Category Archives: AWS

New infosec products of the week: November 20, 2020

Group-IB launches Fraud Hunting Platform, a digital identity protection and fraud prevention solution Group-IB’s Fraud Hunting Platform analyzes each session and examines user behavior (keystrokes, mouse movements, etc.) in web and in mobile channels in real-time. Based on user behavioral data and machine learning algorithms, the system creates a unique digital fingerprint for devices and identities. AWS Network Firewall: Network protection across all AWS workloads With AWS Network Firewall, customers can deploy granular network protections … More

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AWS Network Firewall: Network protection across all AWS workloads

Amazon Web Services announced the general availability of AWS Network Firewall, a new managed security service that makes it easier for customers to enable network protections across all of their AWS workloads. Customers can enable AWS Network Firewall in their desired Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) environments with just a few clicks in the AWS Console, and the service automatically scales with network traffic to provide high availability protections without the need to set up … More

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Millions of hotel guests worldwide have their private details exposed

A sloppy lack of security by a hotel reservation platform has left highly sensitive information about millions of people worldwide exposed. Security experts uncovered a misconfigured AWS S3 bucket containing over 10 million files, containing information about hotel guests dating as far back as 2013.

Top Five Most Infamous DDoS Attacks

Guest article by Adrian Taylor, Regional VP of Sales for A10 Networks 

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are now everyday occurrences. Whether you’re a small non-profit or a huge multinational conglomerate, your online services—email, websites, anything that faces the internet—can be slowed or completely stopped by a DDoS attack. Moreover, DDoS attacks are sometimes used to distract your cybersecurity operations while other criminal activity, such as data theft or network infiltration, is underway. 
Why are DDoS attacks bigger and more frequent than ever?
DDoS attacks are getting bigger and more frequent
The first known Distributed Denial of Service attack occurred in 1996 when Panix, now one of the oldest internet service providers, was knocked offline for several days by an SYN flood, a technique that has become a classic DDoS attack. Over the next few years, DDoS attacks became common and Cisco predicts that the total number of DDoS attacks will double from the 7.9 million seen in 2018 to something over 15 million by 2023.

But it’s not just the number of DDoS attacks that are increasing; as the bad guys are creating ever bigger botnets – the term for the armies of hacked devices that are used to generate DDoS traffic. As the botnets get bigger, the scale of DDoS attacks is also increasing. A Distributed Denial of Service attack of one gigabit per second is enough to knock most organisations off the internet but we’re now seeing peak attack sizes in excess of one terabit per second generated by hundreds of thousands, or even millions, of suborned devices. Given that IT services downtime costs companies anywhere from $300,000 to over $1,000,000 per hour, you can see that the financial hit from even a short DDoS attack could seriously damage your bottom line.

So we’re going to take a look at some of the most notable DDoS attacks to date. Our choices include some DDoS attacks that are famous for their sheer scale while others are because of their impact and consequences.

1. The AWS DDoS Attack in 2020
Amazon Web Services, the 800-pound gorilla of everything cloud computing, was hit by a gigantic DDoS attack in February 2020. This was the most extreme recent DDoS attack ever and it targeted an unidentified AWS customer using a technique called Connectionless Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (CLDAP) Reflection. This technique relies on vulnerable third-party CLDAP servers and amplifies the amount of data sent to the victim’s IP address by 56 to 70 times. The attack lasted for three days and peaked at an astounding 2.3 terabytes per second. While the disruption caused by the AWS DDoS Attack was far less severe than it could have been, the sheer scale of the attack and the implications for AWS hosting customers potentially losing revenue and suffering brand damage is significant.

2. The MiraiKrebs and OVH DDoS Attacks in 2016
On September 20, 2016, the blog of cybersecurity expert Brian Krebs was assaulted by a DDoS attack in excess of 620 Gbps, which at the time, was the largest attack ever seen. Krebs had recorded 269 DDoS attacks since July 2012, but this attack was almost three times bigger than anything his site or, for that matter, the internet had seen before.

The source of the attack was the Mirai botnet, which, at its peak later that year, consisted of more than 600,000 compromised Internet of Things (IoT) devices such as IP cameras, home routers, and video players. Mirai had been discovered in August that same year but the attack on Krebs’ blog was its first big outing.

The next Mirai attack on September 19 targeted one of the largest European hosting providers, OVH, which hosts roughly 18 million applications for over one million clients. This attack was on a single undisclosed OVH customer and driven by an estimated 145,000 bots, generating a traffic load of up to 1.1 terabits per second, and lasted about seven days. The Mirai botnet was a significant step up in how powerful a DDoS attack could be. The size and sophistication of the Mirai network were unprecedented, as was the scale of the attacks and their focus.

3. The MiraiDyn DDoS Attack in 2016
Before we discuss the third notable Mirai DDoS attack of 2016, there’s one related event that should be mentioned: On September 30, someone claiming to be the author of the Mirai software released the source code on various hacker forums and the Mirai DDoS platform has been replicated and mutated scores of times since.

On October 21, 2016, Dyn, a major Domain Name Service (DNS) provider, was assaulted by a one terabit per second traffic flood that then became the new record for a DDoS attack. There’s some evidence that the DDoS attack may have actually achieved a rate of 1.5 terabits per second. The traffic tsunami knocked Dyn’s services offline rendering a number of high-profile websites including GitHub, HBO, Twitter, Reddit, PayPal, Netflix, and Airbnb, inaccessible. Kyle York, Dyn’s chief strategy officer, reported, “We observed 10s of millions of discrete IP addresses associated with the Mirai botnet that were part of the attack.”

