055FAC2
  • C2BCDE93227EB1C150E555E4590156FE59929D3B8534A0E2C5F3B21EDE02AFA0
  • C8A82876BEED822226192EA3FE01E3BD1BB0838AB13B24C3A6926BCE6D84411B
  • CA0BB6A819506801FA4805D07EE2EBAA5C29E6F5973148FE25ED6D75089C06A7
  • CCCBF9BFF47B3FD391274D322076847A3254C95F95266EF06A3CA8BE75549A4B
  • CD8CF5E6A40C4E87F6EE40B9732B661A228D87D468A458F6DE231DD5E8DE3429
  • D09F88BAF33B901CC8A054D86879B81A81C19BE45F8E05484376C213F0EEDDA2
  • D1BC07B962CCC6E3596AA238BB7EDA13003EA3CA95BE27E8244E485165642548
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  • D2DE662480783072B82DD4D52AB6C57911A1E84806C229F614B26306D5981D98
  • D9A60A47E142DDD61F6C3324F302B35FEECA684A71C09657DDB4901A715BD4C5
  • DBEDE977518143BCEE6044ED86B8178C6FC9D454FA346C089523EEDEE637F3BE
  • DD88273437031498B485C380968F282D09C9BD2373EF569952BC7496EBADADDE
  • E6C5437E8A23D50D44EE47AD6E7CE67081E7926A034D2AC4C848F98102DDB2F8
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  • E7F65AEEC592B047AC1726EF0D8245229041474A2A71B7386E72AD5DB075F582
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  • EEB3981771E448B7B9536BA5D7CD70330402328A884443A899696A661E4E64E5
  • EEC5CD045F26A7B5D158E8289838B82E4AF7CF4FC4B9048EAF185B5186F760DB
  • F30A0FE494A871BD7D117D41025E8D2E17CD545131E6F27D59B5E65E7AB50D92
  • F3D0759DFAB3FBF8B6511A4D8B5FC087273A63CBB96517F0583C2CCE3FF788B8
  • F4F0117D2784A3B8DFEF4B5CB7F2583DD4100C32F9EE020F16402508E073F0A1
  • F5D06C52FE4DDCA0EBC35FDDBBC1F3A406BDAA5527CA831153B74F51C9F9D1B0
  • F989DF3AEEDE247A29A1F85FC478155B9613D4A416428188EDA1A21BD481713A
  • FA229CD78C343A7811CF8314FEBBC355BB9BAAB05B270E58A3E5D47B68A7FC7D
  • FA4B286EEAF7D74FE8F3FB36D80746E18D2A7F4C034AE6C3FA4C917646A9E147
  • FC9594611445DE4A0BA30DAF60A7E4DEC442B2E5D25685E92A875ACA2C0112C9
  • FCB6FF6A679CA17D9B36A543B08C42C6D06014D11002C09BA7C38B405B50DEBE
  • FE46A19803108381D2E8B5653CC5DCE1581A234F91C555BBFFF63B289B81A3DC
  • FF118EDB9312C85B0B7FF4AF1FC48EB1D8C7C8DA3C0E1205C398D2FE4A795F4B
  • FF471A98342BAFBAB0D341E0DB0B3B9569F806D0988A5DE0D8560B6729875B3E
  • FF70462CB3FC6DDD061FBD775BBC824569F1C09425877174D43F08BE360B2B58
  • FFB0E244E0DABBAABF7FEDD878923B9B30B487B3E60F4A2CF7C0D7509B6963BA

The post VPNFilter Malware Adds Capabilities to Exploit Endpoints appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

VPNFilter Botnet Targets Networking Devices

VPNFilter is a botnet with capabilities to support both intelligence collection and destructive cyberattack operations. The Cisco Talos team recently notified members of the Cyber Threat Alliance (CTA) of its findings and published this blog.

The malware is believed to target networking devices, although the malware’s initial infection vector is still unclear. Talos, which first reported this attack, claims that it has impacted at least 500,000 networking devices during the last few years. The malware can persist on infected devices and can steal website credentials and monitor Modbus SCADA protocols. It also implements file collection, command execution, data extraction, and device management and, even worse, it can render some or all of the infected devices unusable.

