Category Archives: Active Directory

A Simple Trillion$ Cyber Security Question for the Entire RSA Conference

Folks,

This week, the famous RSA Conference 2019 is underway, where supposedly "The World Talks Security" -


Image Courtesy RSA Conference. Source: https://www.rsaconference.com/

If that's the case, let's talk -  I'd like to respectfully ask the entire RSA Conference just 1 simple cyber security question -

Question: What lies at the very foundation of cyber security and privileged access of not just the RSAs, EMCs, Dells, CyberArks, Gartners, Googles, Amazons, Facebooks and Microsofts of the world, but also at the foundation of virtually all cyber security and cloud companies and at the foundation of over 85% of organizations worldwide?

For those who may not know the answer to this ONE simple cyber security question, the answer's in line 1 here.



For those who may know the answer, and I sincerely hope that most of the world's CIOs, CISOs, Domain Admins, Cyber Security Analysts, Penetration Testers and Ethical Hackers know the answer, here are 4 simple follow-up questions -


  • Q 1.  Should your organization's foundational Active Directory be compromised, what could be its impact?
  • Q 2.  Would you agree that the (unintentional, intentional or coerced) compromise of a single Active Directory privileged user could result in the compromise of your organization's entire foundational Active Directory?
  • Q 3.  If so, then do you know that there is only one correct way to accurately identify/audit privileged users in your organization's foundational Active Directory, and do you possess the capability to correctly be able to do so?
  • Q 4.  If you don't, then how could you possibly know exactly how many privileged users there are in your organization's foundational Active Directory deployment today, and if you don't know so, ...OMG... ?!

You see, if even the world's top cyber security and cloud computing companies themselves don't know the answers to such simple, fundamental Kindergarten-level cyber security questions, how can we expect 85% of the world's organizations to know the answer, AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, what's the point of all this fancy peripheral cyber security talk at such conferences when organizations don't even know how many (hundreds if not thousands of) people have the Keys to their Kingdom(s) ?!


Today Active Directory is at the very heart of Cyber Security and Privileged Access at over 85% of organizations worldwide, and if you can find me even ONE company at the prestigious RSA Conference 2019 that can help organizations accurately identify privileged users/access in 1000s of foundational Active Directory deployments worldwide, you'll have impressed me.


Those who truly understand Windows Security know that organizations can neither adequately secure their foundational Active Directory deployments nor accomplish any of these recent buzzword initiatives like Privileged Access Management, Privileged Account Discovery, Zero-Trust etc. without first being able to accurately identify privileged users in Active Directory.

Best wishes,
Sanjay


PS: Pardon the delay. I've been busy and haven't much time to blog since my last post on Cyber Security 101 for the C-Suite.

PS2: Microsoft, when were you planning to start educating the world about what's actually paramount to their cyber security?

Some Help & Good News for Microsoft regarding Active Directory Security


Folks,

You'll want to read this short blog post very carefully because it not only impacts Microsoft, it likely impacts you, as well as the foundational security of 85% of all business and government organizations worldwide, and it does so in a positive way.



A Quick and Short Background

From the White House to the Fortune 1000, Microsoft Active Directory is the very foundation of cyber security at over 85% of organizations worldwide. In fact, it is also the foundation of cyber security of almost every cyber security company worldwide.


Active Directory is the Foundation of Cyber Security Worldwide

The entirety of an organization's building blocks of cyber security, including the user accounts used by the entirety its workforce, as well as the user accounts of all its privileged users, the computer accounts of the entirety of its computers, and the security groups used to provision access to the entirety of its IT resources, are stored, managed and protected in Active Directory.

During the past few years, credential-theft attacks aimed at the compromise of an organization's privileged users (e.g. Domain Admins) have resulted in a substantial number of reported and unreported breaches at numerous organizations worldwide. In response, to help organizations combat the menace of these credential-theft attacks, Microsoft has had to make substantial enhancements to its Windows Operating Systems as well as acquire and introduce a technology called Microsoft ATA.

