The decision is a victory for an Indiana man whose Land Rover was taken away after he pleaded guilty to selling heroin to undercover officers.
The 85-year-old justice, who had a portion of one of her lungs removed after cancer was found, asked the first question in a case.
States, cities and immigration groups sued to prevent the Trump administration from asking over fears immigrants would be reluctant to respond.
The ruling blocks Louisiana from enforcing a law that women's groups said would have left the state with just one doctor allowed to perform abortions.
An average of nearly 12 weapons were found every day, for a total of 4,239 during all of 2018.
Sen. Ben Sasse, R-Neb., called the 2008 agreement an "epic miscarriage of justice."
A bill to crack down on unregulated firearm sales will be considered by the House Judiciary Committee on Wednesday.
The findings were reported to President Donald Trump on Monday in a classified document.
The Center for Reproductive Rights says the law under review can't "meet the needs of approximately 10,000 women who seek abortion services in Louisiana each year."
Customs and Border Protection officers said Thursday they discovered 254 pounds of the drug hidden in a floor compartment of a truck trailer loaded with cucumbers.
In 2016, the Supreme Court struck down an identical Texas law. But the makeup of the court has changed with the addition of conservatives Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh.
Trump's former 2016 campaign chairman is to be sentenced in March.
The Trump administration urged the justices to hear appeals of lower court rulings that prevent the government from shutting down the program.
The case caught Donald Trump's attention during the presidential campaign and he called it "very, very sad and outrageous."
Supreme Court takes up gun rights case for first time in a decade
The military can enforce its restrictions on transgender troops while challenges to the policy play out in the lower courts.