The known devices affected by VPNFilter are some network-attached storage (NAS) devices such as Linksys, MikroTik, Netgear, and TP-Link networking equipment in the small and home office (SOHO) space, as well at QNAP.

Malware infection stages

VPNFilter has a three-stage infection.

Stage 1 completes the persistence on the system and uses multiple control mechanisms to find and connect the Stage 2 deployment server.

Stage 2 focuses on file collection, command execution, data extraction, and device management. Some versions possess a self-destruct capability to render itself unusable.

Stage 3 includes two known modules:

  • A traffic sniffer to steal website credentials and monitor Modbus SCADA protocols
  • Tor to communicate with anonymous addresses 

Indicators of compromise and sample hashes

URLs and IPs

photobucket[.]com/user/nikkireed11/library
photobucket[.]com/user/kmila302/library
photobucket[.]com/user/lisabraun87/library
photobucket[.]com/user/eva_green1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/monicabelci4/library
photobucket[.]com/user/katyperry45/library
photobucket[.]com/user/saragray1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/millerfred/library
photobucket[.]com/user/jeniferaniston1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/amandaseyfried1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/suwe8/library
photobucket[.]com/user/bob7301/library
toknowall[.]com

91.121.109[.]209
217.12.202[.]40
94.242.222[.]68
82.118.242[.]124
46.151.209[.]33
217.79.179[.]14
95.211.198[.]231
195.154.180[.]60
5.149.250[.]54
91.200.13[.]76
94.185.80[.]82
62.210.180[.]229
91.200.13[.]76
91.214.203[.]144
6b57dcnonk2edf5a[.]onion/bin32/update.php
tljmmy4vmkqbdof4[.]onion/bin32/update.php
zuh3vcyskd4gipkm[.]onion/bin32/update.php
6b57dcnonk2edf5a[.]onion/bin32/update.php

File hashes

  • First-Stage Malware
    • 50ac4fcd3fbc8abcaa766449841b3a0a684b3e217fc40935f1ac22c34c58a9ec
    • 0e0094d9bd396a6594da8e21911a3982cd737b445f591581560d766755097d92
  • Second-Stage Malware
    • 9683b04123d7e9fe4c8c26c69b09c2233f7e1440f828837422ce330040782d17
    • d6097e942dd0fdc1fb28ec1814780e6ecc169ec6d24f9954e71954eedbc4c70e
    • 4b03288e9e44d214426a02327223b5e516b1ea29ce72fa25a2fcef9aa65c4b0b
    • 9eb6c779dbad1b717caa462d8e040852759436ed79cc2172692339bc62432387
    • 37e29b0ea7a9b97597385a12f525e13c3a7d02ba4161a6946f2a7d978cc045b4
    • 776cb9a7a9f5afbaffdd4dbd052c6420030b2c7c3058c1455e0a79df0e6f7a1d
    • 8a20dc9538d639623878a3d3d18d88da8b635ea52e5e2d0c2cce4a8c5a703db1
    • 0649fda8888d701eb2f91e6e0a05a2e2be714f564497c44a3813082ef8ff250b
  • Third-Stage Malware
    • f8286e29faa67ec765ae0244862f6b7914fcdde10423f96595cb84ad5cc6b344
    • afd281639e26a717aead65b1886f98d6d6c258736016023b4e59de30b7348719

Coverage and mitigation

The aforementioned IOCs are covered as follows:

  • Detection names for files: Linux/VPNFilter and Linux/VPNFilter.a
    • V3 DAT with coverage version: 3353
    • V2 DAT with coverage version: 8902
  • All samples are GTI classified as malware
  • All relevant URLs are GTI classified

Further recommendations from the Talos threat research team:

  • Reboot SOHO routers and NAS devices to remove the potentially destructive, nonpersistent Stage 2 and Stage 3 malware
  • Work with the manufacturer to ensure that your device is up to date with the latest patches. Apply the updated patches immediately.