These enhancements have made it harder for perpetrators to find success with traditional credential-theft attacks, so they've started focusing their efforts on trying to find ways to attack the Active Directory itself, as evidenced by the fact that in the last year alone, we've seen the introduction of Mimikatz DCSync, BloodHound and recently the advent of Active Directory Botnets.

Make no mistake about it. There's no dearth of opportunity to find ways to exploit weaknesses in Active Directory deployments because there exists an ocean of access within Active Directory, and sadly due to an almost total lack of awareness, education, understanding and tooling, organizations have no idea as to exactly what lies within their Active Directory, particularly in regards to privileged access entitlements, and thus today there likely are 1000s of privilege escalation paths in most Active Directory deployments, waiting to be identified and exploited. All that perpetrators seem to lack today is the know-how and the tooling.

Unfortunately, since the cat's out of the bag, perpetrators seem to be learning fast, and building rapidly, so unless organizations act swiftly and decisively to adequately lock-down vast amount of access that currently exists in their foundational Active Directory deployments, sadly the next big wave of cyber breaches could involve compromise of Active Directory deployments.





Clearly, Microsoft Has No Answers

It gives me absolutely no pleasure to share with you that unfortunately, and sadly as always, Microsoft yet again seems to be playing catch-up, and in fact, it has no clue or any real answers, ideas or solutions to help organizations in this vital regard.


Here's Proof - Last week, on September 18, 2017, Microsoft's Advanced Threat Analytics (ATA) Team posted this -



If and when you read it, it will likely be unequivocally clear to you as to just how little Microsoft understands about not just the sheer depth and breadth of this monumental challenge, but about the sheer impact it could have on organizations worldwide!

You see, if you understand the subject of Active Directory Security well enough, then you know that Active Directory access control lists (ACLs) today don't just impact organizational security worldwide, they likely impact national and global security!

That said, in that post, the best Microsoft could do is concede that this could be a problem, wonder why organizations might ever need to change AdminSDHolder, falsely assume that it may not impact privileged users, praise a massively inaccurate tool for shedding light on this attack vector, and end by saying - "if you find a path with no obstacles, it probably leads somewhere."

Oh, and the very last thing they tell you that is their nascent ATA technology can detect AD multiple recon methods.


In contrast, here's what they should have said - "We care deeply about cyber security and we understand that left unaddressed, this could pose a serious cyber security risk to our customers. Be rest assured that Microsoft Active Directory is a highly robust and securable technology, and here's exactly how organizations can adequately and reliably identify and lock-down privileged access in their Active Directory deployments, leaving no room for perpetrators to identify and exploit any weaknesses."

The reason I say that should've been the response is because if you know enough about this problem, then you also know that it can actually be completely and sufficiently addressed, and that you don't need to rely on detection as a security measure.

BTW, to appreciate how little Microsoft seems to understand about this huge cyber security challenge, you'll want a yardstick to compare Microsoft's response with, so here it is (; you'll want to read the posts) - Active Directory Security School for Microsoft.



Er, I'm really sorry but you are Microsoft, a US$ 550 Billion corporation, not a kid in college. If the best you can do concerning such a profoundly important cyber security challenge is show how little you seem to know about and understand this problem, and only have detection to offer as a solution, frankly, that's not just disappointing, that's deeply concerning, to say the least.

Further, if this is how little you seem to understand about such a profoundly important cyber security challenge concerning your own technology, I cannot help but wonder how well your customers might actually be protected in your recent Cloud offering.





Fortunately There's Help and Good News For Microsoft

I may appear to be critical of Microsoft, and I do still believe that they ought to at least have educated their customers about this and this huge cyber security challenge, but I also love Microsoft, because I've been (at) Microsoft, so I'm going to help them.