Mirai supports complex, multi-vector attacks that make mitigation difficult. Even though Mirai was responsible for the biggest assaults up to that time, the most notable thing about the 2016 Mirai attacks was the release of the Mirai source code enabling anyone with modest information technology skills to create a botnet and mount a Distributed Denial of Service attack without much effort.

4. The Six Banks DDoS Attack in 2012
On March 12, 2012, six U.S. banks were targeted by a wave of DDoS attacks—Bank of America, JPMorgan Chase, U.S. Bank, Citigroup, Wells Fargo, and PNC Bank. The attacks were carried out by hundreds of hijacked servers from a botnet called Brobot with each attack generating over 60 gigabits of DDoS attack traffic per second.

At the time, these attacks were unique in their persistence: Rather than trying to execute one attack and then backing down, the perpetrators barraged their targets with a multitude of attack methods in order to find one that worked. So, even if a bank was equipped to deal with a few types of DDoS attacks, they were helpless against other types of attack.

The most remarkable aspect of the bank attacks in 2012 was that the attacks were, allegedly, carried out by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the military wing of the Palestinian Hamas organisation. Moreover, the attacks had a huge impact on the affected banks in terms of revenue, mitigation expenses, customer service issues, and the banks’ branding and image.

5. The GitHub Attack in 2018
On Feb. 28, 2018, GitHub—a platform for software developers—was hit with a DDoS attack that clocked in at 1.35 terabits per second and lasted for roughly 20 minutes. According to GitHub, the traffic was traced back to “over a thousand different autonomous systems (ASNs) across tens of thousands of unique endpoints.

Even though GitHub was well prepared for a DDoS attack their defences were overwhelmed—they simply had no way of knowing that an attack of this scale would be launched.

The GitHub DDoS attack was notable for its scale and the fact that the attack was staged by exploiting a standard command of Memcached, a database caching system for speeding up websites and networks. The Memcached DDoS attack technique is particularly effective as it provides an amplification factor – the ratio of the attacker’s request size to the amount of DDoS attack traffic generated – of up to a staggering 51,200 times.

And that concludes our top five line up – it is a sobering insight into just how powerful, persistent and disruptive DDoS attacks have become.

Happy Birthday

Nineteen years ago this week I registered the domain

Creation Date: 2000-07-04T02:20:16Z

This was 2 1/2 years before I started blogging, so I don't have much information from that era. I did create the first Web site shortly thereafter.

I first started hosting it on space provided by my then-ISP, Road Runner of San Antonio, TX. According to, it looked like this in February 2002.

That is some fine-looking vintage hand-crafted HTML. Because I lived in Texas I apparently reached for the desert theme with the light tan background. Unfortunately I didn't have the "under construction" gif working for me.

As I got deeper into the security scene, I decided to simplify and adopt a dark look. By this time I had left Texas and was in the DC area, working for Foundstone. According to, the site look like this in April 2003.

Notice I've replaced the oh-so-cool picture of me doing American Kenpo in the upper-left-hand corner with the classic Bruce Lee photo from the cover of The Tao of Jeet Kune Do. This version marks the first appearance of my classic TaoSecurity logo.

A little more than two years later, I decided to pursue TaoSecurity as an independent consultant. To launch my services, I painstakingly created more hand-written HTML and graphics to deliver this beauty. According to, the site looked like this in May 2005.

I mean, can you even believe how gorgeous that site is? Look at the subdued gray TaoSecurity logo, the red-highlighted menu boxes, etc. I should have kept that site forever.

We know that's not what happened, because that wonder of a Web site only lasted about a year. Still to this day not really understanding how to use CSS, I used a free online template by Andreas Viklund to create a new site. According to, the site appeared in this form in July 2006.

After four versions in four years, my primary Web site stayed that way... for thirteen years. Oh, I modified the content, SSH'ing into the server hosted by my friend Phil Hagen, manually editing the HTML using vi (and careful not to touch the CSS).

Then, I attended AWS re:inforce the last week in June, 2019. I decided that although I had tinkered with Amazon Web Services as early as 2010, and was keeping an eye on it as early as 2008, I had never hosted any meaningful workloads there. A migration of my primary Web site to AWS seemed like a good way to learn a bit more about AWS and an excuse to replace my teenage Web layout with something that rendered a bit better on a mobile device.

After working with Mobirise, AWS S3, AWS Cloudfront, AWS Certificate Manager, AWS Route 53, my previous domain name servers, and my domain registrar, I'm happy to say I have a new Web site. The front page like this:

The background is an image of Milnet from the late 1990s. I apologize for the giant logo in the upper left. It should be replaced by a resized version later today when the AWS Cloudfront cache expires.

Scolling down provides information on my books, which I figured is what most people who visit the site care about.

For reference, I moved the content (which I haven't been updated) about news, press, and research to individual TaoSecurity Blog posts.

It's possible you will not see the site, if your DNS servers have the old IP addresses cached. That should all expire no later than tomorrow afternoon, I imagine.

Let's see if the new site lasts another thirteen years?