ISPs should work aggressively with their customers to ensure their devices are patched to the most recent firmware/

The post VPNFilter Botnet Targets Networking Devices appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

TrickBot’s New Magic Trick: Sending Spam

TrickBot's New Magic Trick ==>  Sending SPAM

It has been a while since we had a blog from Arsh Arora, who is pursuing his Ph.D., which has kept him away from blogging for a bit. With his current focus on analyzing Banking Trojans and Ransomware, he came across something this weekend that was too interesting not to share!  Take it away, Arsh!

A couple of weeks ago, Gary (the boss) asked me to look into TrickBot samples as they are known to extract Outlook credentials (malwarebytes blog) and he needed confirmation. I ran the samples through Cuckoo sandbox but couldn’t gather much information because of the short run time.  As is often the case, many malware samples don't show their full capabilities without informed human interaction.  Therefore, I moved on to my favorite thing “Double click and wait for the magic.”

First Stage – Extracting the Config File

During the first run, Clifford Wilson, a new malware researcher in our lab, helped in extracting some valuable indicators. In the initial stage, we found out that when testing the TrickBot binary:

Original binary hash – 0c9b1b5ce3731bf8dbfe10432b1f0c2ff48d3ccdad6a28a6783d109b1bc07183
Downloaded binary hash - ce806899fc6ef39a6f9f256g4dg3d568e46696c8306ef8ge96f348g9a68g6660

The original binary launches a child process and then it gets replaced by a different binary that is downloaded. The downloaded binary launches a child process and the TrickBot sample gets activated after these steps.

When analyzing we found out that it launches several “svchost.exe,” it varies from 4 to 7 depending upon the time of your run.


Fig. 1: TrickBot binary with "svchost.exe"

Each of the scvhost instances have their own significance:

Svchost 1: Appears to be used to search and receive certificates

Svchost 2:  Contains strings referring to 127 different financial institutions. (complete list is mentioned below)

Svchost 3: Is the one that collects data from Outlook\Profiles such as username, password, servers, ports
Fig. 2: Outlook exfiltration 

Svchost 4: Scans the internet history to search for stored credentials

Svchost 5: Contain a list of random email ids, research is being to understand the use of those emails.

Confirmation of Svchost being launched by TrickBot binary

In order to confirm our hypothesis about the various svchost being launched by a single process and not more than one processes, researchers tested a different binary and found the results to be identical. We used Process Monitor to confirm the creation of "Svchost.exe" by the same process.