To my former colleagues at Microsoft I say - "Each one of us at Microsoft are passionate, care deeply and always strive to do and be the best we can, and even though I may no longer be at Microsoft, (and I still can't believe how you missed this one), luckily and fortunately for you, we've got this covered, and we're going to help you out."

So, over the next few days, not only am I going to help reduce the almost total lack of awareness, education and understanding that exists at organizations today concerning Active Directory Security, I am also going to help organizations worldwide learn just how they can adequately and swiftly address this massive cyber security challenge before it becomes a huge problem.

Specifically, in days to come, as a part of our 30-Day Active Directory Security School, you can expect the following posts -


  1. What Constitutes a Privileged User in Active Directory

  2. How to Correctly Audit Privileged Users/Access in Active Directory

  3. How to Render Mimikatz DCSync Useless in an Active Directory Environment

  4. How to Easily Identify and Thwart Sneaky Persistence in Active Directory

  5. How to Easily Solve The Difficult Problem of Active Directory Botnets

  6. The World's Top Active Directory Permissions Analysis Tools (and Why They're Mostly Useless)

  7. The Paramount Need to Lockdown Access Privileges in Active Directory

  8. How to Attain and Maintain Least Privileged Access (LPA) in Active Directory

  9. How to Securely Delegate and Correctly Audit Administrative Access in Active Directory

  10. How to Easily Secure Active Directory and Operate a Bulletproof Active Directory Deployment

You see, each one of these Active Directory security focused objectives can be easily accomplished, but and in order to do so, what is required is the capability to accurately audit effective access in Active Directory. Sadly, let alone possessing this paramount cyber security capability, Microsoft doesn't even seem to have a clue about it.

Each one of these posts is absolutely essential for organizational cyber security worldwide, and if you know of even one other entity (e.g. individual, company etc.) on the planet that can help the world address each one of these today, do let me know.

So, over the next few days, I'll pen the above, and you'll be able to access them at the Active Directory Security Blog.

Until then, you may want to go through each one of the 20 days of posts that I've already shared there, as well as review this.



In fact, this cannot wait, so let us begin with the "actual" insight on Active Directory ACLs that all organizations worldwide must have today -


Together, we can help adequately secure and defend organizations worldwide and deny perpetrators the opportunities and avenues they seek to compromise our foundational Active Directory deployments, because we must and because we can.


Best wishes,
Sanjay

CEO, Paramount Defenses

Formerly Program Manager,
Active Directory Security,
Microsoft Corporation


PS: Microsoft, you're welcome. Also, I don't need anything from you, except a Thank you note.

A Letter to President Donald Trump regarding Global and Cyber Security

Dear President Trump,

Hello. As President of Paramount Defenses, I pen this letter most respectfully to you, the President of our Great United States.

First off, I should mention that I write neither as a Republican, nor as a Democrat, but as a fellow patriotic American citizen and a cyber security specialist, because I care, and that my desire to do so publicly is inspired by how much you Sir share publicly, and that this most respectful letter is in light of your tweet about discussing the creation of a Cyber Security Unit with Russia.

I'll do my best to keep this VERY simple.



Top-5 Global Security Risks

As President of the United States, you're likely aware of the Top-5 risks to not just America, but to the entire world today -


1. The Risk of the Use of a WMD / Nuclear War
2. The Risk of Earth's Demise, posed by Climate Change
3. The Risk of Terrorism, posed by Terror Groups Worldwide
4. The Risk of the Decline of American Leadership in the World
5. The Risk of Swift and Colossal Damage, posed by Cyber Threats

I am by no means an expert on global security, but common sense suggest that risks 1 and 2 above would be catastrophic to all of mankind, risk 3 could pose a serious threat to life and property, and that risk 4 could increase the likelihood of risks 1, 2 & 3.

As for risk 5, I do happen to know one vital area of cyber security decently well, so I'll share just a few thoughts about it, but first, I did want to take a moment to talk about risk 4 because it potentially impacts the lives of 7,000,000,000+ people worldwide.




The Importance of American Leadership

Mr. Trump, as President of the United States, you are the most powerful and influential person in the world, and most people would take such GREAT responsibility VERY seriously, since their actions and decisions could save or destroy the world.


Sir, the elections are over. You won. You are the President of the United States, and it is time to let the talking be, and start working to make America great again. This isn't reality TV, this is real life, and its a billion times more significant and serious.

If I were the President of the United States, and I deeply cared about making America great again, I likely wouldn't have a moment to watch TV, Tweet or Golf. I'd be working harder than the hardest American to make America greater and safer.

(If I may momentarily digress. speaking of making America great again, while there likely may certainly be much to be done to restore its greatness, we owe it to our future generations to do so without polluting or endangering our precious environment.)

Today more than ever, we live in a precarious, highly-connected and inter-dependent world, and the world needs strong, mature and steady American leadership to amicably address so many important and complicated issues, such as those listed above.

Speaking of which, I'd like to share a few thoughts on risk 5, the risk of swift and colossal damage posed by Cyber Threats, but before I do so, again, I'd request you to please take a few moments to comprehend the profound importance, seriousness and significance of both, the position bestowed upon you by the American people, as well as (of) the challenges that you, Sir, today have the unique privilege and responsibility of addressing for both America and the world that America is inextricably a part of.

[ Hopefully you see that the reality is that since America is inextricably a part of the world, what happens out in the world could impact us substantially, so to make America great(er and safer) again, we must maintain American leadership in the world. ]





The Cyber Risk

Mr. President, to put it most simply, Cyber Security is the Achilles' Heel of developed nations today, because over the last few decades, our reliance on computer systems and networks has increased substantially (exponentially), and sadly within them exist many systemic and component specific deficiencies (vulnerabilities) which can be exploited to inflict colossal harm.


(This risk is actually addressable, and what the world needs is a White Knight so we have a trustworthy foundation to operate on, but and until we get there i.e. until the world has such a defensive shield in place to rely on, we all have reality to deal with.)

Consequently, today from our governments to our energy grids, from our defense systems to our transportation systems, and from our banks to our industries (i.e. a nation's business organizations), literally everything is exposed to varying levels of risk.

It is thus hardly surprising that today cyber security is one of the most important challenges the world faces, an assertion best evidenced by the fact that Russia's purported cyber interference in the 2016 American elections, remains a contentious issue.


Speaking of which, while the U.S and in fact all countries and, ideally all business organizations, should certainly bolster their cyber defenses, establishing a Cyber Security Unit with the Russians might NOT be such a good idea, as also voiced by 1, 23.

By the way, those who truly understand cyber security know that there is no such thing as an "impenetrable cyber security unit".

A quick digression. Yes, indeed the Russians are very good at cyber security and likely at hacking, and they're persistent, but they're not the only ones out there trying to hack our agencies and companies, and they don't always succeed. But, I digress.


Mr. President, you may likely already have some of the world's best inputs and advice when it comes to cyber security, so I'd just like to share paramount cyber security insight with you - Trillion-Dollar Cyber Security Insight for President Donald Trump.


Mr. President, as I put my pen down, I'll only add that of the risks listed above, in the near-term, the Cyber Risk may be 2nd only to the Nuclear Risk, because its realistic probability of occurrence is substantially higher, and its potential for damage, colossal.


Mr. Trump, you have a historic opportunity to SERVE the American People, and define your legacy - its yours to embrace or squander.

Respectfully,
Sanjay.

Trillion-Dollar Cyber Security Insight for President Donald Trump

Dear Mr. Trump,

Hello. I'm Sanjay, President of Paramount Defenses. I just wanted to congratulate you on your historic win, wish you success, as did President Obama, and share VALUABLE cyber security insight that could be VITAL to your administration's success.

Before I get to it, I should mention that I write neither as a Republican, nor as a Democrat, but as a fellow patriotic U.S. citizen and a cyber security professional, and that my desire to do so publicly has been inspired by how much you Sir share publicly. Given the sheer impact of our important work across America and the world today, we are a 100% non-partisan organization.