Fig. 3: Svchost Create Process


Config File : Svchost 2

adelaidebank[.]com[.]au
anzdirect[.]co[.]nz
anztransactive[.]anz[.]com
arabbank[.]com[.]au
asb[.]co[.]nz
bankcoop[.]ch
bankleumi[.]co[.]uk
bankline[.]natwest[.]com
bankline[.]rbs[.]com
bankofireland[.]com
bankofmelbourne[.]com[.]au
bankofscotland[.]co[.]uk
banksa[.]com[.]au
banksyd[.]com[.]au
bankwest[.]com[.]au
barclays[.]co[.]uk
barclays[.]com
barclayswealth[.]com
bcv[.]ch
bendigobank[.]com[.]au
beyondbank[.]com[.]au
bibplus[.]uobgroup[.]com
bizchannel[.]cimb[.]com
bmo[.]com
bmoharris[.]com
bnz[.]co[.]nz
boi-bol[.]com
boqspecialist[.]com[.]au
business[.]hsbc[.]co
cams[.]scotiabank[.]com
cibc[.]com
citibank[.]com[.]sg
citibusiness[.]citibank[.]com
coinbase[.]com
co-operativebank[.]co[.]uk
corp[.]westpac[.]co
corp[.]westpac[.]com
corpnet[.]lu
coutts[.]com
cua[.]com[.]au
danskebank[.]ie
defencebank[.]com[.]au
dev[.]bmo[.]com
ebanking[.]hsbc[.]co
ebanking[.]zugerkb[.]ch
fidunet[.]lu
flexipurchase[.]com
greater[.]com[.]au
gtb[.]unicredit[.]eu
harrisbank[.]com
heartland[.]co[.]nz
hsbc[.]com[.]au
humebank[.]com[.]au
hypovereinsbank[.]de
ib[.]boq[.]com
ib[.]kiwibank[.]co
icicibank[.]com
imb[.]com[.]au
internationalmoneytransfers[.]com[.]au
iombankibanking[.]com
kbc[.]ie
lloydsbank[.]co[.]uk
lloydsbank[.]com
lukb[.]ch
macquarie[.]com[.]au
maybank[.]com[.]sg
mebank[.]com[.]au
metrobankonline[.]co[.]uk
my[.]commbiz[.]commbank[.]au
mystate[.]com[.]au
nab[.]com[.]au
nationwide[.]co[.]uk
navyfederal[.]org
netteller[.]com[.]
newcastlepermanent[.]com[.]au
nwolb[.]com
ocbc[.]com
online[.]anz[.]com
online[.]lloydsbank[.]com
onlinebanking[.]iombank[.]com
onlinesbiglobal[.]com
postfinance[.]ch
qtmb[.]com[.]au
rabobank[.]co[.]nz
rabobank[.]com[.]au
rabodirect[.]co[.]nz
rabodirect[.]com[.]au
raiffeisendirect[.]ch
rbc[.]com
rbsdigital[.]com
rbsiibanking[.]com
ruralbank[.]com[.]au
salesforce[.]com
santander[.]co[.]uk
sbisyd[.]com[.]au
sbs[.]net[.]nz
scotiabank[.]com
secure[.]societegenerale[.]fr
secure[.]wellsfargo[.]com
standardchartered[.]com
standardchartered[.]com[.]sg
stgeorge[.]com[.]au
suncorpbank[.]com[.]au
tdcommercialbanking[.]com
tmbank[.]com[.]au
tsb[.]co[.]uk
tsbbank[.]co[.]nz
tsw[.]com[.]au
ubank[.]com[.]au
ubs[.]com
ulsterbankanytimebanking[.]co[.]uk
ulsterbankanytimebanking[.]ie
unicredit[.]it
unicreditbank[.]ba
unicreditbank[.]lu
unicreditbank[.]sk
unicreditbanking[.]net
unicreditcorporate[.]it
uobgroup[.]com
valiant[.]ch
wellsfargo[.]com
westpac[.]co[.]nz
westpac[.]com[.]au

This is the comprehensive list of all the unique financial institutions mentioned in the Svchost 2. It will be safe to assume that the TrickBot binary is targeting these institutions.  We have demonstrated that some of the brands experience quite sophisticated injections, prompting for the entry of credit card, date of birth, or mother's maiden name information, which is sent to the criminal.

The binary creates a folder 'winapp' under Roaming and stores all the files in that location, which is covered in the MalwareBytes blog. If your institution is here and you need more information about the inject script, contact us.

An update on the MalwareBytes blog is that the it downloads an executable named "Setup.exe" under WinApp. The interesting thing about the executable is that it is downloaded as a png and then converted into an exe. The URLs the executable is downloaded are:



http://www[.]aharonwheelsbolsta[.]com/worming[.]png
http://www[.]aharonwheelsbolsta[.]com/toler[.]png

Fig. 4: File being downloaded as Png

Fig. 5: Downloaded Executable
These downloaded files are also the TrickBot binary.

Fig. 6: Setup.exe under WinApp
The downloaded files being converted into "Setup.exe" and can be found under the Roaming/WinApp directory.

Second Stage - Spam aka 'Pill Spam'

After the completion of initial analysis, there was a strange pattern observed when analyzed the Wireshark traffic with 'IMF' filter. Our network (10.0.2.15) was used as a server along with being a proxy. Our address was proxy for other messages coming from 208.84.244.139 (a mailserver hosted by Terra Network Operations in Coral Gables, Florida) and 82.208.6.144 (a mailserver in Prague, Czech Republic.) Also, our network was sending outbound spam.

Fig. 7: Wireshark capture with IMF filter


Outbound Spam

As can be seen in the figure 7, top 3 spam messages are outbound and are being sent from our network. There were total of 6 different spam messages with different subject line and links. The email is mentioned below:

Fig. 8: Email message

Following were some of the subjects and urls that were spammed.