One quick vital point - regarding all the talk of Russian hacking to influence the U.S. election, while Russia and possibly others may certainly have tried to influence it, professionally speaking i.e. as a cyber security practioner, in the grand scheme of things, it matters not as to who is trying to hack us, as much as it does that we protect ourselves from being hacked, so from that angle you're likely right that the DNC should have adequately defended itself. You see, once an entity is hacked, at that very moment the damage is done, because their data is now in someone else's hands, and the entity no longer has any control over what the perpetrators do with it. In fairness, one should also add that if indeed Russia did hack the RNC as well, but chose not to divulge their data, then reasonably speaking, that would have amounted to what is being called "an attempt to influence an election."


That said, Mr. Trump, hopefully you'll agree that given our sheer reliance and dependence on computers and technology, the success of your Presidency and your administration will GREATLY depend on the cyber security of our government agencies.

Attribution: Mr.. Trump's photo: Michael Vadon >

In that regard, I thought you should know that at the very foundation of cyber security of our entire U.S. Government (i.e. 600+ federal agencies) lies a single technology, Microsoft Active Directory, the cyber defense of which is paramount to our security.

You may or may not know this yet, but the White House, the U.S. Capitol, all our intelligence agencies, and virtually all our departments (e.g. Defense, State, Justice, Energy, Labor, Interior, Veterans Affairs etc.) all operate on Active Directory.

By the way, I must mention that none of this is classified information. This is all public knowledge. I just happen to know it first hand because I'm former Microsoft Program Manager for Active Directory Security, i.e. a "deep in the trenches" technical guy who possibly knows more about Active Directory security than most people on the planet. (I also happen to be an innovative American entrepreneur who built possibly the world's most relevant and important cyber security company, from the ground up.)

In fact, Active Directory is at the very foundation of cyber security of 85+% of all government and business organizations world-wide (The Americas, Europe, Asia, etc.) including at the foundation of virtually all of the tech companies whose CEOs recently visited you i.e. Microsoft, Amazon, Alphabet, IBM, Intel, Facebook, Tesla etc., as well as a little cyber company called Palantir.

It is very likely that thousands of business and government organizations in Russia too might be operating on Active Directory.

Sir, in all likelihood, the Trump Organization may also be operating on Active Directory. (Your IT folks could verify that for you.)


Mr. Trump, our cyber intelligence indicates that the foundational Active Directory deployments of most organizations worldwide may currently be exposed to an alarmingly vast attack surface, and thus may possibly be rather easily compromisable today.

The specific cyber security risk that most of them are all likely exposed to today is succinctly described in The Paramount Brief -


Password (case-sensitive): AreWeReallySecure?


If you're short on time, here's a very brief summary -
In every network powered by Active Directory, all administrative accounts i.e. the accounts of the individuals that possess the "Keys to the Kingdom" lie within Active Directory. It is a well known fact that if a perpetrator can compromise ANY one of these accounts, he/she could easily access and control everything. Thus, in every organization, ideally the number of such powerful accounts must be at an absolute bare minimum.
Unfortunately, in most organizations today, not only are there a HUGE number of privileged user accounts in Active Directory, NO ONE really knows exactly who they are and what power they possess. In other words, most organizations seem to be operating in the proverbial dark, & if breached, could likely be compromised in minutes.
In essence, a huge, unknown number of highly prized privileged accounts in Active Directory constitute a vast attack surface, and the compromise of any one of them would be tantamount to a system-wide compromise. 

In our professional opinion, this poses a major cyber security risk globally, especially considering the statistics, i.e. 100% of all major recently cyber security breaches involved the compromise of a single (i.e. just 1) Active Directory privileged user account.

From our side, we can certainly (and uniquely) help organizations worldwide precisely identify and reduce their attack surface, as well as empower them to mitigate this serious risk, swiftly and cost-efficiently, but we do need them to understand it first.


I must also mention with due respect to the likes of Peter Thiel, Alex Karp, Ted Schlein & others, I doubt they're familiar with this specific risk or understand the depth of its magnitude, because this is one of those you have to be "deep in the trenches" to get.

Speaking of which, in 2016, we had directly informed the CEOs of most of the world's Top 200 companies (including most of the tech CEOs that came and met you at the Trump Tower), as well as all appropriate officials at most federal and state agencies about this risk to the foundational Active Directory deployments of their organizations; they all received The Paramount Brief.

Our intelligence further indicates that as a result, many of these organizations started to look at the security of their foundational Active Directory deployments for the first time ever. While some may have started bolstering their cyber defenses, sadly, many of these organizations likely continue to remain vulnerable, especially considering how easy it is to compromise them today.

For instance, if an intruder could breach their network (and Microsoft suggests that organizations assume breach ) in many cases, he/she could just deploy Mimikatz DCSync to instantly 0wn them. (Alex/Peter should be able to explain this to you.)

Fortunately the solutions required to swiftly, effectively and cost-effectively help all impacted organizations mitigate this critical risk exist today (e.g. 1,2). However, we're finding that many organizations do not even seem to know about this risk.

We worry that unless certain basic and fundamental cyber security measures are enacted quickly, many of our government and business organizations, as well as those of our allies worldwide, will likely remain vulnerable to cyber attacks in the near future.

From our side, we're doing what we can to educate and safeguard organizations worldwide, but much more needs to be done, and quickly so. Its in that regard that your intentions give many of us in cyber security, as well as the American people, hope...



Making America Great(er and Safer) Again

In addition to making America greater, we must also make (not only) America (but also our allies) safer, not only from physical threats but also from cyber threats. In fact, given our HUGE reliance on technology, and considering how easy it is to launch a cyber attack, the cyber threat may pose a far greater threat to our national security and prosperity than do physical threats.

I've read that it is your intention to appoint a team to combat cyber attacks within 90 days of taking office. That (in your parlance) sounds WONDERFUL. I commend you for this initiative. Indeed, it is imperative and in fact paramount that we do everything we can to safeguard and adequately defend our government and business organizations from being taken out by cyber attacks.


If I had to offer some unsolicited advice, I'd suggest that one of the most important measures one could enact is Attack Surface Reduction. Simply put, the smaller one's attack surface is, the better one's chances of being able to adequately defend it.

For instance, it is so much easier to protect a building that only has one entrance than it is to protect one that has 20 entrances, and where only a few security guards have the master keys to the building, than one wherein who knows how many have them.

That's why, considering the statistics i.e. the fact that 100% of all major recent cyber security breaches involved the compromise of a single (i.e. just 1) Active Directory privileged user account, reducing the number of users that have privileged access within Active Directory to a bare minimum, then adequately protecting them, must be one of the top priorities for all organizations.

Sir, in short, provably secure (least-privileged access adherent) foundational Active Directory deployments at all our federal government agencies and at all business organizations they rely on, are likely going to be vital to your administration's success.

(As you'll likely agree, this isn't rocket science; it's common sense. If a government agency is compromised (e.g. OPM Breach), assets or initiatives it might be working on could be in jeopardy. Similarly, if a business organization (e.g. a Defense Contractor, a Builder etc.) that the government relies on for its various initiatives is compromised, those initiatives could be in jeopardy.)


Thank you, and Best Wishes

In closing, thank you for your time, congrats on your bigly win and good luck as you get ready to serve the American people.

The American people have entrusted you with the great responsibility of leading our great nation, as well as the might of American power, and they're looking to you to make their lives better and to make America greater and safer again.

In God We Trust, so wish you God Speed in your efforts to fulfill your promises to make America great(er and safer) again.