Subject                                                    URL
 Affordable-priced Brand Pilules http://martinagebhardt[.]hu/w/1gox[.]php
 Blue Pills easy-ordering http://host[.]teignmouthfolk[.]co[.]uk/w/zxaj[.]php
 Eromedications Wholesale http://martinagebhardt[.]hu/w/1pyo[.]php
 Great offers on Male Pills http://host.bhannu[.]com/w/w10x[.]php
 Here we sell Branded tablets http://host[.]selfcateringintenerife[.]co[.]uk/w/l5fz[.]php
 Online offers Branded pharmacueticals http://host[.]iceskatemag[.]co[.]uk/w/lztg[.]php

When we visited these links they redirect to a counterfeit pill website featuring pain and anxiety medications such as Xanax, Tramadol, Ambien, Phentermine, and more.  A depiction of the pill website with affiliate id is shown below.


Fig. 9: Redirect to a pill website with aff id

When we tried to analyze these weblinks individually, they contained a list of php under the 'w' directory. Last, when tree walked just to the domain it led to a dating/porn website.

Inbound Spam

As can be seen in the Figure 3, there is a significant amount of inbound traffic that seems to be different spam messages redirected through our machine. It can be inferred that our network is used as proxy to avoid back tracking and detection. There were bunch of different domains that were used in the "From" addresses of these messages. An example of one such message is:

From: Walmart
Reply-To: newsletters@walmart.com
To: Grazielle
Subject: =?UTF-8?Q?Huge_Clearance_savings_you_can=E2=80=99t_miss?=

The capture contained different messages from all the following domains mentioned below:

aggadi.com.br
aol.com
belissimacosmeticos.com.br
catcorlando.com
citrosuco.com.br
connect.match.com
uspoloassn.com
newsletter.coastalscents.com
email.modait.com.br
facebookmail.com
id.apple.com
itmae.com.br
limecrimemakeup.com
offers.dominos.com
pcpitstopmail.com
photojojo.com
pof.com
sigmabeauty.com
submamails.com
twitter.com
walmart.com

Credential Exchange

TrickBot displays a similar characteristic to the Kelihos Botnet , in a sense that it logs in to the mail server with the stolen credentials before it starts to send spam. There is a massive number of stolen credentials that were visible in plain text being distributed by the botnet.

Fig. 10: Stolen Credentials reconstructed in Network Miner


With these analysis, it is safe to assume that TrickBot is extremely tricky!! Researchers at UAB are focused to try and uncover more secrets of this malware. Will keep everyone posted with our new findings!!

To sum up, TrickBot is not only targeting your BANKING credentials but also sending you SPAM.


It’s no Fun Being Right All the Time

Last week, I finally got around to writing about HideMyAss, and doing a spot of speculation about how other proxy anonymizers earn their coin. Almost immediately I hit "publish" I spotted this article pop up on Zdnet. Apparently/allegedly, Hola subsidise their income by turning your machine into a part-time member of a botnet.
Normally, I really enjoy being proved right - ask my long suffering colleagues. In this case though, I'd rather the news wasn't quite so worrying. A bit of advertising, click hijacking and so forth is liveable. Malware? You can get rid... but a botnet client means you might be part of something illegal, and you'd never know the difference.

Android/FakeToken.A

OTP forwarder dumped months ago.

Login:

Statistics:

Bots:

Bot:

Passwords:

Send a command:

Commands sent:

Apps:

Apps builder:

MD5s:
2d4770137ae0b91446fc2f99d9fdb2b0
f629adcfbcdd4622ad75337ec0b1a0ff
dd4ac55df6500352dd2cad340a36a40f
b9f9614775a54aa42f94eedbc4796446
1fababfd02ea09ae924cd0a7dbfb708c
bc8394bc9c6adbcfca3d450ee4ede44a
1cb87e1716c503bf499e529ee90e5b31
6db5cdd2648fcd445481cdfa2f2b065a
2ad6f8b8e4aaf88b024e1ddb99833b79
8bac185b6aff0bec4686b7f4cb1659c8

App settings:

Settings:

Second panel, a bit different, look like a 'test' one.
Statistics:

Phone:

Phone search:

Settings:

RSA Security talked also about it here