Most Respectfully,
Sanjay


PS: At Paramount Defenses, because we understand the paramount importance of cyber security to the business and national security interests of the United States and those of our allies, we care deeply about cyber security and we take it very seriously.

Who Needs WMDs Today?

Folks,

Today, I would like to share with you another Trillion $ question, one that I had originally asked more that 10 years ago. Today it is exponentially more relevant, given the paramount role that Cyber Security plays in national and business security.

So without further adieu, here it is - Who needs WMDs (Weapons of Mass Destruction) Today?


Ans: Only those who don't know that we live in a digital world, one wherein virtually everything runs on (networked) computers.

Why would an entity bother trying to acquire or use a WMD when (if you're really smart) you could metaphorically stop the motor of entire organizations (or nations) with just a few lines of code designed to exploit arcane but highly potent misconfigured security settings (ACLs) in the underlying systems on which the organizations of the world operate?

Today, all you need is two WDs in the same (pl)ACE and its Game Over.

Puzzled? Allow me to give you a HINT:.

Here’s a simple question: What does the following non-default string represent and why should it be a great cause of concern?
(A;;RP;;;WD)(OA;;CR;1131f6aa-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2;;ED)(OA;;CR;1131f6ab-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2;;ED)(OA;;CR;1131f6ac-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2;;ED)(OA;;CR;1131f6aa-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2;;BA)(OA;;CR;1131f6ab-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2;;BA)(OA;;CR;1131f6ac-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2;;BA)(A;;RPLCLORC;;;AU)(A;;RPWPCRLCLOCCRCWDWOSW;;;DA)(A;CI;RPWPCRLCLOCCRCWDWOSDSW;;;BA)(A;;RPWPCRLCLOCCDCRCWDWOSDDTSW;;;SY)(A;CI;RPWPCRLCLOCCDCRCWDWOSDDTSW;;;EA)(A;CI;LC;;;RU)(OA;CIIO;RP;037088f8-0ae1-11d2-b422-00a0c968f939;bf967aba-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU)(OA;CIIO;RP;59ba2f42-79a2-11d0-9020-00c04fc2d3cf;bf967aba-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU)(OA;CIIO;RP;bc0ac240-79a9-11d0-9020-00c04fc2d4cf;bf967aba-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU) (A;CI;RPWDLCLO;;;WD)(OA;CIIO;RP;4c164200-20c0-11d0-a768-00aa006e0529;bf967aba-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU) (OA;CIIO;RP;5f202010-79a5-11d0-9020-00c04fc2d4cf;bf967aba-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU)(OA;CIIO;RPLCLORC;;bf967a9c-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU)(A;;RC;;;RU)(OA;CIIO;RPLCLORC;;bf967aba-0de6-11d0-a285-00aa003049e2;RU)

If you read my words very carefully, as you always should, then you'll find that it shouldn't take an astute and knowledgeable mind more than a minute to figure it out, given that I’ve actually already provided the answer above.

Some of you will have figured it out. For the others, I'll shed light on the answer soon. Stay tuned...

Best wishes,
Sanjay


PS: If you need to know right away, perhaps you should give your Microsoft contact a call and ask them. If they too need some help, tell them it has to do with a certain security descriptor in Active Directory. (There, now that's a HINT the size of a domain, and it could get an intruder whose been able to breach an organization's network perimeter to root within seconds.)

PS2: If this intrigues you, you may want to check out - Defending Active Directory Against CyberAttacks

PS3: On a more serious note, WMDs are possibly the most horrific creation of humans. Only those who have no respect or regard for the most precious thing in the world, life, would even think about acquiring or using them. If in 2 millennia of history, humans haven't learn this, and don't understand that all 7,000,000,000 of us on this precious planet we call home should all strive to peacefully co-exist, then I'm afraid humans haven't learnt much. As such, given the rate at which mankind is exploiting this unique, beautiful and so precious planet we call home, it may likely not last another millennia or even a few hundred years. We ALL owe it to our planet to take utmost care of it.